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Compiled  from  the  best  authorities 








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This  little  book  does  not  pretend  to  any  literary  interest,  it  is  merely  a 
catalogue,  perhaps  far  from  exhaustive,  of  violin  makers  past  and  present, 
which  has  been  carefully  compiled  from  various  authorities. 

Ancient  makers  of  lutes  and  viols  of  all  kinds  have  also  been  included,  as 
it  was  found  impossible  to  draw  a  definite  line  of  division  between  them  and 
makers  of  the  type  of  instruments  now  in  general  use. 

For  purposes  of  reference  by  those  who  may  be  interested  in  the  subject, 
a  complete   list  of   the  works  which   have   been   consulted  is  appended. 
Naturally  they  are  not  all  of  equal  value  or  equally  trustworthy ;   it  is  not 
always  safe  to  accept  an  assertion  as  a  fact,  however  confidently  and  un- 
hesitatingly stated,  if  no  evidence  is  brought  forward  in  support  of  it.     But 
in  the  works  of  Messrs.  Vidal,  Piccolellis,  Hart,  &c.,  varied  and  valuable 
information  may  be  found ;   while  books  like  those  of  Messrs.  Coutagne, 
Berenzi,  Hill,  Ruf,  and  others  give  the  results  of  much  painstaking  research 
into  the  history  of  individual  violin  makers.      Step  by  step  the  story  of  the 
great  founders  of  the  art  is  being  traced  out,  ancient  archives  are  searched, 
registers  examined,  money  and  time  freely  given  by  enthusiasts  who  have 
felt  the  fascination  of  this  branch  of  study.     It  was,  of  course,  necessary  that 
this  small  work  should  largely  depend   on  the  fruits  of  other  people's 
labours,  as  personal  research  was  out  of  the  question.    I  am  deeply  indebted 
to  Mr.  Arthur  Hill  for  the  kindness  with  which  he  answered  all  enquiries 
addressed  to  him  and  the  readiness  with  which  he  placed  many  valuable 
books  at  my  disposal.      My  thanks  are  also  due  to  the  violin  makers  living 
in  France,  Germany,  Belgium,  Italy,  and  in  this  country,  who  so  promptly 
sent  me  all  the  information  I  asked  for,  thereby  ensuring  accuracy  and 
rendering  it  possible  to  bring  the  book  fairly  up  to  date.      I  should  like  also 
to  add  that  I  have  had  the  benefit  of  constant  help  and  supervision  from  my 
father,  Sir  John  Stainer. 

Oxford,  1896.  C.  S. 


Abele,  Hyacinth.     Die  Violine,  ihre  Geschichte  und  ihr  Bau  (Neuburg  a/D., 
Berenzi,  Prof.  Angelo.     Gli  artefici  liutai  Bresciani  (Brescia,  1890). 
Berenzi,  Sac.  Angelo.     Di  Giovanni  Paolo  Maggini  (Brescia,  1890). 
Broadhouse,  John.     Violins,  old  and  new  (3rd  Ed.,  enlarged,  London). 

Catalogue  of  the  Special  Exhibition  of  Ancient  Musical  Instruments  in 
South  Kensington  Museum,  1872. 

Coutagne,  le  Dr.  Henry.     Gaspard  DuifFoproucart  et  les  luthiers  lyonnais 
du  XVIe  siecle  (Paris,  1893). 

Dupuich,  R.     La  cote  du  violon  ancien. 

Engel,   Carl.     Researches  into   the   early   history    of  the    violin    family 
(London,  1883). 

Engel,  Carl.     Musical  Myths  and  Facts  (London,  1876). 

Engel,  Carl.     A  descriptive  Catalogue  of  the  Musical  Instruments  in  the 
South  Kensington  Museum  (London,  1870). 

Fetis,  F.  J.     Biographic  universelle  des  musiciens  (2nd  Ed.,  Paris,  1866). 

Fetis,  F.  J.     Biographical  notice  of  Nicolo  Paganini,  preceded  by  a  sketch 
of  the  history  of  the  violin. 

Fleming,  James  M.     Old  Violins  and  their  Makers  (London,  1883). 

Gallay,  J.     Les  luthiers  italiens  aux  XVIIe  et  XVIIIe  siecles  (Paris,  1869). 

Grillet,  Laurent.     Les  ancetres  du  violon  et  du  violoncelle,  les  luthiers  et 
les  fabricants  d'archets  (Paris,  1901). 

Grove,  Sir  George.     A  Dictionary  of  Music  and  Musicians. 

Hajdecki,  A.     Die  italienische  Lira  da  Braccio  (Mostar,  1892). 

Hart,    George.     The  Violin :    its    famons    makers    and    their    imitators 
(London,  1887). 

Hawkins,  Sir  John.      A  general   history  of  the  science  and   practice  of 
music  (London,  1853). 

Heron- Allen,  Ed.     Violin  Making,  as  it  was  and  is  (London,  1885). 

Heron- Allen,  Edward.     De  fidiculis'bibhographia  (London,  1890-4). 

Hill.     Antonio  Stradivari,  his  life  and  work  (1644-1737),  by  W.  Henry  Hill, 
Arthur  E.  Hill,  F\S.A.,  and  Alfred  E.  Hill  (London,  1902). 

Hill.  Gio:  Paolo  Maggini :  his  life  and  work.  Compiled  and  edited  from 
material  collected  and  contributed  by  W.  E.  Hill  and  his  sons,  William, 
Arthur  and  Alfred  Hill,  by  Margaret  L.  Huggins  (London,  1892). 

Jacquot,  Albert.     Les  Medard,  iuthiers  lorrains  {Paris,  1896). 

LUtgendorff,  Willibald  Leo  von.  Die  Geigen-  und  Lautenmacher  vom 
Mittelalter  bis  zur  Gegenwart  (Frankfurt  a/m,  1904). 

Mace,  Tho.     Musick's  Monument  (London,  1676). 

Migge,  Otto.  Le  secret  des  cel^bres  Iuthiers  italiens,  decouvert  et 
explique  par  Otto  Migge. 

North,  Hon.  Roger.  Memoirs  of  Musick,  edited  by  Ed.  F.  Rimbault 
(London,  1846). 

Pearce,  Joseph,  jun.    Violins  and  Violin  Makers  (London,  1866). 

Piccolellis,  Giovanni  de.     Liutai  antiche  e  moderni  (Firenze,  1885). 

Pierre,  Constant.  Les  facteurs  d'instruments  de  musique,  les  Iuthiers  et 
la  facture  instrumentale  (Paris,  1893). 

Ritter,  Hermann.    Die  Geschichte  der  Viola  Alta  (2ud  Ed.,  Leipzig,  1877). 

Ruf,  S.     Der  Geigenmacher  Jakob  Stainer  (Innsbriick,  1872). 

Sandys  and  Forster.  The  history  of  the  violin,  by  WiUiam  Sandys  and 
Simon  Andrew  Forster  (London,  1864). 

Snoeck,  C.  C.  Catalogue  de  la  collection  d'instruments  de  musique, 
anciens  et  curieux,  formee  par  C.  C.  Snoeck  (Gand,  1894). 

Starcke,  Hermann.  Die  Geige,  und  die  Meister  der  Geigen-  und  Lauten- 
baukunst  (Dresden,  1884). 

Straeten  and  Snoeck.  Etude  biographique  et  organographique  sur  les 
Willems,  Iuthiers  gantois  du  XVn«  siecle,  par  Edmond  Vander  Straeten  et 
Cesar  Snoeck  (Gand,  1896). 

Tolbecque,  Auguste.  Quelques  considerations  sur  la  lutherie  (Paris,  1890). 

Vidal,  Antoine.     Les  instruments  a  archet  (Paris,  1876). 

Vidal,  Antoine.     La  lutherie  et  les  Iuthiers  (Paris,  1889). 

Wasielewski,  Wilhelm  Jos.  von.  Die  Violine  und  ihre  Meister  (3rd  Ed., 
Leipzig,  1893). 





Aachner,  Philipp.  A  maker  in  Mitten- 
wald  in  1772.  His  instruments  have 
brown  varnish. 

Abbati,  Giuseppe.  Worked  in  Modena, 
1775-93.  His  double-basses  are  well 
known  in  Italy. 

Absam,  Thomas.  Worked  in  Wake- 
field, Yorkshire,  1810-49.  Made  violins 
for  a  dealer  called  Pickard,  in  Leeds. 
Label:  "Made  by  Thomas  Absam, 
Wakefield,  Feb.  14,  1833." 

Acevo.  A  maker  little  known,  but 
Fetis  has  stated  that  he  was  born 
about  1630,  in  Saluzzo,  was  a  pupil  of 
Cappa,  and  made  good  instruments, 
prmcipally  bass-viols.  Fetis  had  seen 
a  bass-viol  dated  1693,  which  belonged 
to  Marin  Marais,  whose  signature  was 
on  the  back.  There  is  no  other 
evidence  in  favour  of  the  supposed 
existence  of  Acevo. 

Adam,  Jean  Dominique,  b.  Feb.  26, 1823, 
Mirecourt ;  d.  Jan.  19,  1869.  Was 
the  son,  pupil,  and  successor  of  Jean 
Adam,  a  maker  of  bows.  He  made 
many  bows  for  the  trade,  but  marked 
with  his  name  those  that  he  sold  him- 
self. His  work  is  much  superior  to 
that  of  his  father. 

Adams,  C.  A  maker  at  Garmouth, 
Scotland,  in  1800. 

Adani,  Panerazio.  A  maker  of  cithers 
in  Modena,  1827. 

Addison,  William.  A  maker  of  viols  in 
London.  Label:  "William  Addison, 
in  Long  Alley,  over  against  Moor- 
fields,  1670." 

Aglio,  Giuseppe  dall'.  Worked  in 
Mantua,  1800-40.  His  instruments 
are  similar  to  those  of  Camilli  and 
are  varnished  a  bright  yellow  colour. 

Aireton  (Airton),  Edmund,  b.  about 
1727;  d.  1807.  A  maker  in  London. 
It  is  possible  that  a  workman  of  the 
same  name,  employed  by  P.  Wamslcy 

in  1735,  was  his  father.  Followed  the 
Amati  model ;  his  violins  and  violon- 
cellos show  finished  workmanship, 
have  a  good  tone,  and  are  varnished 
yellow.  Some  instruments,  of  inferior 
make,  follow  the  Stradivari  model. 

Albanesi,  Sebastiano.  Worked  in 
Cremona,  1720-44.  Pupil  of  Carlo 
Bergonzi.  His  instruments  are  not 
much  arched  and  both  in  varnish  and 
make  are  similar  to  those  made  in 
Milan ;  the  tone  is  powerful. 

Albani,  Mathias,  b.  about  162 1,  Botzen 
(Tyrol) ;  d.  there  1673.  His  instru- 
ments are  excellent,  very  similar  to 
those  made  by  Stainer,  of  whom  he 
was  possibly  a  pupil.  They  are  much 
arched,  with  high  sides,  the  sound - 
holes  too  widely  opened,  with  dry 
brittle  varnish,  a  reddish-brown  colour, 
the  wood  is  carefully  selected.  A  violon- 
cello, of  sweet  but  not  powerful  tone, 
had  the  label  in  large  characters: 
• '  Mathias  Albano,  fecit  in  Tiroli,  1 65 1 . " 
A  beautiful  violin,  with  full,  powerful 
tone,  had  the  label  in  small  characters : 
"  Mathias  Albano,  in  Tiroli,  Bulsani, 
1643."  Two  other  labels  are  : 
"  Mathias  Albani,  fecit  Bulsani,  Tyrol, 
1651,"  and  "  Matthias  Albanus,  fecit 
in  Tyrol,  Bulsani,  1654." 

Albani,  Mathias,  son  and  pupil  of 
Mathias  Albani ;  b.  1650,  Botzen  ;  d. 
about  1715.  Settled  in  Rome,  probably 
remained  m  Cremona  studying  under 
the  Amatis  for  some  time,  on  his  way 
there.  His  instruments  follow  the 
Amati  pattern,  and  show  beautiful  var- 
nish and  finished  workmanship.  Three 
violins  known  are  dated  respectively 
1702,  1709,  1712.  In  a  pochette  was 
the  label,  "Mathias  Albanus,  1680." 
In  Rome  the  label  used  was,  "  Mattia 
Albano,  face  in  Roma,  16  -  ." 

Albani,    Paolo.      Worked    in    Palermc 


about  1650-80.  Is  said  to  have  been  a 
pupil  of  Nicola  Amati  at  Cremona. 
His  instruments  are  made  on  a  large 
pattern  with  good  varnish.  A  violin 
known  is  dated  1659.  A  son  of  his 
continued  making  violins  till  1720. 

Alberti,  Ferdinando,  A  maker  in  Milan, 
1740-60.  His  instruments  are  fairly 
well  made  and  varnished  bright  yellow. 
Label:  "Ferdinando  Alberti,  fece  in 
Milano,  nella  contrada  del  pesce  al 
segno  della  Corona,  nell'  anno  1743." 

Alberto,  Pietro.  A  celebrated  maker  of 
lutes  in  Bologna,  1598.       The  label, 

"  Petrus  Albertus.faciebat  B ,"  was 

found  in  a  large  mandora  made  of 
maple  wood,  beautifully  grained,  with 
fine  varnish,  brown  colour,  the  neck 
inlaid  with  ivory. 

Aldred.  A  maker  in  London,  whose 
viols  were  celebrated  in  the  17th 
century.  Speaking  of  viols,  in  his 
book  "  Musick's  Monument"  (pub- 
lished 1676),  Mace  adds,  "Of  such 
there  are  no  better  in  the  world,  than 
those  of  Aldred,  Jay,  Smith,  &c." 

Aldric.  Worked  in  Paris,  1788-1840. 
Was  well  known  for  the  excellent 
instruments  he  made,  on  the  Stradi- 
vari pattern,  of  fine  tone,  with  rich  red 
varnish.  He  also  constructed  altos 
from  old  Italian  viols  with  great  clever- 
ness and  carefully  repaired  old 
instruments.  An  early  violoncello  of 
his  is  dated  1788.  In  another  violon- 
cello was  the  label,  "  Fait  par  Aldric, 
luthier,  rue  des  Arcis,  16,  Paris,  1792." 
Later  he  moved  to  71,  rue  de  Seine, 
Saint-Germain,  where,  in  1840,  his 
nephew  Aubry  succeeded  him.  Label : 
"  Rue  de  Seine,  71,  pres  celle  de  Bussy , 
Aldric,  luthier  a  Paris,  an.  18 — ." 

Alessandro,  called  "II  Veneziano,"  a 
maker  in  Venice  about  1540. 

Aletzie,  Paul.  A  maker  in  Munich, 
1710-36.  Is  best  known  for  his  tenors 
and  violoncellos.  His  instruments 
show  careful  work,  but  the  sound- 
holes  are  too  small,  and  the  brown 
varnish  is  of  poor  quality.  In  a 
beautiful  viola  d'amore  was  the  label  : 
"  Paulus  Aletzie  Hof  Lauten  und 
Geigenmacher  in  Miinchen,  1726." 
Two  similar  labels  are  dated  1710  and 

AUard,  Fran9ois.  A  maker  in  Paris  from 
1776  to  1783,  in  the  place  Maubert, 
then  (1788-89)  at  9,  rue  du  Petit-Pont. 
Few  of  his  instruments  are  known. 

Alvani.  A  maker  in  Cremona  in  1750, 
who  followed  the  Guarneri  pattern. 

Amati,  Andrea,  b.  about  1525,  at  Cre- 
mona; d.  soon  after  the  death  of  his 

second  wife,  Angiola  de  Migli  (d. 
April  10,  161 1).  Was  descended  from 
an  ancient  and  noble  family  of  Cre- 
mona, dating  back  as  far  as  1097. 
Was  the  founder  of  the  great  Cremona 
school  of  violin  making,  which  includes 
such  names  as  the  Guarneri,  Ruggeri, 
Bergonzi,  and  Stradivari.  At  first  made 
the  older  form  of  violin — the  viola  da 
gamba — but  gradually  developed  the 
modern  violin  pattern,  aided,  no  doubt, 
by  seeing  instruments  made  by  the 
older  school  of  Brescia.  While  instru- 
ments of  Gasparo  da  Salo  and  Gio. 
Paolo  Maggini  are  still  in  good  pre- 
servation, violins  known  to  be  the 
genuine  work  of  Andrea  are  greatly 
damaged  and  badly  restored,  which 
makes  it  difficult  to  form  correct 
opinions  about  them.  They  differ 
greatly  from  the  Brescia  pattern  in 
arching,  form,  colour  and  transparency 
of  varnish,  but  retain  the  stiff  upright 
Brescian  sound-hole.  The  whole  instru- 
ment became  simplified  in  Andrea's 
hands ;  if,  as  is  sometimes  supposed,  he 
was  a  pupil  of  either  Gasparo  da  Salo  or 
Maggini,  or  even  worked  as  a  pupil  in 
Brescia,  he  advanced  far  beyond  them, 
and  shows  great  originality  in  his 
work.  Another  suggested  "master" 
of  Andrea  is  Giammaria  del  Busseto, 
who  was  probably  trained  in  the 
Brescian  school,  although  he  con- 
structed his  instruments  on  different 
principles.  Andrea's  violins  are  small 
or  "three-quarter"  size,  the  outline 
extremely  graceful,  the  belly  and  back 
high,  strongly  arched  towards  the 
centre ;  the  wood,  carefully  selected, 
especially  for  the  belly,  was  generally 
sycamore  or  pear-tree ;  the  scroll 
beautifully  carved,  purfling  very  neat, 
and  corners  carefully  worked ;  the 
sound-holes  resemble  those  of  Maggini 
and  are  usually  too  broad  ;  the 
varnish  of  good  quality,  but  a  little 
thick,  varies  from  clear  or  yellow-brown 
to  a  beautiful  amber  colour  ;  the  clear 
and  silvery  tone,  though  very  sweet, 
lacks  power,  possibly  because  of  the 
small  size  and  high  arching  of  the 
instrument,  the  fourth  string  being  par- 
ticularly weak.  But  at  that  time  the 
strength  of  tone  demanded  at  the 
present  day  was  neither  expected  nor 
required.  In  1878  two  violins  were 
sold  for  ;^2o  and  £^'^  respectively,  but 
the  price  now  varies  from  £^0  to  ;^i50 
or  more,  according  to  condition  and 
tone.  His  violoncellos,  some  of  the 
earliest  made  in  Italy,  are  very  rare; 
the    varnish    is    dark    reddish-brown 


with  a  slight  tinge  ot  yellow,  a  colour 
probably  copied  from  that  of  the  old 
lutes  which  Mace,  in  his  "  Musick's 
Monument,"  says  was  of  a  "  dark- 
black-reddish  colour  .  .  .  the  best 
authors  did  use  to  lay  on  that  colour." 
He  gradually  improved  it,  givmg  it 
more  body,  making  it  more  transparent, 
of  a  reddish-yellow  colour.  A  violon- 
cello of  full,  rich  tone,  was  dated  1572. 
Tenors  and  basses  are  rare,  are  on  a 
large  pattern,  with  beautifully  finished 
work,  and  of  sweet  tone.  The  earliest 
date,  1546,  was  found  in  a  violin 
believed  to  be  by  him,  in  the  collection 
of  Count  Cozio  de  Salabue.  It  is  said 
that  it  was  originally  a  "  rebec"  with 
only  three  strings,  but  the  father  of 
Mantegazza  altered  it  into  an  instru- 
ment of  four  strings,  by  changing  the 
neck  and  scroll.  A  viola  bastarda  is 
dated  155 1.  There  seems  to  be  no 
evidence  in  support  of  the  tradition 
that  he  made  twenty-four  violins, 
twelve  large  and  twelve  small  pattern, 
six  tenors  and  eight  basses,  elaborately 
decorated  on  the  back  with  the  royal 
arms,  &c.,  and  the  motto  "  Pietate  et 
Justitia,"  for  Charles  IX.  of  France, 
or  that  he  went  to  Paris  with  them 
and  finished  working  at  some  of  them 
there.  There  is  nothing  on  the  instru- 
ments themselves  to  show  that  they 
were  his  work.  Andrea  was  twice 
married  and  had  two  sons  by  his  first 
wife,  Antonio  and  Girolamo,  both 
violin  makers. 

Amati,  Antonio,  elder  son  of  Andrea 
Amati,  b.  Cremona  about  1560  ;  was 
still  living  in  1648,  according  to  a  label 
found  in  a  violin.  Was  in  partner- 
ship with  his  brother  Girolamo.  His 
instruments  date  from  1589,  and  are 
generally  small  size ;  several  violins 
dated  from  1591  till  i6ig  were  in  a 
catalogue,  published  1791,  of  the  in- 
struments of  Albinoni  of  Milan.  The 
pattern  resembles  that  of  his  father, 
but  is  not  so  arched,  the  sound-holes 
retain  the  Brescian  type,  the  work 
shows  neat  finish,  the  tone  is  sweet 
but  not  powerful. 

Amati,  Girolamo,  second  son  of  Andrea 
Amati,  b.  about  1562;  d.  Nov.  2,  1630. 
Worked  with  his  brother  Antonio  till 
1628.  The  earliest  reliable  date  in 
connection  with  them  is  1577.  They 
produced  the  first  form  of  the 
instrument  known  as  '*Amatise." 
The  pattern  first  followed,  similar  to 
that  of  Andrea,  was  more  arched  than 
that  used  later.  Their  instruments 
are  few  in  number,  but  in  good  pre- 

servation, generally  small  size  (the 
back  often  in  one  piece),  of  accurate 
proportions,  slightly  arched  towards 
the  middle,  with  strongly  marked 
grooves  at  the  sides  ;  the  scrolls  vary, 
often  richly  worked,  the  corners  and 
the  purfling  are  carefully  done,  the 
edges  just  overlap  the  sides;  the  wood 
generally  maple  or  deal  ;  the  varnish, 
deeper  in  colour  on  the  earlier  instru- 
ments (possibly  owing  to  old  age),  is 
later  of  an  orange  colour,  thinly  laid 
on,  and  throws  up  the  grain  of  the 
wood  very  distinctly.  The  tone  is  far 
more  powerful  than  in  Andrea's  instru- 
ments. A  violin  signed  by  them  and 
dated  1595,  which  belonged  to  Henri 
IV.  of  France,  is  of  historical  value. 
It  is  made  on  a  large  pattern,  the  oil 
varnish  a  brilliant  amber  colour,  the 
purfling  of  tortoiseshell,  and  on  the 
back  are  painted  the  royal  arms  of 
France  and  Navarre,  &c.  Labels  : 
"  Antonius  et  Hieronymus  Fr.  Amatus, 
Cremonen,  Andreae  fil.  F.  1590"  ;  a 
similar  one  in  a  viola  dated  1620  : 
"  Antonius  et  Hieronymus  Amatus, 
Cremonen,  Andreae  fil.  F.  1592  "  ;  a 
similar  one  dated  1624.  After  1624, 
Girolamo  worked  alone,  making  both 
large  and  small  violins  ;  the  former 
were  the  finest  instruments,  much 
arched,  with  broad  purfling,  good 
scroll,  and  varnish  yellow -brown 
colour ;  beautiful  tone,  but  the  fourth 
string  was  not  equal  to  the  others. 
Girolamo  married  first  Ippolita  Zuchi- 
elli  (d.  1583),  then  Laura  Lazzarini  on 
May  24,  1584 ;  she  had  nine  children, 
the  fifth  child  being  Nicola,  who 
became  the  most  celebrated  maker  in 
the  family. 
Amati,  Girolamo,  third  son  and  successor 
of  Nicola  Amati,  b.  Feb.  26,  1649 ; 
d.  Feb.  21,  1740  ;  buried  in  San 
Tommaso.  His  instruments  are  pcor 
compared  to  those  made  by  Nicola  ; 
he  follows  an  inferior  pattern,  the 
sound-holes  being  straight  and  placed 
too  close  to  each  other.  The  instru- 
ments made  on  a  large  flat  pattern  are 
the  best,  the  sound-holes  being  wider 
apart ;  but  the  varnish,  though  some- 
times soft  and  transparent,  is  generally 
of  bad  quality.  Labels :  "  Hieronimus 
Amatus,  fecit  Cremonae,  1670";  "  Hie- 
ronimus Amatus  Cremonensis,  fecit 
anno  salutis,  1697";  "Hieronymus 
Amatus,  Cremonen,  Nicolai  fil.,  17 — "  ; 
"  Hieronymus  Amatus,  Cremonensis, 
an.  1700"  ;  "  Hieronymus  Amati,  figlio 
di  Niccolo  Amati,  Cremona,  17 — ." 
Instruments    with    his    label    dated 


1703-23  were  supposed  to  have  been 
made  either  by  Sneider  of  Pavia  or 
G.  B.  Rogeri  of  Brescia  ;  several  in- 
struments dated  1729  are  known.  In 
an  old  Amati  violin  repaired  by  Bros. 
Mantegazza  of  Milan,  m  1806,  was 
found' written  at  the  base  of  the  neck, 
•'  Revisto  e  corretto  da  me  Girolamo, 
iiglio  di  Niccolo  Amati,  Cremona, 
1 7 10."  Girolamo  married  Angiola 
Carettoni,  1678  ;  his  son  Giuseppe, 
born  1684,  did  not  become  a  violin 

Amati,  Guiseppe.  Said  to  have  lived  in 
Bologna  first  part  of  17th  century, 
he  used  oil  varnish  for  his  violins 
and  basses,  the  tone  was  clear  and 

Amati,  Nicola,  younger  brother  of 
Andrea  Amati,  is  said  to  have  worked 
with  him,  1568-80,  then  by  himself  till 
1586.  His  basses  are  best  known, 
slightly  arched  back  and  front,  with 
oil  varnish,  the  tone  excellent,  only  the 
fourth  string  often  weak  owing  to  the 
instrument  being  too  narrow  and  short 
in  proportion  to  its  thickness.  Two 
basses  are  dated  respectively  1568  and 

Amati,  Nicola,  son  of  Girolamo  Amati, 
b.  Dec.  3,  1596  ;  d.  April  12,  1684,  aged 
88,  according  to  the  registers  of 
Cremona  Cathedral.  Is  the  most  cele- 
brated maker  of  the  Amati  family. 
His  instruments  resemble  those  of  his 
father  till  about  1645,  then  steadily 
improve.  The  pattern  is  graceful, 
the  thicknesses  and  arching  accurately 
determined,  the  varnish  a  deep,  rich 
colour,  the  tone  clear,  sweet  and 
powerful .  The ' '  Grand  Amati ' '  violins 
are  scarce  and  are  worth  ;^30o  to/400 ; 
they  are  made  on  a  large  pattern,  oi 
beautiful  wood,  the  back  of  maple, 
and  the  belly  generally  of  deal,  of 
which  the  thickness  diminishes  from 
the  centre  to  the  sides  (this,  when 
exaggerated,  makes  the  second  string 
nasal  in  tone) ;  the  arching  drops  some- 
what suddenly  from  the  bridge  to  the 
edges,  with  a  slight  groove  where  the 
purfling  comes,  this  is  said  to  give  the 
noted  sweetness  of  tone ;  the  sound- 
holes  are  beautifully  cut,  the  varnish 
is  of  fine  quality  and  varies  from 
amber  to  red  colour.  An  instrument 
with  double  purfling  is  a  remarkable 
piece  of  work.  He  made  numbers  of 
tenors  and  violoncellos,  £everal  "  three- 
quarter  "  violins,  and  perhaps  three 
or  four  double-basses.  Many  of  the 
small  violins  still  exist,  one  dated  1668 
shows  some  of  his  finest  work,  and  the 

tone  is  wonderfully  sweet  and  clear. 
Labels .  "  Nicolaus  Amatus  Cremonae 
Hieronymus  Fil  ,  ac  Antonius  nepos 
fecit,  1630"  ;  "Nicolaus  Amatus  Cre- 
monensis  faciebat,  anno  1650 "  (in  a 
large  bass-viol);  "Nicolaus  Amatus 
Cremonae  Hieronymus  et  Antonius 
nepos,  fecit  anno  1664."  Violins  are 
known  dated  1647,  1655,  1661,  and 
1662,  and  two  violoncellos  dated  1669 
and  1670  respectively.  Among  Nicola's 
celebrated  pupils  were  the  Guarneri, 
the  Ruggeri  of  Cremona,  Montag- 
nana  oT  Venice,  the  Rogeri  and  Tononi 
of  Bologna,  and,  greatest  of  all,  Antonio 
Stradivari.  He  married  May  23, 1645, 
Lucrezia  Pagliari  (d.  Nov.  25,  1703)  ; 
Andrea  Guarneri,  his  pupil,  was 
present  at  the  ceremony  and  signed  the 
register.  Of  nine  children,  only  one, 
Girolamo,  became  a  violin  maker. 

Ambrogi,  Pietro  Worked  first  in  Cre- 
mona, then  in  Rome.  Label:  "  Petrus 
Ambrogi,  Crem.  fecit  Romae,  an. 

Ambrosi,  Pietro.  A  maker  in  Brescia  in 
1 712.  His  instruments  are  inferior, 
and  the  varnish  is  of  poor  quality. 
Label :  "  Petrus  Ambrosi,  fecit  Brixiae, 

Ambrosio,  Antonio  d'.  A  maker  in 
Naples  about  1820. 

Amelot.  A  maker  in  Lorient  (France) 
about  1812-29.  His  instruments  are 
poor,  the  varnish  is  yellow  colour. 
Label  :  "  Amelot,  luthier,  Lorient, 

Anciaume.  "Bernard  Anciaume"  was 
found  branded  on  a  violin. 

Andreas,  Johannes.  A  maker  in  Verona 
about  1500-15.  In  the  Museum  Modena 
of  Vienna  is  a  lira  da  braccio  with  the 
written  label  :  "  Joannes  Andreas, 
Veronesis,  a  di  12  Auosto,  151 1." 

Angelis.     S^^"  Vitus." 

Anselmo,  Pietro.  Worked  in  Cremona 
(about  1700)  and  Venice.  His  violins 
are  made  on  a  small  pattern,  slightly 
arched,  with  golden-coloured  varnish 
of  rich  quality.  His  violoncellos  are 
also  well  made. 

Antegnati,  Gian  Francesco.  Is  men- 
tioned by  Lanfranco  in  his  work, 
"  Scintille  ossia  regole  di  musica 
che  mostrano  a  leggere  il  canto 
fermo  "  (Brescia,  Lodovico  Britannico, 
1533)-  But  he  is  there  spoken  of  as 
a  maker  in  Brescia  of  "  monochordi, 
arpichordi  and  clavacymbali." 

Antoniazzi,  <Jregorio.  A  maker  in 
Colle  (Bergamo)  in  1738.  Label  : 
"  Gregorio  Antoniazzi,  in  Colle, 
1738."     S^^  "  Gaetano." 


Antonio,  Bononiensis  (of  Bologna).  A 
viola  da  gamba,  not  dated,  is  in  the 
Bologna  Liceo  filarmonico. 

Antonio,  Ciciliano.     See  "  Siciliano." 

Antonio,  Cypriano.  The  label :  "  Cypri- 
ano  Antonio,  a  fez  en  Lisboa,  rua 
Largo  da  Esperanga,"  was  found  ina 
cither  with  twelve  strings  in  pairs,  of 
fine  tone,  probably  made  about  1725. 

Antony,  Girolamo.  A  maker  in  Cre- 
mona in  1751.  He  made  on  a  good 
pattern,  rather  arched,  with  neat  pur- 
fling,  edges  rather  thin,  varnish  yellow, 
of  fair  quality  Label :  "  Hyeronimus 
Antonij,  Cremonae,  anno  1751" 

Ardenois,  Johannes.    A  maker  in  Ghent, 

Arthmann,  Johann  Nicolaus,  b.  1774  ; 
d.  1846.  At  first  a  joiner  by  trade, 
then  became  a  pupil  of  Ernst  at  Gotha. 
His  instruments  are  made  on  the  Amati 
pattern,  rather  arched,  with  yellow 

Askey,  Samuel,  d.  about  1840.  At  first 
a  tinman,  then  a  pupil  of  John 
Morrison.  Worked  for  George  Corsby 
about  1825. 

Assalone,  Gaspare.  A  maker  in  Rome, 
1740.     His  instruments  are  made  on 

the  Amati  pattern,  but  are  too  much 
arched  ;  the  varnish  is  yellow,  of  poor 

Aubert.  A  maker  in  Troyes  (France), 
1789  Label  found  in  a  guitar  : 
"  Aubert  a  Troyes,  1789." 

Aubry,  a  maker  in  Paris,  was  a  nephew 
of  Aldric  and  succeeded  to  his  business 
in  1840,  but  his  instruments  have  not 
the  same  high  reputation. 

Audinot,  Nestor  Dominique,  b.  Dec.  12, 
1842,  Mirecourt.  Apprenticed  to  his 
father  thgre.  1863-68,  worked  under 
Sebastien  Vuillaume  in  Pans,  suc- 
ceeded to  his  business  in  1875  at  17 
Boulevard  Bonne-Nouvelle.  He  has 
experimented  largely  in  varnishes. 
Has  made  about  588  instruments 
during  thirty  years'  work,  all  of  which 
reach  a  high  standard  of  excellence. 
Labels:  "  N.  Audinot,  luthier,  eleve 
de  Vuillaume,  Paris  18 — ,"  and  "N. 
Audinot,  17,  Boulevard  Bonne-Nou- 
velle, annee  18 — ." 

Augiere.  Worked  under  Clement  in 
Paris.  In  1830  he  started  a  business 
with  Calot  He  made  good  violins 
with  varnish  red  or  yellow-brown 


Baader,  J.  A.,  and  Co.  Well-known 
manufacturers  of  violins  for  the  lowest 
possible  prices,  established  in  Mitten- 
wald.  They  send  instruments  to  all 
parts  of  the  world,  America,  Switzer- 
land, Russia,  England  &c.  Some 
violins  made  after  the  Stainer  pattern 
were  exhibited  in  Munich,  1854,  the 
tone  was  full  and  beautiful. 

Bachelier,  Jean  Gaspard.  A  maker  in 
Paris,  in  the  rue  de  la  Tissanderie, 
1777,  and  in  the  place  Baudoyer, 
1783-89.  His  instruments  show  inferior 

Bachmann,  Carl  Ludwig,  b.  1748  at 
Berlin  ;  d.  there  1809.  Made  excellent 
violins,  altos,  and  violoncellos  on  the 
Stradivari  pattern  with  amber  varnish ; 
the  proportions  were  good,  the  choice 
of  wood  excellent ;  amateurs  often  mis- 
took his  instruments  for  genuine 
Cremona  work.  He  was  a  skilful  viola 
player.  1765.  was  appointed  Court 
instrument  maker  and  Chamber 
musician  to  the  King  of  Prussia  ;  1770, 
founded  the  Amateur  Concerts  in 
Berlin,  in  conjunction  with  Ernest 
Benda,  which  he  continued  till  1797. 
About  1778  began  to  tune  the  long  thick 

strings  of  double-basses  by  means  of 
screw  pegs,  a  method  in  use  ever  since. 

Bachmann,  O.,  of  Halberstadt.  Was  an 
excellent  workman  and  particularly 
clever  at  restoring  old  instruments. 
He  wrote  a  book  on  the  construction  of 
violins,  &c.,  entitled  "  Theoretisch- 
praktisches  Handbuch  des  Geigen- 
baues,  &c."   (Leipzig  :  G.  Basse,  1835.) 

Bagatella,  Antonio,  b.  1755,  Padua ; 
d.  1829.  Was  a  very  good  restorer 
of  violins.  Worked  for  many  Germans — 
Prince  Waldestein,  Laibek,  Prince  of 
Wittemberg,  Krauss  of  Prague — made 
few  new  instruments,  and  they  were  of 
no  great  merit ;  some  violins  and  violon- 
cellos made  on  the  Cremona  model 
were  good.  Gained  in  1782  a  prize 
from  the  Padua  Accademia  for  a 
work  on  the  construction  of  the 
violin,  which  was  published  by  the 
Accademia  in  1786.  Its  full  title  was 
"  Regole  per  la  costruzione  de'  violini, 
viole,  violoncelli  e  violoni.  Memoria 
presentata  all'  Accademia  di  scienze, 
lettere  ed  arti  di  Padova,  al  concorso 
del  premio  dell'  arti  dell  'anno  1782. 
Dal  Signor  Ant.  Bagatella,  Padovano, 
E    coronato    dall'    Accademia    stessa. 


Padova,  1786."  This  work  touched 
less  on  innovations  than  on  practical 
methods  of  arriving  at  a  perfect  imita- 
tion of  the  instruments  of  the  great 
Italian  makers,  Amati  especially;  it 
Avas  translated  into  German  by  Schaum 
tinder  title  of  "  Ueber  den  Bau  der 
Violinen,  Bratschen,  Violoncells  und 
Violons  "  (Leipzig,  1806).  It  was  from 
Bagatella's  work  that  Maugin,  in  his 
"  Manuel  du  Luthier,"  took  his  method 
of  tracing  a  fine  model  of  a  violin  with 
only  a  rule  and  compass,  which  may 
also  be  seen  somewhat  shortened  at 
the  end  of  Bishop's  translation  of  Otto 
on  the  violin. 

Bagatella  (Bagattella),  Pietro.  Worked 
at  Padua  about  1760-66. 

Bagnini,  Orazio  di  Antonio.  Maker  of 
cithers  in  Florence,  1667. 

Bailly,  Paul,  of  Mirecourt  and  Paris. 
Received  a  bronze  medal  in  1878  for 
work  which,  though  not  showy,  was  of 
good  quality.  Was  among  the  Exhibi- 
tors in  the  Chicago  (1893)  Exhibition. 

Baines.  Worked  in  London  about  1780. 
Pupil  of  Matthew  Furber. 

Bairhof,  Giorgio.  Naples,  about  1760. 
Probably  pupil  of  G.  or  N. 

Bajoni,  Luigi.  Maker  in  Milan  from 
about  1840  ;  was  living  in  1876. 

Baker,  Francis.  A  magnificent  bass-viol 
with  six  strings,  of  beautiful  tone,  had 
the  following  label:  "Francis  Baker, 
in  Paul's  Church  Yard,  1696,  London." 

Baker,  John.  A  maker  in  Oxford  about 
1688  to  1720.  His  work  was  in  every  way 
good,  excellently  finished,  the  varnish 
a  light  yellow  colour,  the  tone  not  large 
but  very  pure  and  clear  in  quality.  In 
Thomas  Britton's  collection  of  musical 
instruments  was  "  a  fine  viol  by 
Mr.  Baker  of  Oxford."  A  four-stringed 
viola  da  gamba  "  made  by  John  Baker 
in  Oxford,  anno  1688,"  exhibited  1872. 

Baker,  William.  A  fine  viola,  varnish 
light  yellow,  by  "  William  Baker  ot 
Oxford,  1683,"  and  a  violin  of  his 
were  formerly  in  Mr.  Taphouse's 

Balestrieri,  Tommaso.  A  maker  in 
Cremona  about  1720-57,  then  in  Mantua 
till  about  1772.  Said  to  have  been 
a  pupil  of  Stradivari  ;  there  is  a 
rough  general  resemblance  in  his 
work  to  that  done  by  Stradivari  in  the 
last  years  of  his  life  (1730-37),  but  no 
comparison  in  point  of  merit.  He 
made  some  good  violins,  a  few  violas, 
and  violoncellos  of  fine  tone.  The 
wood  varies,  that  used  for  the  bellies 
was  carefully  selected ;  the  tone  is 
powerful   and    becomes    richer    with 

age.  He  used  two  kinds  of  varnish, 
one  resembling  that  of  Guadagnini,  the 
other  softer  and  richer  in  colour. 
Label  :  "  Thomas  Balestrieri,  Cre- 
monensis,  fecit  Mantuae,  1762."  The 
work  of  his  brother  Pietro,  in  Cremona, 
1725,  was  inferior. 

Ballantine,  was  working  in  Edinburgh 
in  1850  and  in  Glasgow  in  1856. 

Banks,  Benjamin,  son  of  George  and 
Barbary  Banks,  b.  July  14,  1727  ; 
d.  Feb.  18,  1795.  Was  one  of  the  first 
English  makers  to  follow  the  Amati 
instead  of  the  Stainer  pattern,  copying 
it  very  closely.  Pupil  of  Wamsley 
in  London,  then  settled  in  Salisbury. 
His  instruments  are  excellently  made, 
the  scrolls  perhaps  somewhat  clumsy ; 
the  tone  is  good,  particularly  that  of 
the  violoncellos.  The  varnish  is  trans- 
parent and  rich ;  brownish-yellow 
colour  with  a  reddish  tinge  is  used  for 
his  best  instruments,  deep  red  with 
blackish  tinge  for  others.  He  un- 
fortunately let  it  clog  the  fibre  of  the 
bellies,  which  gave  them  a  white 
appearance,  or,  technically,  "the  grain 
was  killed."  His  large  violoncellos 
are  best,  the  smaller  ones  are  equally 
well  made  but  have  not  the  same 
amount  of  tone,  the  style  of  finishing 
is  very  marked  and  decided,  so  that 
his  instruments  are  easily  recognised. 
A  violoncello  made  after  the  Stainer 
model,  with  yellow  brown-red  varnish, 
had  a  fine  tone.  The  average  price  of 
the  best  violoncellos  between  1790  and 
1794  was  from  ten  to  twelve  guineas, 
but  in  this  century  they  realised  as 
much  as  £^0.  Inferior  instruments 
were  made  by  him  (probably  assisted 
by  sons  or  other  workmen)  for  Long- 
man and  Broderip,  music  publishers, 
the  pattern  long,  more  on  the  Stainer 
model,  with  red  varnish.  The  names 
of  Longman  and  Broderip  are  stamped 
on  the  back  under  the  button,  but 
there  is  no  writing  or  label  to  show 
who  was  the  maker.  No  double-bass 
of  his  is  known,  and  it  is  doubtful  if  he 
or  any  member  of  his  family  ever 
made  one.  Labels :  "  Made  by  Benjn. 
Banks,  Catherine  Street,  Salisbury, 
1773";  "Benjamin  Banks,  Musical 
Instrument  Maker.  In  Catherine 
Street,  Salisbury.  1780";  "Benjamin 
Banks,  fecit  Salisbury."  "  B.  B." 
was  stamped  on  the  back  or  beneath 
the  button  at  the  end  of  the  neck,, also 
"B.  Banks,  Sarum." 

Banks,  Benjamin,  second  son  of  Benja- 
min Banks  (1727-95),  b.  Sept.  13,  1754; 
d.  Jan.  22,  1820.      Worked   with   his 


father  at  Salisbury,  probably  1770-80, 
then  moved  to  London,  to  30,  Sher- 
rard  Street,  Golden  Square;  went 
later  to  Hawk  Street,  Liverpool, 
where  he  died  and  was  buried  at  St. 
Mary's,  Edgehill.  Two  violins  are 
known  of  his,  one  dated  1771,  the 
other  1775,  and  an  alto  dated  1778. 
A  violoncello  had  the  label :  "Made  by 
Benjn.  Banks,  No.  30,  Sherrard  Street, 
Golden  Square,  from  Salisbury." 

Banks,  James  and  Henry,  fourth  and 
sixth  sons  of  B.  Banks  (1727-95).  Both 
born  in  Salisbury,  James  about  1756, 
d.  June  15,  1831 ;  Henry  about  1770, 
d.  Oct.  16,  1830.  They  were  in  busi- 
ness together,  Henry  as  a  pianoforte 
tuner  and  repairer  and  James  as  a 
violin  maker ;  the  latter  was  an  ex- 
cellent workman,  followed  the  same 
models  as  his  father,  used  similar 
varnish,  though  occasionally  the  red- 
colour  varnish  had  more  black  in  it. 
181 1,  they  sold  their  business  in 
Catherine  Street,  Salisbury,  and  went 
to  Liverpool,  to  Church  Street  and 
then  to  Bold  Street,  where  they  died  ; 
they  were  buried  in  St.  Mary's,  Edge- 
hill.  A  number  of  unfinished  instru- 
ments in  the  white  wood  were  found 
in  the  cellar  of  their  Liverpool  house, 
and  sold  in  that  state.  Labels  : 
"  James  and  Henry  Banks,  Musical 
Instrument  Makers  and  Music  Sellers, 
Salisbury,  1802  "  ;  "  James  and  Henry 
Banks,  Salisbury,  1804."  A  violon- 
cello made  by  both  of  them  in  1797 
was  exhibited  in  the  South  Kensington 
Museum,  London.  1872. 

Barbanti,  Silva  Francesco.  A  maker 
in  Correggio,  1850. 

Barbey,  Guillaume.  In  Paris  about 
1717.  Maker  of  a  with  six 
strings  at  Brussels. 

Barbieri,  Francesco.  A  maker  in 
Verona,  1695.  His  violins  follow  the 
pattern  of  Andrea  Guarneri. 

Barnes,  Robert.  Pupil  of  Thomas  Smith 
at  the  "  Harp  and  Hautboy  "  in  Picca- 
dilly ;  a  fellow-apprentice  was  John 
Norris,  with  whom  he  started  a  business 
in  1765.  No  instrument  of  theirs  is 
known  except  a  violoncello,  which  was 
probably  made  by  E.  Aireton,  but  is 
stamped  with  their  name  on  the  back. 
They  first  lived  in  Windmill  Street, 
then  Coventry  Street.  Label :  "  Made 
by  Norris  and  Barnes,  violin,  violon- 
cello,and  bow  makers  to  their  Majesties, 
Coventry  Street,  London." 

Barnia,  Fedele,  b.  at  Milan  ;  settled  in 
Venice.  Probably  a  pupil  of  Pietro 
Guarneri.       A    small    violoncello    is 

known,  of  accurate  proportions,  with 
yellow  varnish  somewhat  transparent, 
and  good  tone.  Label  :  "  Fedele 
Barnia,  Milanese,  fece  in  Venezia, 
I'anno  1761  " ;  one  dated  1715  was 
found  in  a  very  beautiful  theorbo. 
Baroux.  Lived  in.  Paris,  1830,  at  57, 
rue  du  Petit-Carreau.  He  was  a  very 
able  violin  bow  maker. 
Barrett,  John.  Worked  about  1714-30  at 
the  "  Harp  and  Crown  "  in  Piccadilly, 
London.  A  contemporary  of  Barak 
Norman  and  Nathaniel  Cross.  He 
made  some  good  instruments  on  a 
long  and  arched  pattern,  but  they  all 
have  ink-lines  instead  of  purfie,  and 
the  fluting  where  the  ink-lines  are  is 
•very  acute,  forming  almost  the  inner 
half  of  a  circle ;  the  tone  of  his  violins 
is  sweet  but  not  powerful,  the  wood 
well  selected,  the  varnish  a  yellow 
colour.  1802,  they  were  valued  at  6 
guineas,  later  at  8  or  10.  A  violoncello 
is  mentioned  as  of  beautiful  tone. 
Labels:  "John  Barrett,  at  the  Harp 
and  Crown  in  Pickadilly,  1722 "  : 
•'  Made  by  John  Barrett  at  ye  Harp 
and  Crown  in  Pickadilly,  London, 
Barton.     George.       Of     Elliot    Court, 

Old  Bailey,  London;  d.  about  1810. 

Barzellini,  Egidius.    Maker  in  Cremona, 

1670-1700.  Label:  "  Egidius  Barzellini 

fecit  ecolle  Amatius  Cremonen,  1680.  ' 

Basi,   Florianus.       A   clever   maker   of 

mandolines  in  Bologna,  1756-81.  Label: 

"  Florianus   Basi,  in   via   S.    Mamoli 

Bonone,  fecit  1756." 

Bassiano.    Lute  maker  in  Rome,  1666; 

a   theorbo   with    this   date   is   in   the 

collection    of    the     Gesellschaft    der 

Musikfreunde,  Vienna. 

Bassot,   Joseph.      A    maker    in    Paris 

about    1780   to   1802,    at  the  Quinze- 

Vingt    (1783),     then    rue     Chabanais 

(1788).      He    made  beautiful   violins, 

with  brown  varnish,  sometimes  tinged 

with   red.      His   earlier    instruments, 

with  yellow  varnish,  are  not   so  well 

made.    Label :  "Joseph  Bassot,  luthier, 

Paris.  1802." 

Bastogi,   Gaetano.      Maker  of    cithers 

and  lutes  in  Leghorn,  17 — . 
Battista  of  Brescia,  about  the  end  of 
the  15th  century.  There  is  a  very  old 
"  pochette,"  with  the  stamp  "  Baptista 
Bressano,"  in  the  museum  of  the 
Liceo  filarmonico  of  Bologna. 
Battista,  Giovanni.  A  maker  of  guitars 
and  mandolines  in  Naples,  17 — ,  accord- 
ing to  a  label  in  a  raandola  of  fine 
tone,  "Gian  Battista,  Fabricatore 
Napoli,  anno  17 —  in  S.  M.  dell*  ajuto." 



Baud.  A  maker  at  Versailles.  A  violin 
of  his,  made  without  bars,  which  he 
thought  interfered  with  the  vibrations, 
was  not  favourably  reported  on. 

Baumeester.     S^^  "  Boumeester." 

Bausch,  Ludwig  Christian  August,  b 
Jan.  15,  1805,  at  Naumburg ;  d. 
May  26,  187 1,  at  Leipzig.  Pupil  of 
B.  Fritsche  in  Dresden,  then  settled 
in  Leipzig  as  a  violin  bow  maker. 
Other  members  of  the  firm  were 
Ludwig  Bausch  and  Otto  Bausch  (b. 

Bausch  was  a  celebrated  maker  of  violin 
bows  m  Dessau.  It  is  said  that  Spohr 
gave  him  advice  as  to  the  construction 
of  the  bow.  1840,  he  received  a  silver 
medal^t  the  Dresden  Exhibition. 

Beckmann  (Bekman),  Sweno.  A  maker 
at  Stockholm  about  1700-50.  His  in- 
struments are  roughly  made. 

Bedler,  Norbert.  A  maker  in  Wiirz- 
burg  in  1723.  Was  appointed  maker 
to  the  Bavarian  Court.  In  a  viola  di 
bordone  in  the  Paris  Conservatoire 
Collection  is  the  label.  "Norbert 
Bedler,  luthier  de  la  Cour  de  Baviere 
a  Wurtzbourg,  1723." 

Bela,  Szepessy,  b.  Nov.  30,  1856, 
Budapest.  Apprenticed  to  Samuel 
Nemessany  in  Budapest,  from  August, 
1868,  till  May  24,  1874.  Then  went  to 
Vienna  and  worked  under  Zach  till 
Oct.  20,  1879.  Was  then  in  Munich, 
but  left,  1881,  to  settle  in  London, 
where  he  has  his  own  business.  He 
has  personally  made  and  varnished  up 
to  the  present  time  104  violins,  4 
violas,  and  2  violoncellos.  He  gene- 
rally follows  the  Stradivari  and 
Guarneri  patterns,  but  in  a  few  cases 
that  of  Nicola  Amati ,  he  uses  oil 
varnish  of  soft  quality,  a  yellow-red 
colour.  His  instruments  are  much 

Bellone.  Pietro  Antonio,  known  as 
II  Pescorino.  A  maker  in  Milan  in 
1694.  Label"  '*Pietro  Antonio  Bellone, 
detto  il  Pescorino,  fece  in  contrada 
larga  di  Milano,  1694,  al  segno  di  S. 
Antonio  da  Padova." 

Bello&io,  Anselmo.  A  maker  in  Venice 
about  1720-80.  Pupil  of  Santo  Sera- 
fino.  He  made  good  violoncellos,  but 
as  a  rule  his  instruments  are  not  so 
well  made  as  those  of  his  master. 
M.  A.  Cerin  wasapupilof  his.  Label; 
" /.  selmij  Bellosij,  fecit  Venetiis, 

Belviglieri,  Gregorio.  A  maker  in 
Bologna  in  1742.  His  violins  are 
fairly  good. 

Benedict,  Jose.     A  maker  at  Cadiz  in 

1738.     Label:  "  Compuesto  en  Cadix 
p.  Jose  Benedict,  ano  del  1738." 

Benedicti,  Donate  de.  In  Cremona,  1674. 

Benti,  Matteo,  about  1579.  A  maker  in 
Brescia,  was  contemporary  with  G.  P 
Maggini.  His  instruments  are  little 
known,  but  are  fairly  well  made  on 
the  Brescia  model ;  a  violin  was  dated 
1601.  In  a  Paris  museum  is  a  beauti- 
ful lute  of  his,  richly  inlaid,  and 
splendidly  made. 

Beretta,  Felice.  Worked  at  Como  about 
1760-85.  Was  a  pupil  of  Giuseppe 
Guadagnini.  His  violins  are  inferior, 
he  used  bad  wood  and  yellow  varnish 
of  poor  quality.  A  printed  label  found 
in  an  alto  of  ordinary  make  was : 
"  Felice  Beretta,  allievo  di  Guiseppe 
Guadagnino,  fece  in  Como,  I'anno 
1784."    A  similar  label  was  dated  1782. 

Berge.     A  maker  at  Toulouse  in  1771. 

Bergonzi,  Benedetto,  d.  1840.  A  des- 
cendant of  the  Bergonzi  family,  who 
worked  in  the  same  house  in  the 
Piazza  San  Domenico,  Cremona.  Was 
a  clever  restorer  of  violins. 

Bergonzi,  Carlo,  of  Cremona,  the  first 
of  the  great  Bergonzi  family  of  makers, 
b.  about  1680  ;  d.  1747.  He  began  to 
put  his  own  name  in  his  instruments 
about  1716.  He  was  the  most  cele- 
brated pupil  of  Antonio  Stradivari, 
whose  pattern  he  copied  very  closely. 
Was  also  said  to  have  been  a  pupil 
of  Nicola  Amati.  After  the  death 
of  Ombono  Stradivari  (d.  1742), 
Carlo  inherited  all  the  working 
materials  which  had  belonged  to  An- 
tonio Stradivari,  and  in  1746  he  and 
his  son  Michel  Angelo  (then  aged  24) 
moved  into  Antonio  Stradivari's  old 
dwelling,  in  the  Piazza  San  Domenico. 
His  violins,  which  are  more  scarce 
than  his  violoncellos,  are  generally 
made  on  a  flat  model,  like  the  early 
instruments  of  Stradivari ;  he  enlarged 
the  pattern  later  on.  The  sound-holes, 
placed  lower  and  nearer  the  edge,  are 
longer  and  more  open  than  those  of 
Stradivari ;  the  scrolls,  flatter  than 
usual,  are  boldly  cut  ;  the  arching  is 
decided  ;  the  wood  is  always  very  fine ; 
the  varnish,  a  beautiful  red-brown  or 
rich  amber  colour,  is  rather  heavy,  a 
sign  of  decadence,  but  gives  the  instru- 
ments a  peculiar  type  of  their  own. 
The  tone  is  sonorous  and  penetrating. 
The  work  is  always  beautifully  finished. 
His  violoncellos  and  double-basses  are 
especially  good,  the  latter  being  some 
of  the  finest  known.  Unluckily  he 
made  them  on  too  large  a  pattern,  and 
many   have   been   cut   down    to    suit 


modern  requirements,  so  that  in  their 
original   state   they  are   rarely  to   be 
met  with.      The  woik  is  careful,  the 
wood  well  chosen ;  the  varnish,  of  a 
red-brown   colour,   much    altered    by 
age,  is  often  rather  thick     The  violins, 
altos  and  violoncellos  (the  latter  being 
thought    to    equal    the   work    of    his 
master,  Stradivari)  are  all  characterised 
by  a  peculiarly  penetrating  sonorous 
tone,    and    are    much    sought    after, 
sometimes  fetching  high  prices,  from 
;^20o  to  /300.     A  very  fine  violoncello 
wasdated  1746.     Labels:  "Anno  1723, 
Carlo  Bergonzi,  fece  in  Cremona  "  , 
the  same  m  a  violin  dated  1733,  and 
another  dated  1731  ;  "  Carlo  Baganzi, 
allieve  di  Nicola  Amati,  fecit  Cremonae, 
anno   1723  ';    "Anno  17 — ,  revisto  e 
corretto    da    me    Carlo    Bergonzi   in 
Cremona  ' 
Bergonzi,   Carlo,  third   son   of  Michel 
Angelo       Worked  in  Cremona  about 
178     and  died  there  about  1820.     He 
made  a  few  violi  is  of  little  value,  with 
straight,  ugly  sound-holes  •  but  prmci 
pally  guitars  and  mandolmes 
Bergonzi     (Baganzi),    Francesco.        Is 
named  as  early  as  1687.      May  have 
been  the  father  of  Carlo 
Bergonzi,  Michel  Angelo,  son  of  Carlo, 
b.   1722 ;    d.  after  1765.     Worked  m 
Cremona  about  1740-65.     His  work  is 
heavy  and  altogether  inferior  to  that 
of  Carlo,  he  flattened  the  model  and 
exaggerated  the  curves ;  followed  both 
small  and  large  patterns  ;  the  varnish 
is  hard  and   thick,  the  tone  is  nasal. 
But    his    double-basses    show   better 
work  and  have  a  powerful  tone,  serving 
well  in  an  orchestra.     Label :  "  Michel 
Angelo  Bergonzi,  figlio  di  Carlo,  fece 
in  Cremona,  1740."    Another  is  known, 
dated  1755. 
Bergonzi,  Nicola,  eldest  son  of  Michel 
Angelo.     Worked   in  Cremona  about 
1755-82.       His    instruments    show    a 
great  falling  off;    made  on  a  similar 
model  to  that  of  his  father ;  his  work 
is  often  highly  finished  but  is  wanting 
in  character;    the  scroll   is  cramped, 
the     wood    often    too     close-grained, 
the  varnish  poor  and   thin.      Label  : 
"  Nicolaus     Bergonzi,      Cremonensis, 
faciebat  anno   1760  "  ;    a  tenor  dated 
1 78 1    is   known.       He  made  a  great 
number  of  violins. 
Bergonzi,  Zosimo  brother  of  Nicola.  He 
worked  about  the  same  time,  perhaps 
had  more  ability  ;    some  violoncellos 
and    double-basses   of   his  are   fairly 
well  made,  but  the  work,  like  that  of 
his  brother,  is  much  inferior  to  Carlo's. 

He  used  a  label  ornamented  like  thai 
of  Carlo:  "  Fatto  da  me  Zosimo  Ber- 
gonzi, I'anno  1777,  Cremonae." 

Bernardel,  Auguste  Sebastien  Philippe, 
b.  Jan.  12,  1802,  at  Mirecourt ;  d. 
August  6,  1^70,  at  Bougival.  One  of 
the  most  distinguished  French  makers. 
He  began  as  an  apprentice  in  Mire- 
court, went  to  Paris  in  1820,  worked 
first  under  Nicolas  Lupot  and  then 
under  C.  F.  Gand,  whom  he  left  in  1826 
in  order  to  start  a  business  of  his  own 
in  the  rue  Coquilliere.  In  1859  he  took 
his  two  sons  into  partnership  and 
the  firm  was  called  '  Bernardel  et  fils '  ; 
he  retired  in  1866  so  as  to  facilitate  the 
association  of  the  Gands  in  his 
business,  which  was  then  styled  "  Gand 
et  Bernardel.  '  He  made  a  large 
number  of  excellent  instruments,  the 
violoncellos  especially  having  a  remark- 
ably fine  t  ne.  Label  :  "Bernardel, 
luthier  e  -ouvrier  du  Sr  Lupot,  rue 
Coqu'l  lere.  No  44,  a  Pans,  I'an  1826  " 
This  was  in  a  violin  made  by  him  soon 
after  he  left  Gand ,  perhaps  the  first  to 
contain  his  signature ;  it  is  beautifully 
finished  and  has  a  fine  tone.  Printed 
label:  "  Medaille  d'or  et  d'argent  aux 
expositions  de  1844  et  1849.  Bernardel, 
luthier,  eleve  de  Lupot,  rue  Croix-des- 
Petits  Champs,  21,  a  Paris,  18 —  .  .  . 
(Signed)  Bernardel."  Honours  :  men- 
tion, 1827  ;  bronze  medalb,  Paris,  1834 
and  1839 ;  silver  medal,  Paris,  1844,  ^o'* 
an  alto  placed  in  the  ist  class ;  gold 
medal,  Paris,  1849 ;  a  medal  of  the 
2nd  class,  London,  185 1 ;  and  a  medal 
of  the  ist  class,  London,  1855,  for  a 
violin  copied  from  Maggini,  a  bass, 
and  a  double-bass. 

Bernardel  Freres.  Ernst  Auguste  and 
Gustave  Adolphe,  sons  of  Sebastien 
Philippe  ;  the  former  b.  April  2,  1826, 
retired  from  the  business  in  1886 ; 
d.  1899;  the  latter  b.  April  26,  1832. 
When  their  father  retired,  in  1866, 
they  continued  the  business  in  partner- 
ship with  Eugene  Gand,  as  '*  Gand 
et  Bernardel  Freres."  M.  Gustave 
Bernardel  is  now  head  of  the  firm. 

Bertasio,  Luigi.      Worked  in  Piadena, 


Bertassi,  Ambrogio.  Working  in  Pia- 
dena about  T730. 

Bertet,  Joseph  R.  A  maker  in  Paris  in 
the  1 8th  century.  In  an  alto  of  a  large 
pattern,  with  thick  yellow  varnish, 
carefully  made,  was  the  label :  "Joseph 
R.  Bertet,  au  Roy  David,  rue  Neuve 
St.  Roch  a  Paris,  1754-" 

Berti,  Antonio.  Cortona,  1721.  A 
maker  of  dulcimers. 



Bertolotti,  De.     See  Gasparo  da  Salo. 

Bertrand,  Nicolas.  A  maker  in  Paris 
about  1686  to  1735.  He  made  some 
violins  of  no  great  value,  but  is  better 
known  for  various  viols :  a  bass-viol 
dated  1687;  another  with  the  label 
"  Nicolas  Bertrand,  Paris,  1720," 
well  made,  with  a  thick  red  varnish ;  a 
treble-viol  dated  1701  in  the  Brussels 
Museum  ;  a  small  five-stringed  viol, 
dated  1714  in  the  Paris  Museum  ;  and 
a  bass  dated  1720.  His  name  is  often 
branded  on  his  instruments. 

Besler,  Norbert.     See  "  Bedler." 

Betts,  John  Edward,  known  as  "Old 
John  Betts,"  b.  1755,  at  Stamford, 
Lincolnshire;  d.  March,  1823,  was 
buried  at  Cripplegate  Church.  Pupil 
of  Richard  Duke,  senior,  in  London. 
He  made  few  instruments;  the  sound- 
holes  are  rather  wide,  the  purfiing 
broad,  and  the  scrolls  well  cut;  but 
he  had  great  knowledge  of  Italian 
instruments.  Clever  workmen,  such 
as  the  Panormos,  Bernhard  Fendt,  his 
nephew  Edward,  and  John  Carter 
were  employed  by  him,  principally  to 
copy  old  English  and  Italian  instru- 
ments. Label:  "Jo.  Betts,  No.  2, 
near  Northgate,  the  Royal  Exchange, 
London,  1782."  He  advertised  that 
he  "makes  in  the  neatest  manner, 
violins  the  patterns  of  Ant.  Stradi- 
varius,  Hieronymus  Amatus,  Jacobus 
Stainer,  and  Tyrols.  Equal  for  the 
fine,  full,  mellow  tone  to  those  made 
in  Cremona." 

Betts  (Ned),  Edward,  nephew  of  John 
Betts,  like  him  a  pupil  of  Richard 
Duke.  He  died  before  his  uncle, 
probably  between  1815  and  1820.  He 
was  a  good  maker,  his  instruments 
had  a  powerful  tone,  and  all  the  work 
most  cprefuUy  finished.  He  made 
very  good  copies  of  older  makers, 
more  especially  of  N.  Amati.  Other 
members  of  this  family  were  not  violin 
makers  thf^m selves  though  they  con- 
tinued the  business  as  dealers. 

Bianchi,  Nicola,  b.  about  1800  at  Genoa; 
worked  till  about  1875.  Pupil  of 
Ceruti  at  Cremona,  Guadagnini  and 
Pressenda  at  Turin.  Clever  repairer 
of  old  instruments.  Lived  about  five 
years  at  rue  Croix-des-Petits-Champs 
in  Paris,  but  having  quarrelled  with 
the  violin  makers  there,  he  returned 
to  Genoa,  and  finally  settled  in  Nice, 
where  he  died.  His  instruments  show 
excellent  work,  and  bear  comparison 
with  those  of  good  modern  makers. 

Bindernagel    (Binternagel),    of    Gotha. 
Was  first  a  carpenter,  then  became  an 

apprentice  to  Ernst,  when  Otto  left 
Ernst  in  order  to  settle  at  Weimar. 
He  followed  the  Stradivari  pattern, 
but  his  instruments  are  not  well 
made.  He  also  made  harps  and 
guitars.     He  died  in  1845. 

Bittner,  David.  A  maker  in  Vienna, 
d.  1887.  He  did  a  large  trade  in 
America.  Exhibited  a  violin  and 
violoncello  in  London   1862. 

Blair,  John.  Worked  in  Edinburgh  in 
1820  with  Matthew  Hardie. 

Blaise.  A  maker  in  Mirecourt  in  1820. 
Instruments  not  particularly  well 

Blanchard,    Paul    Francois,    grandson 
of  Francois   Blanchard,   a  maker   of 
guitars  ;  b.  Feb.    10,  1851,  Mirecourt 
(Vosges) ;  apprenticed  there  (1865)  to 
Auguste    Darte     (pupil     of     J.     B. 
Vuillaume  and   successor   to  Nicolas 
Vuillaume)    1868,  worked  a  few  months 
at    Marseilles    with    Daniel,    and    in 
October,  1 869,  settled  at  Lyons,  working 
under  Silvestre  neveu,  until  he  started 
his  own  bueiness,  45,  rue  Ferrandieri,  in 
1876,  which  he  moved,  1890,  to  77,  rue 
de  la  Republique.     Two  workmen  are 
employed,  one  for  repairs,  the  other 
for  new  instruments    Blanchard  him- 
self repairs  old  instruments  and  makes 
all  the   new   violins,  which  have   his 
label:   "Fait  par   Paul   Blanchard   a 
Lyon  en  18 — ,  No.  — ,"  priced  at  ;^I2 
each.     Up  till  now  he  has  made  379 
instruments  (all  numbered),  he  makes 
from  25  to  30  a  year ;  about  the  same 
number  made  by  his  workmen  are  sold 
at  half  the  price  of  his  own  and  are 
labelled  :  "  Fait  dans  I'atelier  de   P. 
Blanchard,  Lyon,  18 — ."     Instruments 
made  by  his  pupils  are  sold  at  £^  or 
£^  each,  and  have  a  label  representing 
the  Lyons  city  arms  inscribed,  "  Lug- 
dunum,  anno  18 — ."  Blanchard  gener- 
ally  follows    the    Stradivari   and   G. 
Guarneri     patterns,     but     does     not 
attempt  to  artificially  age  his  violins ; 
the  tone  shows  great  equality  on  all  the 
strings,  is  powerful  and  clear,  the  oil 
varnish,  very  transparent,  is  a  golden 
red  colour  for  his  own  instruments,  a 
lighter  colour  for   those  made  in  his 
shop.    He  first  exhibited  at  Paris,  1889, 
and  gained  a  silver  medal ;  was  awarded 
the     "  Grand    Prix  "    at    the   Lyons 
Exhibition    in    1894;    ^^'"•^  appointed 
"  Luthier  du  conservatoire  national,  de 
I'orchestre  et  des  theatres  municipaux." 
Bocquay.     See  "  Boquay." 
Bodio,  Giambattista    A  maker  in  Venice 
about  1792  to  1832.     The  few  instru- 
ments   known    show    nicely     finished 



work  and  have  a  fine  oil  varnish. 
Pietro  Valentino  Novello  was  a  pupil 
of  hjs. 

Boivin,  Claude.  A  maker  in  Paris 
about  1735-53.  A  violin  with  rose- 
coloured  varnish  was  well  made  and 
had  the  label:  "Claude  Boivin,  rue 
Tiquetonne,  '  a  la  guitare  royale,'  a 
Paris,  1746."  Two  similar  labels 
were  dated  1744  and  1748.  A  bass- 
viol  is  dated  1735,  and  a  guitar  in  the 
Paris  Conservatoire  Collection,  made 
for  the  daughter  of  Louis  XV.,  is 
dated  1749. 

Belles.  One  of  the  earliest  makers  of 
lutes  and  viols  in  London  in  the 
beginning  of  the  17th  century.  Mace 
("  Musick's  Monument,"  publ.  1676), 
speaking  of  a  good  "chest  of  viols,  ' 
says  :  ' '  Yet  the  highest  in  esteem  are 
Bolles  .  .  .  (one  Bass  of  Bolles's  I 
have  known  valued  at  ;£"ioo)  .  .  . 
these  were  old  &c." 

Bomberghi,  Lorenzo  A  maker  in 
Florence  towards  the  end  of  the  17th 

Borne,  Thomas.  In  a  violin  of  ordinary 
workmanship  in  the  Paris  Conserva- 
toire Collection  is  the  following  label . 
"Thomas  Bome,  Versailles,  1790.' 

Bongars,  Simon.  Only  known  by  a 
bass-viol  with  six  strings,  dated  1655. 

Bonoris,  Cesare.  A  maker  of  excellent 
viols  in  Mantua;  1658. 

Booth,  William,  b.  1779 ;  believed  to 
have  died  1857  or  1858.  At  first  a 
hairdresser,  but  1809  commenced  to 
make  and  repair  violins.  Label : 
"  Wm.  Booth,  maker,  Leeds,  1828." 

Booth,  William,  son  of  W.  Booth, 
senior,  b.  1816,  Leeds;  d.  June  i,  1856; 
buried  at  Burmantofts  Cemetery. 
Employed  by  Henri  Gugel,  1834-38. 
Returned  to  Leeds  (1838)  and  began 
business  as  an  instrument  maker.  He 
was  a  clever  workman. 

Boquay  (Bocquay),  Jacques,  b.  at 
Lyons.  Worked  in  Paris  about  1705- 
35,  was  living  rue  de  la  Juiverie,  17 18, 
but  went  to  rue  d'Argenteuil,  1719. 
Made  too  many  instruments  to  finish 
them  with  care.  His  violins  are  good, 
though  inferior  to  those  of  Pierray,  his 
contemporary.  He  followed  the  Amati 
pattern  his  instruments  are  small, 
slightly  arched,  the  tone  generally 
poor  owing  to  the  thicknesses  being 
badly  calculated ;  the  varnish,  very 
transparent,  is  red-brown,  sometimes 
yellow  colour.  His  violoncellos  are 
handsome  instruments  and  have  a  fine 
tone.  Label:  "Jacques  Boquay,  me 
d'Argenteuil   a  Paris,  1723."    An  alto 

was  dated  1709,  a  violin  dated  17 18  in 
the  Paris  Conservatoire  collection  was 
one  on  which  Baillot  used  to  play  when 
teaching.  A  violoncello  dated  17 19 
and  a  violin  dated  1730  are  also  known . 

Borbon  (Bourbon),  Caspar  Worked 
in  Brussels.  A  viola  of  his  is  dated 
1692.  He  made  violins,  altos,  and 
double-basses,  after  the  pattern  of 
Gasparo  da  Salo,  with  perpendicular 
sound-holes,  widely  opened.  An  alto, 
curiously  made,  with  yellow  varnish, 
was  exhibited  at  Paris,  1878. 

Borelli,  Andreas.  Worked  in  Parma 
about  1730-47.  His  instruments  are 
liked  in  Italy,  the  pattern  is  similar  to 
that  of  Lorenzo  Guadagnini,  but  the 
varnish  is  not  so  beautiful.  Label: 
"Andreas  Borelli,  fecit  Parmae,  anno 

Borlon  iPorlon),  Artus  or  Arnould. 
A  maker  of  stringed  instruments, 
principally  cithers,  in  Antwerp  about 


Borlon,  Francois.  A  maker  in  Antwerp 
about  1680-1710.  A  bass-viol  of  his  in 
the  Church  of  St.  James,  Antwerp,  is 
said  to  have  a  beautiful  tone. 

Borlon,  Jean.  Worked  about  1680-1710 
in  Antwerp. 

Bortolotti,  Luigi.  A  maker  in  Milan 
about  1810-15.  His  instruments  are 
carefully  made,  with  yellow  varnish. 
"Luigi  Bortolotti,  1815,"  was  found 
stamped  on  a  cither. 

Bosi.     Sec  "  Basi." 

Bossu.     S^^"Boussu." 

Boucher.     Worked  in  London  in  1764. 

BouUangier,  Charles,  b.  1823,  Mire- 
court;  d.  Oct.,  1888.  Learnt  his 
trade  in  Mirecourt  till  1843.  Then 
worked  in  Paris  under  Vuillaume  till 
1846,  and  1846-49  under  Gand  and 
Bernardel.  Went  to  London,  March, 
1849,  and  made  violins  for  Edward 
Withers  till  1856,  when  he  started  his 
own  business.  He  made  a  great  many 
violins,  violas,  and  violoncellos,  gene- 
rally copied  from  Stradivari  or 
Guarneri  patterns,  and  used  a  dark 
red  varnish.  He  exhibited  in  1862, 
1872,  and  1888,  and  was  awarded  two 
diplomas  and  a  silver  medal. 

Boumeester  (Baumeester),  Jan  A 
maker  in  Amsterdam  about  1637-68. 
A  violoncello  of  large  pattern,  with 
carved  scroll  and  varnished  yellow, 
was  labelled  "  Jan  Boumeester,  me 
fecit  in  Amsterdam,  anno  1637."  ^^ 
a  five-stringed  bass-viol  with  carved 
head  and  yellow  varnish  was  the  label : 
"Jean  Baumeester,  Amsterdam,  1667." 

Bourbon.     See  "  Borbon,  Gaspar." 



Bourdet,  Jacques.  A  maker  in  Paris 
1751-52.  His  instruments  are  fairly 
well  made. 

Bourdet  (Bourdot),  Jean  Sebastien,  b. 
1530,  Mirecourt.  Was  settled  in  Paris 
in  1555.  Was  one  of  the  first  of  the 
celebrated  Lorraine  school  of  makers, 
possibly  a  pupil  of  Ty  wersus. 

Bourgard,  Jean.  Worked  in  Nancy 
about  1780-87.  In  a  violin,  well  made, 
with  red  varnish,  was  the  label:  "  F* 
par  moi,  Bourgard,  facteur  d'instru- 
ments,  rue  de  la  Poissonnerie  a  Nancy, 

Bourlier,  Laurent,  b.  1737,  Mirecourt ; 
d.  1780.    Nothing  known  of  this  maker. 

Boussu.  Worked  in  Eterbeck-les- 
Bruxelles  about  1750-80.  Followed 
the  Amati  pattern,  used  yellow  varnish ; 
on  the  whole,  made  good  instruments. 

Braglia,  Antonio.  In  Modena  in  the 
i8th  century. 

Brandiglioni.  In  Brescir.  in  the  i8th 
century.  He  copied  the  Maggini  model. 

Brandl,  Karl.  A  maker  in  Budapest, 
he  sent  two  good  violins,  made  after 
the  models  of  Stradivari  and  Guarneri, 
to  the  London  Exhibition  in  1862. 

Branzo,  Barbaro  Francesco.  A  maker 
in  Padua,  1660. 

Bremeister,  Tan.     In  Amsterdam,  1707. 

Brensi,  Giroiamo.  A  maker  of  viols  in 
Bologna,  probably  at  the  beginning  of 
the  i6th  century.  A  "  viola  da  braccio  " 
in  the  collection  of  the  Liceo  filar- 
monico  at  Bologna  has  five  strings 
and  is  labelled  :  "  Hieronymus  Bren- 
sius  Bonon." 

Bresa,  Francesco.  A  maker  of  inferior 
instruments  in  Milan  in  the  i8th 
century.  A  label  is  known,  but  it  has 
the  name  of  the  town  partly  effaced : 
"  Francesco  Bresa,  fece  alia  scala  in 
Mil     .     .  1708." 

Breton.  J,  F.  Worked  in  Paris,  1740-80. 
His  instruments  are  rather  heavy  in 
character,  but  are  fairly  well  made, 
varnish  a  dark  brown  colour,  "  Breton 
a  Paris"  is  branded  on  their  backs. 
Label:  "J.  F.  (V.?)  Breton,  citharae 
fabricator,  facit,  vendit  et  reconcinat 
instrumenta  musica  omnis  generis  — 
Parisiis,  anno  1740."  The  same  label, 
dated  1780,  was  found  in  a  violin. 

Breton,  Le,  b.  1780,  at  Mirecourt,  where 
he  worked  from  18 12  to  1830,  the  year 
of  his  death ;  was  there  a  contemporary 
of  the  eldest  Nicolas.  His  violins  are 
carefully  made,  of  a  good  pattern, 
slightly  arched,  the  purging  neat,  the 
varnish  yellow,  slightly  tinged  with 
red,  his  monogram  branded  on  the 
necic.     They  are  not  rare,  but  though 

of  no  great  value,  are  often  imitated. 
Label :  "  Luthier  de  S.  A.  R.  Mme.  la 
Duchesse  d'Angouleme.' 

Broschi,  Carlo.  Worked  in  Parma, 
1730-44.  Label :  •'  Carlo  Broschi  in 
Parma,  fecit  1732." 

Brown,  Anthony.  Is  said  to  have  learnt 
his  trade  under  Joseph  Panormo,  or 
under  John  Morrison.  He  became 
celebrated  for  his  guitars.  In  1855  ^® 
was  living  in  Rosamond  Street,  Clerk- 
enwell,  but  afterwards  went  to  the 
"  diggings. "  He  was  not  related  to  the 
other  violin  makers  of  the  same  name. 

Brown,  James,  b.  1755  or  1759;  d  Sept., 
1830  or  1834.  Was  a  silk  weaver  in 
Shoreditch,  London ;  but,  1804,  learnt 
violm  making  under  Thomas  Kennedy, 
and  established  himself  in  Wheeler 
Street,  Spitalfields,  as  repairer  and 
maker  of  instruments. 

Brown,  James,  jun.,  son  of  James 
Brown,  b.  Nov.,  1786  ;  d.,  i860,  at 
White  Lion  Street,  Norton  Folgate. 
Apprenticed  to  his  father,  but  was 
principally  employed  to  make  bows  for 
the  various  instruments.  After  his 
father's  death,  he  made  violins,  violon- 
cellos, and  double-basses.  Both  father 
and  son  were  good  average  workmen. 

Brown,  son  and  pupil  of  James  Brown, 
jun.  When  about  twenty  years  old, 
ceased  to  make  instruments 

Browne,  John,  a  maker  at  the  sign  of 
the  "  Black  Lion,"  Cornhill,  London, 
in  1743.  Made  good  copies  of  Nicola 
Amati,  cut  his  scrolls  well,  but  his 
varnish  was  hard. 

Brubach,  Antoine,  b.  Jan.  22,  1847,  Mire- 
court;  d.  1894.  In  1884  appointed  head 
of  the  business  that  "  A.  Klein  et  Cie." 
had  just  started  in  Rouen.  Made  a 
number  of  violins,  altos,  and  violon- 
cellos carefully  and  well.  Obtained,  as 
"  collaborateur,"  the  silver  medal  at 
the  Rouen  Exhibition,  1884. 

Brugere,  Charles  Georges,  b.  Nov  10, 
1865,  at  Mirecourt;  son  of  Charles 
Joseph  Brugere,  a  maker  of  guitars. 
Apprenticed,  1878,  at  Mirecourt,  to 
Etienne  Drouin.  1882,  went  to  Lyons 
to  work  for  two  and  a  half  years  under 
Paul  Blanchard ;  then  after  nine  months 
with  Paul  J3ailly  at  Paris,  entered  the 
workshop  of  Gand  &  Bernardel,  where 
he  remained  from  Dec  ,  1885,  till  1892. 
He  succeeded  Eugene  Henry,  Sept.  22, 
1892,  at  151,  rue  St.  Martin,  Paris. 
As  he  and  three  workmen  are  almost 
exclusively  employed  in  repairing  old  in- 
struments, he  only  makes  about  twelve 
new  instruments  a  year ;  these,  whether 
violins,    violas,     or    violoncellos,    are 



consecutively  numbered  as  made,  and 
only  when  his  own  personal  work  are 
labelled  with  his  name.  He  follows 
the  Stradivari  pattern,  and  uses  good 
oil  varnish,  varying  in  colour  from 
yellow  to  golden-red.  He  exhibited  at 
Lyons,  1894,  ^  double  quintet  of  instru- 
ments ;  the  violins  and  violoncellos 
were  reported  of  powerful  and  sweet 
tone,  and  the  double-bass  as  equally 
excellent  on  all  four  strings ;  he  was 
awarded  the  first  silver  medal. 

Brugere,  Charles  Malakoff,  b.  1856-7  ; 
d.  1894,  Mirecourt;  eldest  son  of  Fran- 
cois Brugere.  Worked  a  long  time 
under  Hel  at  Lille,  then  settled  in 
Marseilles,  where  he  made  about  a 
hundred  good  instruments. 

Brugere,  Francois,  brother  of  Charles 
Joseph  Brugere,  b.  1822,  Mirecourt ; 
d.  there  1874.  Worked  under  Pierre 
Silvestre  at  Lyons,  and  under  Daniel 
at  Marseilles.  Made  a  great  many 
violins,  violoncellos,  and  double-basses 
for  J.  Derazey  at  Mirecourt.  Had 
three  sons,  all  makers. 

Brugere,  Joseph  Napoleon,  second  son 
of  Francois  Brugere.  Is  settled  at 
Mirecourt,  where  he  makes  a  specialty 
of  double-basses,  and  is  well  known  as 
an  excellent  workman. 

Brugfere,  Michel,  third  son  of  Francois 
Brugere.  Since  1893  has  been  the 
chief  collaborateur  of  Charles  Georges 
Brugere.  Besides  making  new  instru- 
ments, he  excels  in  repairing  old  ones. 

Bucchenberg.     See  "  Bueckenberg." 

Buchstadter  (Buchstetter),  Gabriel 
David.  A  maker  in  Ratisbon  in  1752. 
He  followed  the  Cremona  patterns, 
but  his  instruments  are  not  much 
arched,  the  varnish  is  dark  yellow  or 
brown  colour,  the  wood  not  always 
well  selected,  which  renders  the  tone 
harsh;  all  the  details  are  carefully 
finished.  Owing  to  their  powerful 
tone,  his  violins  are  much  used  for 
orchestra  playing.  One  exhibited  in 
Paris,  1878,  with  very  dark  yellow 
varnish,  was  dated  1752.  Label : 
"  Gabriel  David  Buchstetter,  Lauten 
und  Geigenmacher,  Pede  ponti  prope 
Ratisbonam,  17 — ." 

Budiani,  Francesco.    A  maker  of  lutes 

and    cithers   at    Brescia   about    1490- 

Budiani,  Giavetta  (more  correctly, 
Giovita  Rodiani).  A  maker  of  lutes 
and  viols  in  Brescia  about  1580- 1620. 
His  instruments  are  similar  to  those  of 
his  contemporary,  G.  P.  Maggini,  but 
do  not  show  the  same  skilful  work. 
No  violins  are  known ;  but  some 
large  bass-viols,  one  converted  into  a 
double-bass  with  four  strings,  had  a 
pleasing  tone. 

Bueckenberg  (Bucchenberg  or  Bueeten- 
berg),  Matteo.  German  by  birth,  but 
lived  in  Rome  about  1597-1620.  Was 
one  of  the  most  celebrated  Italian  lute 
makers.  A  chitarone  is  dated  Rome, 
1614 ;  in  an  arch-lute  is  the  label : 
"Matheus  Bucchenberg,  Roma,  1619." 

Buonfigliuoli,  Pier  Francesco.  A  maker 
in  Florence  in  the  17th  century. 

Burghardt  is  the  Swiss  form  of  the 
name  "Bourgard,"  q.v. 

Burgle,  Johann.  A  maker  in  Griezbach, 
1828.  Label:  "Johan  lion  Burgle, 
geigenmacher  in  Griezbach,  1828." 

Busas,  Domenico.  A  maker  in  Vicenza, 

Busseto  (Buseto),  Giammaria  del.  A 
maker  of  viols  in  Cremona,  about 
1540-80,  was  said  to  have  taught 
Andrea  Amati.  His  instruments  are 
on  a  long  pattern,  decidedly  arched, 
with  large  sound-holes  and  brown 
varnish ;  one  with  deep  yellow  varnish 
was  dated  1570.  Label :  "  Gio.  Maria 
del  Bussetto,  fece  in  Cremona,  1545" 

Bussolero,  Luigi.  A  maker  of  cithers 
and  mandolines  in  Rivanazzaro  in 

Bussot.     A  maker  in  Paris,  1788. 

Buthod.  A  maker  of  cheap  instruments 
in  Mirecourt.  Worked  under  Vuil- 
laume  for  some  time.  In  1839  was 
awarded  a  bronze  medal.  His  violins 
are  strongly  made  and  are  much 
used  in  orchestras  and  Conservatoires. 
About  800  violins,  40  altos,  and  50 
basses  were  turned  out  of  his  workshop 
each  year.  Later,  went  into  partner- 
ship with  Husson,  and  the  business 
gradually  developed  into  a  trade  in 
instruments  of  all  kinds  becoming 
"  Husson,  Buthod  et  Thibouville." 




Cabresy.    Is  only  known  by  a  bass  dated 


Cabroli,  Lorenzo.  Worked  in  Milan 
about  1716.  His  violins  are  not  very 
good,  he  used  yellow  varnish. 

Cabroly.  Was  working  in  Toulouse  about 
1740-47.  His  instruments  are  fairly 
good,  he  used  pale  red  varnish.  Label : 
"  Fait  par  Cabroly  a  Toulouse,  1747" 

Caeste,  Gaetano  A  maker  in  Cremona 
in  1677. 

Caesto  (Caesta),  Pietro  Antonio  della. 
Worked  in  Treviso,  1660-80,  and 
cleverly  imitated  the  Stradivari  model. 

Cahusac.  Worked  in  association  with 
the  sons  of  Banks  in  London  about  1788. 

Calcani  (Calcagni),  Bernardo.  A  maker 
in  Genoa,  1710-50.  His  instruments 
are  carefully  made,  on  the  model  of 
Stradivari,  with  beautiful  golden  or 
orange-red  varnish,  a  few  with  yellow 
varnish,  with  small  scroll  and  well  cut 
sound-holes.  Label  :  "  Bernardius 
Calcanius,  fecit  Genuae,  1710"  ;  another 
similar  label  is  dated  1750. 

Calonardi,  Marco.  A  maker  in  Cremona 
in  the  17th  century. 

Calot  (Callot],b  1810,  Mirecourt.  First 
worked  unaer  Clement  in  Paris,  but  in 
1830  went  into  partnership  with 
Augiere.  His  instruments  were  beauti- 
fully made  and  had  a  fine  tone. 

Calvarolla,  Bartolommeo,  of  Torre  Bal- 
done  ( Bergamo) .  Worked  about  1753-67 
in  both  Bologna  and  Bergamo.  His 
instruments  are  fairly  well  made,  with 
yellow  varnish,  somewhat  like  those 
of  Ruggeri  in  form,  but  the  scroll  is 
weak  and  badly  proportioned.  Label : 
' '  Bartolommeo  Calvarolla,  fecit  Ber- 
game,  176 — ." 

Calzavara,  Santo,  of  Padua,  about  1764. 
The  label :  "  Santo  Calzavara,  fece  in 
Padova,  I'anno  1764,"  was  found  in  a 
small  mandoline. 

Camilli,  Camillus  (Camilus  di  Camila). 
Worked  in  Mantua  about  1739-50.  He 
followed  the  Stradivari  pattern,  and 
used  carefully  selected  wood ;  his  violins 
have  a  beautiful  tone,  and  are  varnished 
pale  red,  somewhat  similar  to  Landolfi's 
instruments ;  the  sound-holes  are  wide 
and  short.  Label:  "  Camillus  Camilli, 
fecit  Mantuae,  1739"  :  a  similar  label  is 
dated  1750. 

Camillio,  Davido.    A  maker  in  Cremona 

in  1755 

Campion.     A  guitar  of  his,   made    of 
mahogany  wood,  with  six  strings,  with 
ebony  and  mother-of-pearl  ornamenta 
tion,  was  exhibited  in  1823. 

Camploy,  J.  A  maker  in  Verona. 
Exhibited  two  violins  at  Munich  in 
1854,  on  which  he  had  used  a  varnish 
of  his  own  invention. 

Capo.  In  Milan  in  1717,  according  to  a 

Cappa,  Giofredo  (Gofifredo).  Probably 
born  at  Cremona.  Was  working  there 
under  the  Amatis  about  1590,  and  later, 
about  1640,  in  Saluzzio  (Piedmont). 
Made  both  large  and  small  violins, 
more  valuable  as  specimens  of  old 
Italian  work  than  for  their  tone ;  the 
large  instruments  are  preferable.  His 
violoncellos  show  some  of  his  best  work, 
but  are  too  much  arched,  and  the 
sound  holes  are  badly  cut ;  the  wood 
varies,  that  used  in  Cremona  was  of 
foreign  growth,  but  in  Piedmont  he 
used  locally  grown  wood,  of  coarse 
fibre ;  the  varnish  is  generally  golden 
or  yellow  colour,  but  varies  a  good  deal ; 
the  purfling  is  carelessly  done.  The 
pattern  was  often  too  large  and  had 
later  to  be  cut  down.  Labels:  "Jo- 
fredus  Cappa  in  Saluzzio,  fecit  anno 
1640" ;  "  JofFridus  Cappa,  fecit  salutiis, 
anno  16 — ." 

Cappa,  Giachimo  (Gioacchino)  and 
Guiseppe.  Possibly  sons  of  Giofredo. 
Were  both  makers,  working  in  Saluzzio 
and  in  Turin  about  1 661 -171 2.  There 
are  instruments  dated  1712,  but  of  no 
particular  merit. 

Carcanius.  A  very  old  label  printed  on 
parchment  is  dated  Cremona,  1500. 

Carcassi,  Lorenzo  Francesco  and 
Tommaso.  Worked  in  Florence  about 
1735-58.  Though  not  in  the  first  rank  of 
makers,  their  workmanship  was  good  : 
they  used  yellow-brown  varnish. 
Label :  ' '  Lor^  e  Tomo  Carcassi  in 
Firenze,  nell'  anno  1752,  all*  insegno 
del  Giglio." 

Carlo,  Guiseppe.  A  maker  in  Milan  in 

Carlomordi,  Carlo.  A  maker  in  Verona 
in  1654. 

Caron.  Worked  in  Versailles,  1775-85. 
Was  maker  to  the  Queen.  His  instru- 
ments are  not  in  any  way  remarkable, 
an  alto,  well  made,  with  brown-black 
varnish,  was  labelled :  "  Caron,  luthier 



de  la  Heine,  rue  Royale.  a  Versailles, 
1777";  asimilar  label  is  dated  1775.    A 

.  ten-stringed  theorbo  in  the  Paris  Con- 
servatoire Collection  is  dated  "  a 
Versailles,  rue  Satory,  1785." 

Carre,  Antoine.  A  clever  maker  in  Arras 
about  1790,  but  is  best  known  for  his 

Carter,  John.  Worked  in  London  about 
1780-90  for  John  Betts,  and  made  some 
excellent  instruments,  many  of  which 
were  sold  with  the  label  of  Betts. 
His  own  label  was:  "J.  Carter,  Violin, 
Tennor,  and  Bass  Maker,  Wych  Street, 
Drury  Lane,  London,  1787." 

Casini  (Cassini),  Antonio.  A  maker  in 
Modena  about  1660  to  1700.  His 
violoncellos  were  made  on  a  large 
pattern,  the  varnish  a  clear  chestnut 
or  brown  colour,  the  workmanship  fair. 
Labels :  "  Antonio  Casini  Modenae, 
anno  1660"  ;  the  same  in  a  violoncello 
dated  1665;  "Antonio  Casini,  fecit 
Muttinae,  anno  1683  "  (in  a  violoncello) ; 
"  Antonius  Cassinus,  fecit  Mutinae, 
anno  17 — ." 

Caspan,  Giampietro.  Worked  in  Venice 
about  1650.  He  followed  the  Amati 
pattern.  His  violins  are  small,  with 
yellow  varnish. 

Cassanelli,  Giovanni.  A  maker  in  Ciano 
in  1777. 

Cassineau.  According  to  an  old  French 
musical  journal  of  1770,  "Cassineau, 
of  Paris,  rue  des  Prouvaires,  near 
St.  Eustache,  makes,  sells,  buys  and 
hires  all  sorts  of  instruments,  violins, 
bass  viols,  pardessus,  guitars,  clavecins, 
mandolines,  double-basses,  &c." 

Castagnery  (Castagneri),  Andrea.  An 
Italian  who  worked  in  Paris,  1732-57, 
at  the  Hotel  de  Soissons  (which  was 
destroyed  1748-9).  He  made  good  in- 
struments ;  the  varnish  varies  greatly 
in  colour,  from  yellow-brown  to  a  pale 
red.  A  violin  dated  1 735  was  not  arched, 
but  the  varnish  is  of  good  quality.  An 
alto  dated  1741,  with  yellow  varnish, 
has  a  fine  tone.  Labels:  "Andreas 
Castagnery,  Hotel  Soisson,  Paris, 
1738";  "Andrea  Castagneri  nel 
palazzo  di  Soessone,  Parigi,  1740"; 
a  similar  label  dated  1744;  "  Castagnery , 
rue  des  Prouvaires,  Parigi,  1747"  (in 
a  badly  restored  violin).  Other  dates 
are— in  violins,  1732,  1735,  1739,  1757  ; 
in  a  bass,  1751. 

Castagnery  (Castagneri),  Gian  Paolo. 
A  maker  from  Cremona,  who  worked  in 
Paris  about  1630-62.  He  was  one  of 
the  best  Parisian  makers  of  his  time, 
his  violins  had  a  sweet  though  not 
powerful   tone.     Label:    "Castagneri 

Gian  Paolo,  nel  palazzo  di  Soissons  in 
Parigi."  Instruments  dated  1639  and 
1662  are  known. 

Castellani,  Luigi,  son  of  Pietro  Cas- 
tellani,  b.  1809  ;  d.  1884.  Worked  in 
Florence  in  the  Via  Calimaruzza.  He 
was  a  clever  restorer  of  old  violins,  but 
did  not  make  new  ones ;  he  made 
excellent  strings,  however,  and  guitars 
of  fine  tone.  He  studied  music  in  his 
youth  and  became  a  good  player  on 
the  double-bass.  Obtained  a  silver 
medal  of  first  class  in  1877. 

Castellani,  Pietro,  b.  Florence,  second 
half  of  the  i8th  century  ;  d.  1820  He 
principally  made  guitars,  which  are 
much  liked ;  but  also  made  some  violins. 

Castello,  Paolo.  A  maker  in  Genoa 
about  1750-80.  His  mstrun:cnts  are 
fairly  well  made,  he  used  yellow  var- 
nish. A  violin,  which  has  since  been 
carefully  enlarged,  was  on  a  snail 
model,  very  much  arched,  and  it  was 
labelled:  "  Paulus  Castello,  Genuae, 
anno  1774."  Small  printed  label: 
"Paulus  Castello,  fecit  Genuas,  anno 

Castro.  Worked  in  Venice,  1680-1720 
His  instruments  are  not  liked  ;  though 
the  wood  is  carefully  selected,  the 
pattern  is  bad,  the  sound-holes  roughly 
worked,  and  the  red  varnish  of  poor 

Catenar  (Catenari),  Enrico.  Was  work- 
ing in  Turin  about  1670.  His  instru- 
ments, which  are  well  made,  rather 
recall  those  of  Cappa,  of  whom  he  is 
said  to  have  been  the  pupil.  Printed 
label:  "  Henricus Catenar, fecit Taurini, 
anno  1671."     See  "  Gattinari." 

Cati,  Pier  Antonio.  A  maker  in  Florence, 
1741.  His  "kits"  or  pocket  violins 
are  well  made. 

Cattenaro.  A  maker  of  viols  and  of 
violas  da  gamba  in  Pavia,  1639. 

Cavalorio.      Was  working   in   Geneva, 


Cellini.  Giovanni,  the  father  of  Ben- 
venuto  Cellini,  b.  in  Florence;  d.  there 
of  the  pest,  1527  or  152S.  Was  first 
an  architect  but  then  became  a  lute 
and  viol  maker.  His  viols,  made 
about  1500-5,  had  a  great  reputation. 

Celoniati  (Celionati),  Giam  Francesco. 
Was  working  in  Turin  in  1732.  He 
made  good  violins  on  the  Amati 
model,  with  a  beautiful  yellow  varnish. 
Label:  "Joannes  Franciscus  Celo- 
niatus,  fecit  Taurini,  anno  1732." 

Cerin,  Marco  Antonio.  A  maker  in 
Venice,  1780-93.  Was  a  pupil  of 
Anselmo  Bellosio.  Instruments  are 
fairly  well  made  ;  he  used  pale  yellow 



varnish.  Label:  "Marcus  Antonius 
Cerin,  alumnus  Anselmii  Belosii,  fecit 
Venetiae,  an.  1793" 

Ceruti,  Enrico,  son  of  Giuseppe  Ceruti, 
b.  1808;  d.  Oct.  20,  1883.  Worked  in 
Cremona  at  14,  Via  Borgo  Spera. 
Said  to  have  made  about  365  instru- 
ments, amongst  others  several  violon- 
cellos ;  the  work  is  good,  and  Italian 
orchestral  players  especially  value  his 
instruments  highly.  Was  awarded 
silver  medals  at  London,  185 1  and 
1870,  for  his  violins,  and  a  gold  medal, 
1863,  at  Cremona.  The  last  violins 
that  he  made  were  exhibited  in  Milan 
in  1881. 

Ceruti,  Giovanni  Battista,  b.  about  1755, 
Cremona;  d  1817.  P\ipil  of  Lorenzo 
Storioni,  to  whose  business  in  the 
Via  de'  Coltellai,  near  Piazza  San 
Domenico,  he  succeeded  in  1790. 
Following  the  principles  of  his  master 
he  made  very  good  instruments  ;  alto- 
gether, violins  and  violoncellos,  they 
number  about  500.  He  copied  the 
model  of  Nicola  Amati,  using  yellow 
varnish,  sometimes  with  a  reddish 
tinge;  his  work  was  carefully  finished. 
Label:  "Jo.  Battista  Ceruti,  Cre- 
monensis,  fecit  Cremonae,  an.  18 — ." 

Ceruti,  Giuseppe,  son  and  successor  of 
Giovanni  Battista,  b.  about  1787 ;  d. 
i860,  Mantua.  He  exhibited  violins 
of  good  quality  at  Paris  and  elsewhere, 
but  he  has  not  the  same  reputation  as 
his  father ;  he  more  especially  occu- 
pied himself  with  repairing  old  violins. 

Challoner,  Thomas.  Worked  in  London 
in  the  i8th  century.  His  instruments 
are  similar  to  those  of  Wamsley. 

Champion,  Jean  Baptiste.  A  maker  in 
Paris  in  1783. 

Champion,  Rene.  A  maker  in  Paris, 
in  the  rue  des  Bourdonnais,  in  1731  ; 
in  the  rue  des  Odriettes,  in  1756.  His 
workmanship  was  extremely  pretty, 
and  carefully  finished  ;  he  used  fairly 
good  yellow  varnish,  similar  to  that 
of  Boquay,  of  whom  he  is  said  to  have 
been  a  pupil.  Labels  :  "  Rene  Cham- 
pion, rue  des  Bourdonnois  a  Paris, 
1735"  ;  and  "  Rene  Champion  de  St.- 
Julien,  rue  des  Vieilles-Odriettes  au 
coin  de  I'echelle  du  temple  a  Paris, 

Chanot,  Fran90is,  son  of  a  musical 
instrument  maker  in  Mirecourt,  b. 
1787.  Mirecourt;  d.  1828,  Rochefort. 
After  being  in  the  Ecole  poly  technique, 
he  entered  the  French  navy  as  engineer ; 
being  retired  on  half-pay.  owing  to 
some  satirically- written  political  verses, 
he  went  back  to  Mirecourt,  and  in  the 

workshops  of  his  father  came  to  the 
conclusion  that  violins  might  be  con- 
structed on  more  scientific  principles. 
He  made  one,  only  slightly  arched, 
with  the  sound-holes  nearly  straight, 
and  the  sides  less  curved  in,  more  like 
the  sides  of  a  guitar,  the  idea  being  to 
keep  the  wood-fibres  as  long  as  possible, 
as  being  better  for  vibration.  A  violin 
of  this  pattern  was  submitted  to  the 
Academie  des  Beaux-Arts  and  the 
Academic  des  Sciences  in  181 7  ;  after 
three  trials  it  was  favourably  judged, 
the  tone  being  of  superior  quality.  He 
was  awarded  a  silver  medal  in  1819. 
Unfortunately ,  violins  on  this  model  are 
now  of  poor  quality  ;  the  tone,  though 
excellent  when  they  are  first  made, 
does  not  last.  In  1824,  he  was  recalled 
to  active  service  and  was  shortly  after- 
wards promoted  to  the  higher  grade  of 
an  engineer  of  the  first  class.  The 
letters  C.I.D.  on  his  label  are  the 
initials  of  his  title,  "  Capitaine,  In- 
genieur,  Deuxieme  classe."  A  violin 
which  he  made  in  1818  for  Viotti  and 
a  violoncello  are  in  the  Paris  Con- 
servatoire collection. 

Chanot,  Georges,  a  brother  of  Fran9ois, 
b.  March  26,  1801,  Mirecourt  ;  d. 
Jan.  10,  1883,  Courcelles,  near  Gif 
(Seine  et  Oise).  He  first  worked  in 
Mirecourt,  but  in  1819  went  to  Paris 
and  for  a  year  constructed  violins  on 
his  brother's  new  model ;  then  (1820) 
worked  under  Clement,  and  {1821)  was 
employed  by  Gand,  whom  he  left  in 
1823  in  order  to  start  business  on  his 
own  account,  living  first  rue  Oblin 
pres  de  la  Halle  au  ble,  then  Place  des 
Victoires  (1825-28),  Passage  Choiseul 
(1828-37),  rue  de  Rivoli  (1837-48),  and 
finally  quai  Malaquais.  He  retired 
from  business  to  Courcelles  in  1872. 
He  was  twice  married,  the  second 
time  in  1859 ;  his  first  wife  also  made 
violins,  working  with  great  assiduity 
and  rendering  her  husband  valuable 
aid.  Chanot  made  a  careful  study  of 
old  Italian  instruments,  and  was  ex- 
cellent at  repairing  or  modifying  them. 
His  new  instruments  are  beautifully 
made  and  have  a  fine  tone,  they  are 
chiefly  copies  of  Stradivari  and  Guar- 
neri ;  the  former  are  the  best,  the  wood 
being  excellent.  Was  awarded:  Men- 
tion honorable,  1827  ;  silver  medal, 
1839,  1844,  1849  (of  the  second  class), 
1855.  Labels:  "Chanot  jeune,  rue 
Passage  Choiseul,  No.  15,  a  Paris, 
1825,''  and  "Georges  Chanot  a  Paris, 
I,  Qua  Malaquais,  annee  1855." 

Chanot,  Georges,  son  of  Georges  Chanot 



and  his  first  wife.  First  worked  with 
his  father.  1851,  went  to  London, 
where  he  worked  under  Maucotel  (a 
brother  of  the  maker  in  Paris),  and, 
1858,  he  started  his  own  business, 
making  instruments  of  very  good 
quaHty.  He  received  a  bronze  medal 
at  the  Paris  Exhibition,  1878 ;  and  a 
gold  medal  in  London,  1885. 

Chanot,  G.  A.,  b.  1855.  A  maker  of 
good  violins  at  Manchester. 

Chanot,  Madame.  One  of  her  violins 
was  exhibited  in  Paris,  1827.  See 
Georges  Chanot,  sen. 

Chappuy  (Chapuy),  Nicolas  Augustin. 
Worked  in  Paris  about  1732-76.  His 
violins  are  fairly  good,  generally  on  a 
large  pattern,  the  work  well  finished, 
the  varnish  bad,  generally  yellow 
colour  (he  used  spirit  varnish,  like 
most  French  makers  of  that  time) ; 
nearly  all  are  branded  on  the  button 
with  his  name  and  the  initial  N. 
Sometimes  are  labelled  "  Luthier  de 
S.A.R.  la  Duchesse  de  Montpensier." 
A  violin,  which  was  used  for  37  years 
by  Fr.  Habeneck  in  his  classes,  is  in  the 
Paris  Conservatoire  Collection .  Labels : 
"  Chappuy  a  Paris,"  and  "  Augustinus 
Chappuy,  fecit  Parisiis,  anno  1776,"  in 
a  violin ;  another  violin  was  dated 
1732.  A  maker  of  the  same  name  is 
mentioned  in  1794. 

Chardon,  Marie  Joseph,  son  in-law  and 
pupil  of  Georges  Chanot,  sen.,  b. 
May  22,  1843,  Paris.  He  succeeded 
his  father-in-law  in  1872.  In  1878  he 
exhibited  two  quartets  of  instruments, 
very  well  made,  the  wood  chosen  with 
great  care.  Was  awarded  a  bronze 
medal.  He  is  very  skilful  in  restoring 
old  instruments,  owing  to  his  great 
experience  and  knowledge. 

Chardon,  Marie  Joseph  Antoine  Georges, 
son  of  Marie  Joseph  Chardon,  b.  April 
22,  1870.  Worked  under  the  direction 
of  his  father. 

Charle.     Maker  in  Paris  in  1748 

Charles.  Theress.  Originally  came  from 
Mirecourt,  but  settled  in  London,  in 
King  Street,  Soho,  as  a  violin  mjiker. 
On  his  card  is  printed ' ' from  Maucotel . ' ' 

Charotte,  b.  in  Mirecourt ;  d.  1836.  He 
settled  in  Rouen  in  1830  and  worked 
there  till  his  death.  His  instruments 
are  inferior 

Chastelain,  Martin,  who  lived  in  War- 
wick, Flanders,  about  1580,  was  born 
blind.  He  was  a  maker  of,  and  a 
performer  on  viols,  violins,  spinets,  &c. 

Chatelain,  Francois.  A  maker  in  Paris 
about  1777-91,  first  at  9,  rue  de  Braque, 
then  in  the  rue  de  Berry.  An  instrument 

of  his  is  dated  1783,  with  his  name; 
two  valuable  violins  are  also  known, 
in  an  excellent  state  of  preservation. 
He  sometimes  made  instruments  in 
association  with  S.  Renault,  labels 
dated  1781  and  1791  having  their 
names,  "  Renault  et  Chatelain." 

Chatelin,  Adrien  Benoist.  Maker  in 
Valenciennes,  1758,  according  to  a 
label  found  in  a  viol. 

Cherbourg.  A  maker  in  Paris  about 
1770.  He  was  the  inventor  of  an 
"improved"  lyre,  of  which  he  made 
several,  not  without  merit,  although 
very  original  in  design.  Label :  "  Cher- 
bourg, dans  le  Temple  a  Paris, 
enventeuvre  (inventeur)  de  la  perfexion 
de  cet  instrument  tans  desire." 

Cheron,  Nicolas.  A  maker  in  Paris, 
1658-91,  in  the  rue  Dauphine,  and  then 
in  the  rue  de  la  Vieille-Boucherie. 

Cherpitel,  Nicolas  Emile,  b.  June  24, 
1 84 1,  Mirecourt ;  d.  Feb.,  1893.  Worked 
first  at  Mirecourt,  then  under  Grandjon, 
and,  in  1859,  entered  the  workshop  of 
Gand  Freres  (Paris) ,  where  he  remained 
till  1870.  He  then  established  himself 
at  364,  rue  Saint-Denis,  but  in  1884 
moved  to  13,  rue  du  Faubourg  Poisson- 
niere.  At  the  Paris  Exhibition,  1878, 
he  received  a  "Mention  honorable" 
for  his  instruments,  which  show  clever 
work.  Label :  "  Nicolas  Emile  Cher- 
pitel a  Paris,  13,  Faubourg  Poisson- 
niere.     N.E.C' 

Chevrier,  Andre  Augustin,  b.  in  Mire- 
court. Worked  first  in  Paris  and  then 
in  Brussels.  A  well  made  violin  with 
red-orange  varnish  was  labelled : 
"Chevrier,  luthier  a  Bruxelles,  1838." 

Chiarelli,  Andrea,  b.  1675,  Messina  ;  d. 
1699.  A  maker  of  lutes  and  theorbos. 
He  was  also  a  celebrated  lute  player ; 
went  to  Rome  and  Naples  for  his 
musical  education,  then  returned  to 
Messina  and  tried  to  improve  the 
construction  of  his  favourite  instru- 
ment. He  made  several  theorbos  and 
arch-lutes;  one  of  the  latter  is  dated 

Chiavellati,  Domenico.  Worked  in 
Lonigo  in  1796. 

Chibon,  Jean  Robert.  A  maker  in  Paris, 
in  the  rue  de  la  Comtesse  d'Artois, 
1775-79  ;  and  in  rue  de  la  Grande 
Truanderie,  1783-85.  His  instruments, 
which  are  not  valuable,  are  seldom 
seen  ;  two  altos  and  a  bass  are  known, 
he  used  brown  varnish. 

Chiocchi  (Chiocci),  Gaetano.  Worked 
in  Padua  in  the  19th  century.  Was 
clever  both  at  repairing  instruments 
and  making  them. 



Chretien,  Hippolyte,  b.  April  i,  1845, 
Sommerviller.  In  1865  he  succeeded 
to  the  business  of  his  uncle,  Hippolyte 
Silvestre,  in  Lyons ;  1884,  moved  to 
Paris.  Under  the  name  of  "Silvestre 
neveu "  he  has  maintained  the  ex- 
cellent reputation  acquired  by  his 
uncle.  His  new  instruments  have  a 
beautiful  tone  and  are  well  made,  the 
varnish  is  transparent ;  he  is  also  ex- 
tremely skilful  in  repairing  old  instru- 
ments Awards  silver  medal  Lyons, 
1872;  large  medal  of  "progress," 
Vienna,  1873 ;  silver  medal,  Paris, 
1878 ;  gold  medal,  1889  Label 
"  Hippolyte  Chretien,  Silvestre  neveu." 

Christa,  Joseph  Paul.  Maker  in  Munich 
about  1730-40.  Label :  "Joseph  Paulus 
Chnsta,  Lauten  und  Geigenmacher  in 
Miinchen,  1740." 

Christofori.     See  Cristofori. 

Christophle,  Jean.  Worked  at  Avignon, 
1655.  An  alto  of  that  date,  made  on  a 
large  pattern,  is  in  the  Paris  Conserva- 
toire Collection. 

Ciciliano.     S^^  "  Siciliano." 

Circapa,  Tommaso.  A  maker  in  Naples 
about  1730-35.  A  mandoline,  fairly 
well  made,  is  known. 

Clark.  A  maker  in  London,  living  at 
Turnmill  Street,  Clerkenwell.  Was 
a  pupil  of  Matthew  Furber. 

Claudot,  Augustin.  Worked  in  Paris 
beginning  of  19th  century  His  instru- 
ments are  on  a  large  pattern,  with 
yellow  varnish,  the  wood  of  good 
quality,  and  the  work  carefully  finished. 
Instead  of  using  a  label,  he  generally 
branded  his  instruments  with  his  name, 
"Augustin  Claudot." 

Claudot,  Charles,  b.  1794,  Mirecourt  ; 
d.  1876.  He  made  a  number  of  instru- 
ments, of  which  few  remain.  The 
work  is  inferior,  the  varnish  a  yellow- 
brown  colour ;  his  name  is  to  be  found 
stamped  inside  on  the  back.  His  son 
made  some  good  instruments. 

Clement,  J.  L.  A  maker  in  Paris 
1783-1840,  rue  des  Bonnes-Enfants. 
His  violins  are  now  much  valued  by 
amateurs,  although  it  is  said  that  he 
did  little  work  himself,  but  employed 
clever  workmen,  such  as  Georges 
Chanot .  Augiere,  Calot ,  and  Thomassin . 
His  work  is  beautifully  finished  and 
artistic,  he  used  red-brown  varnish 
with  good  effect.  He  exhibited  in 
1823  and  1827  and  received  a  bronze 
Cocks  (Cocko  or  Cocco),  Christopher. 
Was  working  in  Venice  in  1654. 
There  is  an  arch-lute  in  the  Paris 
Conservatoire     Collection     with     the 

label,  "Christopher  Cocks,  all'  insegna 
deir  aquila  d'oro,  Venetia,  1654." 

Coelho,  Joze  Terreira.  Worked  in 
Lisbon,  i8th  century.  In  a  guitar  is  the 
inscription  :  •*  Joze  Terreira  Coelho, 
a  fez  em  Lisboa,  as  Poco  los  Negros, 
a  Cruz  da  Esperan9a." 

Coffe-Goguette  A  maker  in  Mire- 
court, who  exhibited  in  1834  ^.nd  1839 
and  was  awarded  a  bronze  medal. 
Guitars  of  his  in  the  Paris  Con- 
servatoire Collection  are  tastefully 
ornamented  and  have  a  beautiful  tone. 

Coincu.     S^^"Comme." 

Cole,  James.  A  maker  in  Manchester. 
He  learnt  his  trade  there,  first  with 
Tarr  and  then  under  George  Crask. 
Until  1858  he  used  a  label,  but  after 
that  stamped  "J.  Cole"  inside  his 

Cole,  Thomas.  Working  in  London 
about  1672-90  Labels:  "Thomas Cole, 
near  Fetter  Lane  in  Holborn,  1672," 
and  "  Made,  1690,  by  Thomas  Cole  of 
London,  on  Holborn  Hill,  who  selleth 
all  sorts  of  musical  instruments"  ;  this 
last  was  in  a  very  large  tenor,  which 
had  a  fine  deep  tone. 

Collichon,  Michel.  Worked  in  Paris 
about  1683-93,  the  former  date  being 
on  the  label  of  a  viol  with  six  strings, 
with  transparent  yellow  varnish,  and 
the  latter  date  in  a  bass-viol  exhibited 
in  Paris,  1889. 

Collier,  Samuel.  A  musical  instrument 
maker  in  London,  at  "  Corelli's  Head  " 
on  London  Bridge,  about  1750-55. 

Collier,  Thomas.     Worked  in  London, 


Collin,  Claude  Nicolas.  A  maker  in 
Mirecourt  who  died  1864.  He  learnt 
his  trade  under  N.  F.  Vuillaume  of 
Brussels.  Amongst  his  pupils  was 
his  son  (see  "  CoUin-Mezin  ")  and 
C.  A.  Miremont. 

Collin-Mezin,  Charles  Jean  Baptiste.son 
of  C.  N.  Collin,  b.  Nov.  12,  1841,  Mire- 
court. First  worked  under  his  father 
there,  but  in  1868  settled  in  Paris,  in  the 
rue  Faubourg  Poissonniere.  Though 
a  very  clever  restorer  of  old  instruments 
he  devotes  himself  more  to  making  new 
ones,  taking  those  of  Stradivari,  Amati, 
and  Guarneri  as  models ;  his  wood  is 
of  excellent  quality  and  his  work  beauti- 
fully finished.  Awards :  gold  and  silver 
medals,  Paris,  1878  (for  the  beautiful 
varnish  and  remarkable  tone  of  his 
violins);  gold  medal,  Paris,  1879;  silver 
medal,  1889.  Named  "  Officier  de 
rAcademie"ini884.  Labels:  from  1868 
to  1876 — "  Longueur  :  9  cent,  hauteur: 
2  cent.  Ch.   J.    B.   Collin-Mezin   fils. 



luthier,  Paris,  Tan  1870"  ;  from  1876  on- 
ward— "Longueur  :  9  cent,  hauteur  3^, 
Ch.  J.  B.  Collin-Mezin  fils,  luthier  a 
Pans,  rue  du  Faubg.  Poissonniere  10." 

CoUingwood,  Joseph.  Worked  in 
London  about  1760,  at  the  "  Golden 
Spectacles '   on  London  Bridge. 

Comble.     See  "  De  Comble." 

Comme  (or  Coincu).  A  guitar  known 
made  by  this  maker  at  Blois. 

Contreras,  Joseph,  b.  about  1710, 
Granada;  d  about  1780.  Known  as 
"Granadino"  owing  to  his  birthplace. 
He  worked  in  Madrid  from  about  1745 
making  such  fine  copies  of  Stradivari  s 
instruments  that  they  were  often 
mistaken  for  the  originals.  A  beautiful 
violin  exhibited  in  Paris,  1878,  was 
slightly  arched,  the  sound-holes  well 
cut,  the  varnish  a  yellow-red  colour, 
very  brilliant,  the  scroll  rather  heavy, 
the  work  beautifully  finished.  In  it  was 
the  label :  "  Matriti  per  Granadensem 
Josephum  Contreras,  anno  1760." 

Contreras,  son  of  Joseph  Contreras. 
Label :  "Matriti per filium  Granadensis 
Joseph  de  Contreras,  anno  1793,  No. 

Conway,  William.  A  maker  in  London 
about  1745-50- 

Cordano,  Jacopo  Filippo.  Worked  in 
Genoa  about  1774.  Label;  "Jacobus 
Philippus  Cordanus,  fecit  Genuae,  anno 
sal.  1774." 

Coma.     See  "  Delia  Corna." 

Cornelli,  Carlo.  A  maker  in  Cremona, 
1702.  Label:  " Carolus  Cornelli,  fecit 
Cremonae,  anno  1702." 

Correa,  Manoel,  of  Almeida,  in  the 
province  of  Beira,  Portugal.  Entitled 
"  Maker  to  the  Queen."  In  a  guitar 
made  about  1600  is  the  inscription 
"  Manoel  Correa  de  Almda  Uileiro  da 
Rainha,  N.S.  Morador  na  Ruadireita 
la  Esperan(;a  LXa." 

Corsby,  George,  believed  to  be  a  brother 
of  Corsby  of  Northampton.  A  maker 
in  London,  in  Princes  Street,  Leicester 
Square,  who  also  dealt  in  old  instru- 

Corsby.  A  maker  in  Northampton  about 
1780,  who  chiefly  made  double-basses. 
See  "Corsby,  George." 

Costa,  Agostino,  of  Brescia.  A  maker 
in  Venice  in  the  17th  century 

Costa,  Marco  dalla.  A  maker  in  Treviso 
about  1660-80. 

Costa,  Pietro  Antonio  dalla.  Worked 
in  Treviso  about  1740-65.  He  made 
some  fairly  good  violins,  following  the 
patterns  of  Ant.  and  Gir.  Amati ;  he 
used  yellow  varnish  of  good  quality. 
Labels:  "  Pietro  Antonio  dalla  Costa, 

fece  in  TrevibO,  anno  174 — '" ;  "  Petrus 
Antonius  a  Costa,  fecit  ad  similitu- 
dinem  illorum  quod  fecerunt  Antonius 
and  Hieronymus  fratres  Amati  Cremon- 
enses,  filii  Andreae  Tarvisii,  anno 
1757";  "Petrus  Antonius  a  Costa, 
fecit  Tarvisii,  anno  1760";  "Petrus 
Antonius  a  Costa,  fecit  Tarvisii,  anno 

Cotton,  Robert.  The  label,  "  Robert 
Cotton  a  Rouen,"  was  found  in  a  tenor 
viol  or  viola  bastarda,  which  had  six 
strings  rather  deep  sides,  the  head 
carved,  the  varnish  red  colour. 

Cousineau,  Georges  (?  Pierre  Joseph),  b. 
about  1753.  in  Paris  ;  d.  1824.  In  1788 
was  entitled  "  Luthier  de  la  reme." 
He  chiefly  made  harps  and  guitars, 
but  an  alto  is  known  branded  with  his 
name,  and  a  double-bass  with  three 
strings,  which  is  in  the  Paris  Conserva- 
toire Collection,  was  labelled  "  rue  des 
Poulies,  vis-a-vis  la  colonade  dii 
Louvre,  '  a  la  Victoire.'  Cousineau 
luthier,  fait  et  vend  harpes.  lyres, 
violons,  violoncellos,  contrebasses,  par- 
dessus  de  viole,  alto-viola,  guitares, 
violes  d'amour,  mandolines,  sistres  et 
autres  instruments  de  musique.  IL 
vend  aussi  des  cordes  de  Naples  et 
tient  magasin  de  musique  fran9aise 
et  italienne.  Son  epouse  grave  la 

Cramond,  Charles.  A  maker  in  Aber- 
deen about  1821-34. 

Crask,  George.  Worked  in  various 
places,  Salford,  Manchester,  &c.  ;  he 
made  a  number  of  instruments,  gener- 
ally Italian  in  character. 

Cristofori  (Christofori),  Bartolommeo 
b.  probably  May  4,  1655,  in  Padua;  d. 
Jan.  27,  1731.  He  settled  in  Florence 
in  1710.  Was  a  maker  of  clavecins, 
but  in  the  collection  of  musical  instru- 
ments at  Florence  is  a  double-bass, 
quite  possibly  the  only  one  he  ever 
made,  of  which  the  workmanship 
leaves  much  to  be  desired ;  it  is 
inscribed  "  Bartolommeo  Cristofori, 
Firenze,  1715." 

Cross,  Nathaniel.  A  maker  in  London 
about  1700-51.  About  1720  he  entered 
into  partnership  with  Barak  Norman 
His  instruments  resemble  those  of 
Stainer,  of  whom  it  is  supposed  that 
he  was  a  pupil.  He  made  good  violins, 
beautifully  finished  in  all  details,  the 
fluting  round  the  edge,  where  the 
purfle  is  inlaid,  is  very  acute,  and  the 
scrolls  are  excellently  cut.  Violoncellos 
of  his  are  known  very  similar  to  those 
made  during  his  partnership  with 
Norman ,  they  are  rather  small  in  size. 



with  soft  light-yellow  varnish  ;  the 
tone  is  clear  and  penetrating.  He 
marked  his  instruments  inside  on  the 
back  with  his  initials  N.  C.  and  a  4~ 
above.  Label:  "Barak  Norman  and 
Nathaniel  Cross,  at  the  Bass-viol  in  St. 
Paul's  church  yard,  London,  fecit 

Crowther,  John.  A  maker  in  London 
(Haughton  Street,  Clare  Market)  about 
1755- 18 10.  He  worked  occasionally 
for  John  Kennedy.     He  died  in  1810. 

Cuchet,  Gaspard.  Worked  in  Grenoble, 
1729.  Label:  "Fait  par  Gaspard 
Cuchet  a  Grenoble,  mil  sept  cent  29." 

Cunault,  Georges,  b.  1856,  Paris  ;  was 
apprenticed  there,  and  worked  with 
Miremont,  1874-82 ;  obtaining,  at  the 
Paris  Exhibition,  1878,  a  "  Mention 
honorable"  as  collaborateur.  1882, 
started  his  own  workshop,  first  at 
53,  Faubourg  Poissonniere,  then  at 
6,  rue  Clauzel.     He  is  a  clever  maker 

and  his  instruments  show  experience 
and  careful  work. 

Cuny.  A  maker  in  Paris  about  1740. 
A  violin  from  which  the  label  had  dis- 
appeared was  branded  on  the  back 
"Cuny  a  Paris,"  it  was  of  inferior 
work,  with  thick  brown  varnish. 

Cuppin,  Giovanni.  A  name  found  in  an 
instrument  which  must  have  been 
of  an  early  period.  It  was  a  baryton 
with  no  edges  or  purfling,  the  sound- 
holes  elegantly  cut,  the  back  of  poplar 
wood,  the  varnish  a  yellow  colour 

Cuthbert.  Maker  of  viols  and  violins 
in  London  in  the  17th  century.  Some 
instruments  are  well  made,  not  much 
arched,  with  dark  varnish,  the  wood  of 
good  quality. 

Cuypers  (Koeuppers),  Johannes. 
Worked  at  The  Hague.  Used  yellow 
varnish.  Label:  "  Johannes  Cuypers, 
fecit  s'haghe,  1779." 

Cyprianio.     S^^  "  Antonio." 


Daniel.  A  maker  in  Antwerp  about 
1636-56.  Two  instruments  of  his  are 
known,  a  double-bass  which  he  made 
in  1636  to  be  used  in  Antwerp  Cathe- 
dral for  the  Chapel  of  the  Holy 
Sacrament,  and  a  little  violin,  fairly 
well  made,  dated  1656. 

Daniel,  Charles.  Founded  a  business  in 
Marseilles  in  1762,  was  succeeded  by 
his  son  Edmond,  who  was  succeeded 
by  his  pupil  Guerin. 

Darche,  C.  F.  Worked  in  Brussels. 
Was  a  pupil  of  N.  F.  Vuillaume  (a 
brother  of  the  Parisian  maker,  who 
had  settled  in  Brussels).  He  exhibited 
a  very  satisfactory  quartet  of  new  in- 
struments at  Munich  in  1854,  but  was 
especially  successful  in  a  work  of  res- 
toration that  had  taken  him  two  years 
to  accomplish.  This  was  an  Amati 
violoncello  dated  1547,  which  had 
belonged  to  Charles  IX.  of  France,  and 
was  handed  over  to  Darche  literally  in 
fragments.  In  1867  Darche's  instru- 
ments were  judged  to  be  satisfactory  in 
point  of  workmanship,  but  deficient  in 
tone,  and  the  varnish  of  poor  quality. 
In  1854  he  constructed  a  violin  which 
was  curved  on  each  side  of  the  button 
in  such  a  way  as  to  render  it  far  less 
likely  to  slip  from  under  the  chin  of 
the  player. 

Darche,  Nicholas.  A  maker  in  Aix-la- 
Chapelle,  who  has  made  a  great  many 
instruments.  P.  J.  Hel  was  a  pupil  of 
his,  1864-65. 

Dardelli,  Pietro  ("  II  padre  Dardelli"). 
Was  a  monk  in  the  Franciscan  monas- 
tery of  Mantua,  who  lived  towards  the 
end  of  the  15th  century.  He  was  one 
of  the  best  makers  of  his  time  of 
rebecs,  lutes,  and  viols  of  all  kinds, 
which  he  ornamented  with  especially 
beautiful  inlaid  work.  A  very  fine  lute, 
made  for  the  Duchess  of  Mantua,  the 
neck  admirably  worked  in  ivory  and 
ebony,  and  painted  with  the  ducal 
coat  of  arms,  was  dated  "  Pietro  Dar- 
delli, 1497." 

Daum,  Mathias,  b.  1789  ;  d.  1855.  ^ 
maker  in  Vienna.     Did  good  work. 

David.  A  contemporary  of  Pierray. 
Was  working  in  Paris  about  1730,  and 
supplied  the  orchestra  of  Louis  XVI. 
with  instruments ;  his  workmanship, 
however,  was  poor. 

Davidson,  Hay.  A  maker  in  Huntley 
in  1870. 

Davis,  Richard.  A  maker  in  London. 
Began  by  working  in  the  employ  oi 
Norris  and  Barnes;  but  when  N orris 
died,  in  1818,  he  succeeded  to  the  busi- 
ness. He  knew  little  of  violin  making, 
and  always  remained  more  of  a  dealer 
in  than  a  maker  of  instruments.  He 
retired,  leaving  the  business  to  William 
Davis,  and  died  in  Bussage,  near 
Stroud,  his  native  place,  in  April, 
1836,  and  was  buried  in  Bisley  Parish 

Davis,  Wm.  A  maker  in  Coventry  Street, 
London.     A  cousin  of  Richard  Davis, 



whose  business  he  continued  till 
December,  1846,  when  he  sold  it  to 
Edward  Withers  and  retired  to 
Bussage.  He  also  was  more  of  a 
dealer  in  and  restorer  of  violins  than 
a  maker,  and  employed  Charles 
Maucotel  (a  maker  who  came  from 
Paris)  to  work  for  him. 

Day,  John  b.  March  7,  1830;  d.  at  his 
residence,  50,  Gloucester  Street, 
Belgrave  Road,  S.W.,  November  2, 
1905.  An  amateur  mak<  r  in  London. 
Was  a  good  violin  player.  Devoted 
himself  to  reproducing  the  perfect  tone, 
as  well  as  form,  of  the  Cremona  violins, 
and  is  said  to  have  succeeded ;  a  copy 
of  a  Guarnen  del  Jesu  being  especially 
mentioned  as  a  magnificent  violin. 

Dearlove,  Mark.  Worked  in  Leeds 
about  1812-20. 

Dearlove,  Mark  William,  son  of  Mark 
Dearlove.  At  different  times  he  em- 
ployed Thomas  Absam,  John  Gough, 
and  Charles  Fryer  to  work  for  him. 
The  latter  he  took  into  partnership. 
The  label  they  used  was:  "Dearlove 
and  Fryer,  musical  instrument  manu- 
facturers. Boar  Lane,  Leeds,  1828.' 
Dearlove  exhibited  two  violins  and  a 
viola  in  London  in  1862. 

De  Blosy,  Nicola.  Working  in  Naples 
at  13,  rua  Catalana,  in  1793.  In  a 
guitar  was  the  label:  "  Nicolaus  De 
Blosy,  fecit  Neapoli,  in  rua  Catalana, 
al  No.  13,  AD.  1793.  ' 

Deckert,  Johann  Nicolaus.  A  maker  in 
Grossbreitenbach  in  the  i8th  century. 

Decombe.  A  maker  in  Paris  in  the 
1 8th  century  (is  not  to  be  confused 
with  De  Comble).  He  also  published 
music  at  his  shop  on  the  quai  de 
I'Ecole,  at  the  sign  of  "  1  Accord 
par  fait." 

De  Comble,  Ambroise,  b  •  at  Tournai, 
Belgium,  towards  the  end  of  the  17th 
century.  He  worked  till  about  1760. 
Said  to  have  been  in  his  youth  a  pupil 
of  Antonio  Stradivari  at  Cremona. 
His  instruments  are  now  scarce.  They 
are  extremely  well  made,  of  excellent 
wood,  and  have  a  rich  full  tone,  equally 
good  in  all  the  strings,  but  lacking  in 
brilliancy ;  the  varnish,  generally  red, 
is  a  little  dry ;  the  purfling  is  always 
in  extremely  narrow  fine  threads  His 
violins  and  altos  generally  follow  the 
Stradivari  pattern,  well  arched,  edges 
and  corners  rather  thick,  the  purfling 
very  narrow,  and  the  varnish,  a  beauti- 
ful red-brown  colour,  of  good  quality. 
His  violoncellos  are  especially  well 
made,  generally  on  a  small  pattern, 
more  arched  than  that  of  the  violin, 

tne  sound-holes  and  the  corners  are 
well  cut,  but  the  plates  of  wood  used 
are  too  thin.  One  violoncello  has 
yellow  varnish  on  the  front  and  red 
varnish  on  the  back  and  sides ,  it  is 
well  made,  although  the  details  are 
somewhat  neglected;  it  is  labelled 
"Ambroise    De   Comble   a   Tournay, 


he  also  used  the  MS.  label: 

"  Fait  a  Tournay  par  Ambroise  de 
Comble,  1750'';  labels  similar  to  the 
latter  are  dated  1753  and  176 — 

Deconet,  Michele.  Worked  in  Venice 
about  1742-79.  Was  a  follower  of  the 
Cremona  school.  Two  violins  and  a 
violoncello  that  are  known  are  well 
made,  with  yellow  varnish.  Label  : 
"  Michele  Deconet,  fecit  Venetiis,  anno 
1754"  ;  a  similar  label  is  dated  1771. 

Defresne,  Pierre.  A  maker  who  settled 
in  Rouen  in  1730  and  was  still  working 
there  in  1737.  Label:  "Fait  par  moi, 
Pierre  Defresne,  maistre  luthier  de 
Pans,  demeurant  rue  Neuve-Saint-L6 
a  Rouen,  1737." 

Dehaye  (Deshayes).  Was  nephew  and 
only  pupil  of  Salomon.  Lived  about 
1775  to  1825  in  Paris,  first  in  the  rue 
des  Saints-Peres,  then  in  the  rue  de 
Grenelle-Saint  Honore.  At  the  sign  of 
the  "  Prelude  espagnol  "  he  sold 
"  violins,  violoncellos,  basses,  treble- 
viols,  bass-viols,  violas  d'amore,"  &c., 
from  which  it  will  be  seen  that  he  was 
more  of  a  dealer  than  a  maker. 

Dehommais.  Was  an  amateur  who 
undertook  experiments  in  varnishes. 
In  1870  he  went  into  partnership  with 
Emile  Germain,  which  lasted  until 
1 882  ;  during  this  time  about  a  hundred 
instruments  were  made  under  the  name 
of  the  firm,  "  Dehommais  et  Germain." 
They  were  awarded  a  bronze  medal, 
Paris,  1878. 

Delaborne  He  exhibited  guitars  in 
Paris  in  1819  and  again  in  1823 

De  Lannoy,  N  J  A  maker  in  Lille 
about  1740  75.  His  instruments  were 
well  made,  with  yellow  varnish.  Label : 
"  N  J.  De  Lanno)''  sur  la  petite  place, 
au-dessus  des  Halles  a  Lille,  1747"; 
later  it  was,  "  Dessus  les  ponts  de 
Comines,  1773  "  Presumably  his 
descendants  continued  the  trade,  as  an 
L.  Delannoy  in  1828  is  mentioned  as 
restoring  a  violin  made  in  1774  by 
Fent,  of  Paris. 

Delanoe,  Pierre  Jean.  A  maker  in  Paris 
in  1754. 

Delanoix.  A  contemporary  of  Boussu. 
Was  working  in  Brussels  about  1760. 
Was  a  good  maker. 

Delany  (Delaney),  John.      A  maker  in 



Dublin  in  1808,  is  best  known  by  his 
labels,  the  one  very  small,  the  other 
very  large.  I.  "Made  by  John  De- 
lany,  No.  17,  Britain  Street,  Dubhn, 
1808."  II.  "Made  by  John  Delany, 
in  order  to  perpetuate  his  memory  in 
future  ages.  Dublin,  1808.  Liberty 
to  all  the  world,  black  and  white  " 

Delau,  Lucien.  In  1836  (on  the  death 
of  Charotte)  he  joined  Jeandel  in  violin 
maki'  -g  and  they  continued  the  business 
at  36,  rue  Beauvoisine,  Rouen,  until 

Delauney  (Delaunay).  A  viol  maker  in 
Paris  in  1775. 

Deleplanque,  Gerard  J.  A  viol  maker 
in  Lille,  I760-88.  He  was  at  first 
established  at  "  Marche  aux  poulets," 
near  the  "  Marche  aux  poissons,"  but 
about  1766  transferred  his  business  to 
the  rue  de  la  Grande-Chaussee.  He 
has  left  some  excellent  specimens  of 
his  work  ;  a  five-stringed  viol,  dated 
1766,  with  yellow  varnish  tinged  with 
red,  was  exhibited  in  1878 ;  a  very 
beautiful  guitar,  dated  1768,  is  in  the 
Paris  Conservatoire  Collection ;  also 
another  magnificent  one  made  of 
tortoiseshell,  inlaid  with  mother-of- 
pearl  and  ivory,  dated  1775.  Two 
other  guitars  are  dated  1770  and  1777. 
The  label  "Gerard  J.  Deleplanque, 
luthier,  rue  de  la  Grande-Chaussee 
coin  de  celle  des  Dominicains  a  Lille, 
1788,"  was  found  in  a  guitar;  the 
same,  dated  1772,  in  a  guitar  of  eleven 
strings,  which  was  peculiar  in  having 
the  back  of  the  lute  or  mandoline  shape. 

Delia  Coma,  Giovan  Paolo  (Gian 
Giacomo).  One  of  the  earliest  viol 
makers,  who  lived  in  Brescia  about 
1484,  and  was  mentioned  by  G.  M. 
Lanfranco  (1533)  as  being  one  of  the 
best  lute,  lyre,  and  viol  makers  of  his 

Demouchi,  P.  Was  working  in  Lyons 
in  1618,  according  to  a  label  found  in  a 
bass-viol  of  seven  strings,  with  brown- 
black  varnish,  and  the  head  carved  : 
"P.  Demouchi  a  Lyon,  1618." 

Dennis,  Jesse,  b.  1795  A  London 
maker.  Apprenticed  to  John  Crowther 
about  1805,  later  was  working  under 
Matthew  Furber.  In  Feb.,  1855,  was 
living  in  Eweherst  Street,  Walworth 

De  Planche  Pierre  A  six-stringed 
viol  of  this  French  maker  is  known. 

Derazey,   J.      A   maker    in    Mirecourt 
On   the   death  of  J.   Nicolas,  jun.,  in 
1864,    he    succeeded   to   his    business, 
with  all  the  materials,  &c.,  and  so  it 
happens    that    new    instruments,    not 

made  by  Nicolas,  but  bearing  his 
stamp,  are  still  to  be  met  with.  With- 
out being  of  great  commercial  value 
they  are  well  made  and  carefully 
finished,  but  the  varnish  is  rather 
harsh.  Awards:  "Mention"  in  1839 
and  1844  ;  a  medal  of  the  first  class  at 
the  Paris  Exhibition,  1855,  and  at  the 
London  Exhibition,  1862,  for  the 
cheapness  and  good  quality  of  his 
instruments;  in  1844  he  was  producing 
600  instruments  a  year,  selling  them 
from  5  to  1 50  francs 
Deroux,  Sebastien  Auguste,  b  June  29, 
1848  Mirecourt.  Was  pupil  there 
of  his  father,  also  a  maker.  Worked 
at  Lyons  under  Silvestre  neveu  fr  m 
April,  1866,  to  August  1869.  After 
serving  his  four  years  of  military 
service,  worked  with  Miremont  at 
Paris,  from  Nov.  20,  1873,  till  July  15, 
1884,  obtaining  a  "  Mention  honorable ' 
as  collaborateur  at  the  Pans  Exhibi- 
tion, 1878.  Then  started  his  own 
workshop  at  16,  rue  Geoffroy- Marie, 
Paris,  where  he  has  remained  ever 
since.  He  has  gained  a  great  reputa- 
tion as  one  of  the  best  restorers  of  old 
instruments  in  Paris.  Up  till  now  he 
has  made  91  new  instruments  (violins, 
altos,  violoncellos).  He  follows  the 
Stradivari  and  Guarneri  patterns, 
using  rather  dark  red-brown  varnish. 
He  only  employs  one  workman.  Was 
awarded  a  silver  medal  at  the  Paris 
Exhibition,  1889.  Label:  "S  A. 
Deroux,  16,  rue  Geoffroy- Marie,  Paris, 
188—."  Above  the  date,  the  letters 
"A.  S.  D." 
Deschamps,  Claude.     A  maker  in  the 

rue  de  Seine,  Paris,  1783-85. 
Deshayes  -  Salomon,     Jean     Baptiste. 

See  '  Salomon." 
Desjardins.     A  maker  in  Caen  in  1763, 
according  to  the  label  found  in  one  of 
his  instruments :  "Fait  par  Desjardins, 
marchand  luthier,  grande  rue  St. -Jean 
a  Caen,  1763." 
Despons,  Antoine.     A  maker  in  Paris 
about  1610.     He  followed  the  Italian 
patterns  closely,  but  failed  to  obtain 
a  good  tone.      His  instruments,  now 
very    rare,    are    much    sought    after, 
although  one  that  is  known  is  said  to 
be  badly  made  and  badly  varnished 
Desrousseau       A   maker  in   the    i8th 
century  at  Verdun,  at  the  sign  of  the 
"Luth"     S<?^  "  Nicolas." 
Devereux,     John.       He    worked    with 
B.  Simon  Fendt  in  London,  but  after- 
wards went  to  Melbourne. 
Dickenson(Dickinson), Ed  ward.  Worked 
at   the   "  Harp   and   Crown,"   in    the 



Strand,  London,  about  1750  90.  His 
instruments,  made  on  the  Stainer 
model,  are  very  inferior.  Labels 
known  are  dated  1750,  1754,  and  1790. 

Dickeson  (Dickson),  John.  Born  in 
Stirling,  but  worked  both  in  London 
and  Cambridge,  about  1750-1780. 
There  are  instruments  dating  from  both 
places  He  followed  the  Amati  pattern 
and  his  work  was  excellent. 

Didelin,  Joseph.  A  maker  in  Nancy 
about  1765-75,  at  the  sign  "  de  la 
Guitare  des  Dames  de  France."  The 
few  instruments  known  of  his  are 
inferior.     An  alto  is  dated  1775. 

Didier.     See  "  Nicolas." 

Didion,  Gabriel.  A  maker  at  Mire- 
court  ,  d.  1881. 

DiefTopruchar  (Tieffenbriicker),  Magno. 
Worked  in  Venice  about  1580-162 1. 
One  of  the  last  lute  makers  of  the 
great  family  of  which  Gaspard  Duiffo- 
prugcar  was  the  head.  Magno  was  of 
Bavarian  descent,  and  his  German 
name,  Tieffenbriicker,  became  italian- 
ised  into  Dieffopruchar  or  Dieffopruk- 
har.  His  lutes  were  always  much 
valued  ;  one  of  the  earliest,  made  about 
1580  in  Venice,  with  a  back  beautifully 
inlaid  with  ivory  and  various  woods, 
has  a  label,  much  defaced,  but  in- 
teresting as  still  bearing  his  German 
name,  "  Magnus  Tieflfenbruker."  A 
theorbo  was  labelled  :  "  Magno  Tieffo- 
pruchar  a  Venetia,  1610."  Anarch-lute 
has  the  label  "Magno  Tieffoprucar  a 
Venetia,  1607,"  and  was  found  in  Castle 
Eisenberg,  Bohemia,  in  the  collection 
of  Prince  Lobkowitz.  A  guitar  was 
labelled  : ' '  Magno  Dieffopruchar  Vene- 
tia, 1606"  A  beautiful  arch-lute  has  a 
large  label:  "Magno  Dieffopruchar  a 
Venetia,  1608."  The  same  date  is  in 
a  lute  in  the  Bologna  Collection.  A 
similar  label,  dated  1610,  with  the  label 
of  the  restorer,  Jacob  Rauch,  below, 
was  found  in  an  arch-lute.  A  similar 
label,  dated  1612,  is  in  a  lute  in  the 
Bologna  Collection,  and  one  dated 
1 620  in  a  lute  in  the  Berlin  '  *  Hochschule 
fiir  Musik"  Collection;  in  the  Berlin 
Collection  is  also  a  mandoline  signed 
"  Magnus  Dieffenbruger,  162 1."  A 
theorbo  in  the  Museum  Modena  in 
Vienna  has  the  undated  label :  "  Magno 
Dieffopruchar  a  Venetia." 

Diehl  (or  Diel  as  it  was  originally  spelt), 
Friedrich,  son  of  Nicolaus  Diehl ;  b. 
1814.  Worked  in  Darmstadt.  Was 
awarded  a  bronze  medal  at  the  Paris 
Exhibition,  1867.     Died  1888. 

Diehl  (Diel),  Heinricii,  a  son  of  Johann 
Diehl.     Was  also  a  maker. 

Diehl  (Diel),  Jacob,  s,on  of  Nicolaus 
Diehl  d.  1873.  Established  himself 
as  a  maker  in  Bremen  in  1834,  later 
moved  to  Hamburg. 

Diehl  (Diel),  Johann,  a  brother  of 
Nicolaus  Diehl.  Was  a  maker  in 

Diehl  (probably  always  spelt  Diel), 
Martin.  A  maker  in  Mayence  in  the 
i8th  century.  His  father-in-law, 
Nicolaus  Dopfer,  was  his  first  master ; 
later  he  worked  with  Carl  Helmer  of 
Prague.     His  work  was  not  good. 

Diehl  (Diel)  Nicolaus,  b.  1779  ;  d.  185 1. 
Son  of  Martin  Diehl,  to  whose  business 
he  succeeded.  First  worked  v/ith  his 
uncle,  Jacob  Steininger,  of  Frankfort. 

Diehl  (Diel),  Nicolaus  Louis,  d.  1876. 
Was  a  son  of  Jacob  Diehl,  and  worked 
in  Hamburg.  He  published  a  work  on 
Italian  violin  makers,  entitled:  "Die 
Geigenmacher  der  alten  italienischen 
Schule  "  (Hamburg,  1864). 

Dieulafait.  A  viol  maker,  working  in 
Paris  in  1720,  this  date,  with  his  name, 
being  in  a  17th  century  bass-viol  that 
he  had  restored.  It  is  now  in  the 
Paris  Conservatoire  Collection. 

Dini,  Giambattista.  A  maker  in  Lucig- 
nano  in  1707. 

Ditton.  Amaker  in  London  about  1700. 
In  Thomas  Britton's  Collection  was  a 
"  good  violin  by  Ditton." 

Dodd,  Edward,  b.  1705,  Sheffield ;  d. 
i8io,  London,  at  the  age  of  105.  He 
was  the  first  bow  maker  of  this  name 
and  did  a  great  deal  towards  improving 
the  English  bow.  He  lived  in  Salis- 
bury Court,  Fleet  Street,  where  he 
died,  and  was  buried  in  St.  Bride's 

Dodd,  James,  second  son  of  Edward. 
Also  made  bows. 

Dodd,  James,  son  of  James  Dodd,  sen. 
Was  a  good  bow  maker. 

Dodd,  John,  eldest  son  of  Edward  Dodd  ; 
b.  1752,  Stirling;  d.  Oct.  4,  1839,  in 
Richmond  Workhouse ;  was  buried 
at  Kew.  He  was  first  a  gun-lock 
fitter,  then  a  money-scale  maker,  and 
finally  found  his  true  vocation  in 
making  bows.  They  are  made  of 
magnificent  wood  and  the  work  is  so 
beautiful  that  he  is  known  as  '  The 
English  Tourte";  their  only  defect  is 
that  they  are  sometimes  too  short 
He  would  never  take  pupils,  preferrinof 
to  keep  secret  his  method  of  cutting 
the  wood,  and  refused  to  reveal  it  for 
a  bribe  of  ;£"  1,000,  although  he  was 
often  in  great  poverty. 

Dodd,  Thomas,  third  son  of  Edward 
Dodd.      Was  first  a  brewer,  then  a 



violin  bow  maker  in  the  Blue  Bell 
Alley,  Mint  Street,  Southwark  (1786- 
89) ;  and,  about  1798,  became  a  dealer 
in  and  maker  of  violins  in  New  Street, 
Covent  Garden,  moving  to  St.  Martin's 
Lane,  Charing  Cross  (1809) ;  and  finally 
became  a  harp  and  piano  maker  in 
Berners  Street  Very  good  violins 
were  made  in  his  workshop ;  but 
although  they  were  11  labelled 
"  T  Dodd,  violin,  violoncello,  and  bow 
maker.  New  Street,  Covent  Garden," 
they  were  almost  without  exception  the 
work  of  Bernhard  Fendt  and  John  Lott, 
two  extremely  clever  workmen,  who 
were  for  a  long  time  in  his  employ. 
Dodd  himself  had  a  thorough  know- 
ledge of  Italian  instruments,  and 
showed  great  skill  in  his  varnish,  the 
secret  of  which  he  always  kept,  for  he 
would  take  the  unvarnished  instru 
ments — "  in  the  white,  '  to  use  the 
technical  term  —  and  varnish  them 
himself  unaided.  His  label  especially 
alludes  to  this  varnish  :  "  Dodd, 
maker,  92,  St  Martin's  Lane.  Perfect 
copies  of  Stradiuarius,  Amati,  Stainer, 
&c.  Note. — The  only  possessor  of 
the  recipe  for  preparing  the  original 
Cremona  oil  varnish  Instruments 
improved  and  repaired.''  His  violon- 
cellos are  worth  ^40  to  ^50. 
Dodd,  Edward  and  Thomas,  sons  of 
Thomas  Dodd,  sen.  They  both  learnt 
their  trade  from  Bernhard  Fendt,  and 
carried  on  the  business  at  St.  Martin  s 
Lane.  Thomas  showed  ability,  but 
died  early  in  the  igth  century,  and 
Edward  devoted  himself  more  to 
making  harps  and  pianos ;  he  was 
drowned,  April  29,  1843. 
Dominicelli  (Domincelli)  A  maker  in 
Ferrara  about  1695-1715,  who  first 
studied  in  Brescia,  possibly  under  G. 
B  Rogeri  He  copied  the  Amati 
pattern  with  great  ability ,  using  \  arnish 
of  a  golden-yellow  colour,  which  was 
very  effective. 
Dominichino,   Giuseppe.      In   Verona, 

1700.     Followed  the  Amati  pattern 
Donate,  Serafino.     Working  in  Venice, 

Doni,  Rocco.  A  priest  in  Florence, 
1600-60,  who  made  lutes  and  violins. 
It  is  probable  that  he  greatly  assisted 
the  celebrated  G.  B.  Doni  (to  whom  he 
was  related)  in  working  out  his  idea  of 
the  "  Lira  Barberina,''  an  instrument 
copied  from  the  ancient  Greeks. 
Dopfer  (Dopfer),  Nicolaus.  A  maker 
in  Mayence  about  1750-68.  His  in- 
struments are  well  made,  slightly 
arched,    the    sound -holes    small    but 

well  cut,  the  varnisii  is  Drown.     A  few 
tenors  of  his  are  known. 

Dorant,  William.  Was  working  at  63, 
Winfield  Street,  Brick  Lane,  Spifal- 
fields,  in  1814. 

Dorffel  (Dorffel),  Johann  Andreas.  A 
violin  and  lute  maker  in  Klingenthal, 
Saxony,  in  174^.  In  a  viola  d'amore, 
with  twelve  strings,  yellow  varnish,  is 
the  label:  "Johann  Andreas  Dorffel, 
Violin  und  Lautenmacher,  in  Klingen- 
thal, 1743. ' 

Drinda,  Giacomo.  A  maker  in  Pianzo 
in  the  i8th  century. 

Drogmeyer,  Hermann  August.  A  maker 
in  Bremen.  He  published  a  book 
called  "  Die  Geige,  ein  Beitrag  zur 
Aufklarung,"  1891. 

Drouleau  or  Droulot.  A  maker  in 
Paris  at  35  rue  du  Temple,  about 
1 7 88- 1 800.  His  work  was  fair,  he 
used  brown  varnish. 

Drouyn,  Dimanche.  A  Parisian  maker. 
A  little  pocket  \iolin  is  known  of  h.s. 

Ducheron,  Mathunn.  Was  a  contem- 
porary of  Boquay  and  was  working  in 
Paris  in  17 14,  a>  cording  to  the  following 
label:  "  Mathurin  Ducheron,  a  Pans, 

Duiffoprugcar  (Duiffoproucart),  Gas- 
pard,  b.  about  15 14  in  Freising, 
Bavaria;  d.  about  1570,  Lyons.  Was 
the  principal  member  of  a  large  family 
of  Germans,  who  were  working  in 
North  Italy — Padua,  Venice — till  about 
the  middle  of  the  17th  century,  and 
still  later  in  South  Germany.  There 
is  much  variety  in  the  way  in  which 
the  farr^ily  name  is  spelt,  raui^ing 
from  the  German  form  "  Tieffen- 
briicker," to"  Dieffenbruger,  "  *'  Duiffo- 
brocard,"  "  Duiffoprougar,"  "  Duiffo- 
pruggar,"  "  Dubrocard,"  "  Dufour- 
bourcar  "  "  Duyfautbrocard,"  and 
"  Diffobricard."  The  tradition  that 
Gaspard  was  a  viol  maker  in  Bologna, 
and  that,  at  the  request  of  Fran9ois  I. 
of  France,  he  accompanied  him  to 
Paris,  seems  to  have  no  foundation. 
He  probably  learnt  his  trade  in  South 
Germany,  and  then  went  to  Lyons,  at 
that  time  celebrated,  owing  to  the 
large  fairs  held  there  three  times  a 
year.  The  first  definite  mention  of 
him  there  is  a  receipt  for  some  wine 
signed  by  "Gaspard  Duiffobrocard 
allemand,"  on  Nov.  23,  1553  ;  another 
receipt,  signed  "  Gaspard  Duiffoprou- 
gar''is  dated  Nov.  4,  1555.  "Lettresde 
naturalite  "  were  granted  to  Gaspard 
Dieffenbruger  by  Henri  II.,  from 
Paris,  in  Jan.,  1558  It  was  at  Lyons 
that  Pierre  Woeiriot  engraved,  in  1562, 



his  celebrated  portrait  of  him,  in  which 
he  is  represented  at  the  age  of  48  years. 
Gaspard's  instruments  are  rare,  and 
are  more  valued  for  their  inlaid  work 
and  ornamentation  than  for  the  quality 
of  their  tone.  Instruments  known  are  : 
the  famous  bass-viol  with  the  plan  of 
Paris  inlaid  in  different  coloured  woods 
on  the  back,  and  the  neck  ending  in  a 
horse's  head,  now  in  the  Brussels 
Conservatoire  Collection  ;  the  bass-viol 
with  its  back  inlaid  with  the  picture 
known  as  the  "  Vieillarddansla  chaise 
d'enfant,"  the  neck  also  ending  in  a 
horse's  head  ;  the  small  bass-viol 
with  the  neck  finished  in  exactly 
the  same  way,  and  the  back  beautifully 
ornamented;  and  inscribed  with  the 
Latin  legend,  "  Viva  fui  in  sylvis,  sum 
dura  occisa  securi ;  dum  vixi  tacui, 
mortua  dulce  cano  "  (It  is  supposed  to 
be  the  viol  that  speaks,  "  I  was  living 
in  the  forest,  the  cruel  axe  killed  me. 
Living,  I  was  mute ;  dead,  I  sing 
sweetly.")  ;  and  the  bass-viol,  with 
Michel  Angelo's  "  Moses"  represented 
on  the  back.  J.  B.  Vuillaume,  of  Paris, 
caused  much  misapprehension  on  the 
subject  of  Gaspard's  instruments  by, 
in  1827,  producing  violins  beautifully 
inlaid  and  carved  in  his  style,  which 
were  so  successful  that  orders  for  similar 
instruments  were  at  once  received  ;  his 
example  was  soon  followed  in  Germany 
and  Mirecourt,  so  that  now  violins  and 
violoncellos  of  this  description  are 
numerous.  The  "  violins  "  known  are  : 
one  dated  1510,  said  to  have  been 
made  for  Fran9ois  I.  (he  only  ascended 
the  throne  in  1515) ;  one  dated  151 1, 
with  an  oil  painting  said  to  be  by 
Leonardo  da  Vinci;  one  dated  1515  ; 
another  dated  either  15 15  or  1539  ; 
one  dated  15 17,  with  a  portrait  of 
Gaspard  copied  from  the  1562 
engraving;  one  labelled  "Gaspard 
Duiffoprugcar  Bononiensis  a.  15 15," 
the  neck  ending  in  an  old  man's 
head  ;  one  dated  1521  ;  and  one 
with  the  label  :  "  Gaspard  Duiffo- 
prugcar a  la  coste  Saint-Sebastien  a 
Lyon."  A  "lyradabraccio,"  probably 
made  at  the  beginning  of  the  i6th 
century,  is  also  labelled  :  "  Gaspard 
Duiffopruggar  Bononiensis,anno  15 15." 
It  has  only  lately  been  known  that 
Gaspard  was  not  born  before  15 14. 
He  married  Barbe  Homeau  ;  he  was 
in  easy  circumstances,  but  unfor- 
tunately his  house  stood  on  some 
ground  required  for  the  enlargement 
of  a  fortress  (built  in  Lyons,  1564) ;  he 
was  turned  out  of  his  home  in  1566,  and 

it  was  pulled  down ;  he  could  not 
obtain  any  indemnity  and  died  shortly 
afterwards,  leaving  a  widow  and  four 
children  in  debt  and  in  great  misery. 
They  were  awarded  a  pension  by 
Charles  IX.  in  1571.  See  "  Tieffen- 

Duiffoprugcar  (Duiffoproucart),  Jehan, 
son  of  Gaspard  Duiffoprugcar.  Was 
a  maker  of  lutes  about  1570-90  in  Lyons. 

Duiffoprugcar,  Magno.  See  "  Dieffo- 

Duiffoprugcar,  Ulrich.  A  lute  is 
known  with  the  label  :  "  Uldrich 
Duiffoprugar  Lutario      A.  1521." 

Duke,  Richard.  A  maker  in  London 
about  1750-80.  He  made  excellent 
copies  of  Stradivari  and  Amati  instru- 
ments, and  not  quite  such  good  ones 
of  Stainer.  Genuine  instruments  of 
his  are  very  fine,  but  unfortunately 
his  name  was  often  made_  use  of  in 
extremely  poor  specimens.  His  violins 
and  violoncellos  were  of  rather  a  long 
pattern,  very  arched,  with  yellow 
varnish,  their  tone  was  very  good ; 
some  of  his  tenors  are  a  little  short  in 
length  but  very  broad,  so  as  to  obtain 
a  large  deep  tone ;  the  result  is  good, 
although  the  two  lower  strings  might 
be  more  powerful.  Labels :  "  Richard 
Duke,  Londini,  fecit  1760";  similar 
ones  dated  1767  and  1769  ;  "  Richard 
Duke,  maker,  Holborn,  London,  anno 
1768  "  ;  another  dated  1777.  These  two 
labels  were  generally  written  in  ink. 
He  also  used  a  printed  label :  "  Richard 
Duke,  maker,  near  opposite  Great 
Turn-Stile,  Holbourn,  London." 

Duke,  Richard,  son  of  Richard  Duke, 
sen.,  with  whom  he  apparently  learnt 
his  trade.  He  was  not  so  successful, 
however.  Both  father  and  son  gene- 
rally branded  their  instruments  on  the 
back,  near  the  button,  with  their 
surname,  sometimes  adding  ' '  London ' ' 

Dulfenn,  Alexander.  Was  working  in 
Leghorn  in  1699.  Label:  "Alexander 
Dulfenn,  fecit  Livorno,  1699." 

Dumenil,  N.  A  maker  in  Paris.  A 
violin  of  his,  dated  1786,  is  known. 

Dumesnil,  Jacques.  A  maker  in  Paris 
about  1655-C0.  A  curious  little  violin 
is  in  the  Paris  Conservatoire  Collection, 
with  a  MS.  label  dated  1655.  The 
back  and  sides  are  of  maple  wood,  the 
front  of  cedar,  the  purfling  inlaid  with 
silver  and  whalebone,  and  the  head  is 
carved  into  a  woman's  face.  The 
varnish,  a  red-brown  colour,  is  ex- 
cellent, and  all  the  details  show  a 
clever  maker. 



Duncan.    Working  in  Aberdeen  in  1762. 

Duncan,  George.  A  maker  in  Glasgow 
about  1875-87. 

Durfel  (Diirfell).  J.  G.  A  maker  in 
Altenburg,  1778.  His  double-basses 
are  especially  valued,  and  are  con- 
sidered to  be  some  of  the  best  ever 

made  in  Germany  ;  his  violins,  very 
arched,  with  brown — almost  black — 
varnish,  of  bad  quality,  are  said  to 
have  an  excellent  tone. 
Du  Riez,  Nicolas.  A  French  maker. 
In  a  bass-viol  was  the  label :  "  Nicolas 
Du  Riez  a  Abbeville,  1663." 


Eberle,  Johann  Ulrich  A  maker  in 
Prague  about  1730-60.  He  was  a  very 
clever  imitator  of  Cremona  violins,  but 
his  instruments  lacked  the  full  round 
tone  of  the  Italian  instruments  ;  they 
were  of  excellent  workmanship,  with 
amber  or  sometimes  brown  varnish 
Label:  "Joannes  Ulricus  Eberle,  fecit 
Prague,  1759."  In  a  viola  d'amore  that 
hehadrestored  was  thelal^el :  "Joannes 
Ulricus  Eberle,  me  repara\it  Praga-, 
anno  1749  "  ;  another  viola  d'amore  was 
dated  1730. 

Eberti,  Tommaso.  An  Italian  maker 
about  1730-50. 

Edlinger,  Joseph  Joachim,  sonof  Thomas 
Edlinger,  d.  May  30,  1748,  at  Prague. 
He  made  excellent  lutes,  and  was  a  go(^d 
workman  ;  for  having  first  learnt  his 
trade  from  his  father,  he  lived  for  manv 
years  in  Italy  in  order  to  perfect  his 
art,  and  visited  Cremona,  Rome, 
Naples.  Boloqna,  Ferrara.  and  Venice. 
Hi:;  instruments  are  much  \alued. 

Edlinger,  Thomas,  b.  1662,  Augsburcr, 
was  living  in  Prague,  1712-29.  Said 
to  be  a  pupil  of  Siainer,  made  very 
good  instruments,  using  varnish  resem- 
bling slightly  that  of  the  Bergonzis. 
His  lutes  are  finely  made. 

Eesbroeck,  Jan  van.  A  lute  maker  in 
Antwerp,  1583-85,  son  of  Josse  van 
Eesbroeck.     He  also  made  clavecins. 

Eglington.  A  maker  in  London  in  1802, 
according  to  a  label  "  Eglint^ton  fecit, 
Drury  Lane,  London,  1802,"  which  was 
in  a  violin  of  very  good  tone,  but  poor 

Element,  Jean  Laurent.  Working  in 
Paris  in  1783.      See  "  Clement." 

Elsier  (Esler),  Johann  Joseph.  A  maker 
in  Mayence  about  1715-30.  One  bass- 
viol  with  seven  strings,  the  head  of  a 
woman  instead  of  scroll,  and  with 
varnish  of  a  yeil(jw-brown  colour,  was 
dated  1728.  Label;  "Joann  Joseph 
Esler,  Lauten  und  Geigenmacher, 
Meyntz,  1717  '" 

Emiliani,  Francesco  de.  A  maker  in 
Rome  about  1715-29.     He  made  some 

beautiful  instruments,  rather  arched, 
the  wood  of  excellent  quality,  the 
varnish  a  golden-yellow  colour. 
Label  :  "  Franciscus  de  Emilianis, 
fecit  Roma,  anno  Dni,  1729." 

Engleder,  Andreas.  Was  maker  to  the 
Court  at  Munich.  In  1854  he  ex- 
hibited there  a  quintet  of  instruments 
made  on  a  new  pattern  of  his  own  ; 
they  were  of  beautiful  workmanship, 
and  of  full  excellent  tone  ;  he  was 
awarded  medals.  He  was  well  known 
for  his  great  experience  and  good 

Engleder,  Ludwig.  A  maker  in  Bam- 
berg. Exhibited  at  Munich,  1854,  a 
violoncello  with  bow,  and  two  violins, 
well  made,  on  the  German  pattern, 
of  excellent  tone.     He  died  1873. 

Erikson,  Knudt.  .-\  maker  in  Norway. 
Inside  a  sort  of  viola  d'amore  of  the 
Hardanger  peasants  in  Norway  was 
the  label  :  "  Fabrokert  of  Knudt 
Erikson,  Helland,  1872." 

Ernst,  Franz  .\nt'»n ;  b.  Dec.  3,  17  f5,  at 
Georgenthal,  in  Bohemia  ,  d.  Jan  lO. 
1805,  (iotha.  Was  a  celebrated 
violinist,  but  also  the  maker  of  some 
very  excellent  instruments.  His  First 
work  was  done  in  Prague,  where  he 
went  for  purposes  of  study  about  1763  ; 
but  in  1778,  being  appointed  sold 
violinist  to  the  Court  of  Gotha,  he 
there  found  leisure  to  devote  himself 
to  the  making  of  violins.  He  had  at 
first  working  with  him  J  A.  Otto,  who 
later  became  one  of  the  best  German 
makers.  When  (3tto  started  his  own 
business  at  Weimar,  .\rtmann  and 
Bindernagel,  both  carpenters,  left 
Weimar  and  V>ecame  apprenticed  to 
Ernst.  He  followed  the  Stradivari 
model,  and  the  tone  of  his  instruments 
is  •:>aid  almost  to  have  ecjualled  that  of 
the  Cremona  instruments.  In  1S04 
he  published  in  the  All<remeine  Musik- 
alische  Zeituiif^  (Leipzig)  a  very 
interesting  article  on  the  construction 
of  violins. 

Esler.     See  "  Elsier." 



Eulry- Clement.  A  maker  in  Mire- 
court  at  the  beginning  of  the  19th 
century.  A  mandoHne  of  his  is  known, 
with  eight  strings  arranged  in  four 
pairs ;  it  has  the  back  inlaid  with 
different  woods. 

Eury.  A  violin  bow  maker  in  Paris 
about  1810-30.  He  was  working  at 
20,  rue  des  Lyonnais-Saint-Jacques  in 
1820.  His  bows  are  justly  celebrated, 
and  are  thought  to  rival  even  those  of 
Francois  Tourte.  He  generally  marked 
them  with  his  name. 

Evangelisti.  A  maker  in  Florence  in 
the  iSth  century.  Violins  of  his  are 

Evans,  Richard.  A  maker  in  London 
about  1742-50.     Was  rather  illiterate. 

judging  by  a  label  in  an  instrument 
reconstructed  by  him:  "Maid  in  the 
Paris  of  Anirhengel  by  Richard  Evans, 
instrument  maker,  in  the  year  1742." 
Eve,  Jacques  Charles.  A  maker  in 
Paris  about  1770-90.  His  violins  look 
as  if  they  were  made  on  a  German 
model,  very  arched,  with  small  sound, 
holes,  and  red-brown  varnish ;  rather 
heavy  effect  altogether,  but  the  work 
is  carefully  done.  In  a  violin  with 
spirit  varnish,  rather  transparent,  was 
the  label:  "Eve,  Me  Luthier,  rue 
Neuve-Ste-Catherine,  au  coin  de  celle 
de  St-Louis  proche  la  Place  Rovale 
'a  la  Fortune."'  Another  violin  is 
dated  1770.  In  1788  he  was  living  in 
the  rue  Vieille-du-Temple. 


Fabris,  Luigi.  A  maker  in  Venice  in 
the  19th  century. 

Pacini,  Agostino.  Was  a  monk  of  the 
order  of  Saint  Jean  de  I.)ieu,  at  Bo- 
logna, 1732-42.  Several  violins  of  his 
are  known,  well  made,  on  a  graceful 
pattern,  with  remarkable  yellow 

Falaise.  .-V  French  maker,  whose  work 
was  similar  to  that  of  Pique.  He 
followed  the  .\mati  and  Stradivari 
patterns,  u.sin;.;  thin  yell(j\v  \  arnish. 

Falco.  P.  Worked  in  Cremona  about 

Farinato,  Paolo.  Worked  in  Venice 
about  1700-30.  His  instruments  are 
not  without  merit,  tlie  pattern  is 
elegant,  of  the  school  of  Santo  Sera- 
fino,  and  the  varnish  a  yellow-red 

Faron,  Achille.  Only  known  by  a  MS 
label,  stating  that  he  was  wnrking  in 
Ratisbon  in  1701. 

Feldlen,  Magnus.  Working  in  Vienna 
in  1556.  In  a  viola  di  bordone  in 
the  Colhiction  of  the  Gesellschaft  der 
Musikfreunde,  Vienna,  is  the  label  : 
'*  Magnus  Feldlen,  Wien,  155').'' 

Fendt,  Hernhanl.  a  nephew  ot  Franc^ois 
Fent,  of  Paris:  b.  1735-6,  at  Innsbruck, 
in  thii  Tyrol  .  d.  1S32-3,  in  Ayltsbury 
Street,  Clcrkunwell.  a<4fd  57,  and  was 
buried  in  Cltn-kiMuvtll  Churchyard. 
Whtn  sfven  years  old  he  left  Inns- 
bruck for  P.iris.  10  live  with  hi,^  uncle 
there  ;  later  he  winit  to  lui^land,  and 
entered  the  employ  ol  Tlu)nias  Dodd 
in  Jan.,  1798,  remaining  with  him  for 
eleven  years.  He  persuaded  J.  F.  Lott 
(also  a  German)  to  leave  his  trade  of 

cabinet-making  in  order  to  make  violins 
with  him  under  Dodd;  their  instru- 
ments always  have  Dodd's  label  in 
them,  the  latter  invariably  doing  the 
varnishing  himself.  Fendt.  on  leaving 
Dodd,  worked  for  John  Betts,  making 
those  e.xcellent  copies  of  Amati  which 
are  so  highly  valued  ;  they  all  bear  the 
name  of  Betts.  Betts  died  in  1823,  but 
lendt  continued  t(;  work  for  the  same 
firm.  He  had  four  sons,  also  violin 
Fendt,  Bernhard  Simon,  or  Simmon  ; 
eldest  son  of  Bernhard.  b,  iSoo  in 
London  ;  d.  .March  6,  1S52,  at  7,  Smith 
Street,  Brompton.  He  learnt  his  trade 
from  his  father  in  the  workshop  of 
John  Betts,  where  he  remained  till 
Betts'  death  {1S23)  :  then  he  became 
either  a  workman  for  or  a  partner 
with  Farn,  a  dealer  in  violins  in 
Lombard  Street.  Farn  dying,  he 
joined  George  Purdy,  "  Purdy  and 
Fendt  "  commencing  business  in  Finch 
Lane  in  September.  1S32  ;  in  June, 
1843.  they  opened  a  shop  in 
Oxenden  Street,  liaymarket  ;  ab>.»ut 
1850  these  two  simps  were  closed  and 
they  movetl  to  -4,  1  )ean  Street,  Soho. 
He  made  many  very  good  double- 
basses  on  the  model  of  (iasparo  da 
Salo,  using  varnish  much  superior  to 
th.U  on  his  violins ;  he  made  an 
extraordinary  number  of  violins,  those 
on  the  model  of  (.iu.irneri  alone  num- 
bering sf>me  hundreds  ;  but  the  work 
is  not  very  c.irefully  finished,  the 
varnish  is  bright  red  colour.  He  made 
an  excellent  quartet  of  instruments 
for  the  London  Exhibition  in  1851. 



Fendt,  Francis,  fourth  son  of  Bernhard 
Fendt.  Pupil  of  his  eldest  brother, 
Bernhard  Simon.  Worked  for  some 
time  for  the  firm  of  Purdy  and  Fendt. 
In  1856  he  was  residing  in  Liverpool, 
gaining  a  very  precarious  living. 

Fendt,  Fran9ois,  best  known  in  France 
as  Fent.  A  German  maker  who  settled 
in  Paris  and  was  living  there  "  cul-de- 
sac  St.-Pierre,  rue  Montmartre," 
about  1763-91.  In  bis  time  he  had 
the  reputation  of  being  one  of  the 
cleverest  makers  in  Paris  ;  he  carefully 
studied  Italian  instruments, particularly 
those  of  Ant.  Stradivari ;  he  used  a 
beautiful  red-brown  oil  varnish  which, 
with  the  progress  of  time,  has  become 
almost  black  ;  his  instruments  are  also 
much  worm-eaten,  but  have  a  rich 
tone.  His  label, ' '  Fait  par  Fent,  maitre 
luthier,  rue  Montmartre,  cul-de-sac 
Saint-Pierre,  a  Paris,"  was  found  in  a 
violin  which  might  be  mistaken  for  a 
most  beautiful  Italian  instrument ;  the 
dimensions  are  exactly  the  same  as 
those  of  a  violin  of  Ant.  Stradivari  ;  I 
the  work  is  carefully  finished,  the  wood  | 
excellent,  and  the  tone  very  good,  the 
original  neck  and  scroll  are  still  in 
place.  An  alto  has  also  been  seen  and 
a  violin,  dated  1774,  repaired  by  De- 
lannoy,  of  Lille,  in  1828. 

Fendt,  Jacob,  third  son  of  Bernhard 
Fendt;  b.  about  1815,  in  London;  d. 
about  Oct.,  1849,  in  Blue  Anchor 
Court,  Whitecross  Street,  Finsbury. 
Pupil  of  his  eldest  brother,  Bernhard 
Simon.  Was  employed  occasionally  by 
W.  Davis,  of  Coventry  Street,  and  also 
by  Turner,  a  dealer  in  violins.  He  was 
almost  the  best  maker  among  the  sons 
of  Bernhard,  his  copies  of  Italian, 
especially  of  Stradivari  instruments, 
are  very  fine,  the  work  being  beautifully 
finished ;  unluckily  he  considered  it 
necessary  to  give  them  the  appearance 
of  age  and  usage. 

Fendt,  Martin,  second  son  of  Bernhard 
Ffendt ;  b.  July,  1812,  in  London;  d. 
July,  1845,  in  Bell  Alley,  Coleman 
Street.  Pupil  of  his  father  ;  he  had 
talent,  and  was  one  of  the  good  work- 
men employed  by  Arthur  Betts,  brother 
of  John  Betts. 

Fendt,  William,  second  son  of  Bernhard 
Simon;  b.  1833,  in  Finch  Lane,  Lon- 
don; d.  1852,  at  7,  Smith  Street, 
Brompton,  and  was  buried  in  Brompton 
Cemetery.  Pupil  of  his  father ;  he 
became  a  very  clever  workman,  making 
excellent  violas  and  double-basses. 

Ferati,  I'ietro.  Was  working  in  Sienna 
about   1754-64.      His  instruments  are 

inferior,  and  he  used  brown  varnish  of 
bad  quality.  In  a  violin  of  very 
ordinary  make,  with  broad  purfling  and 
thick  brown  varnish,  was  the  label : 
"  Pietro  Ferati.  fecit  Siena,  1764." 
Feret.  A  pupil  of  Medard,  who  was 
working  in  Paris  in  1708,  according  to 
the  following  label  found  in  a  violin 
with  brown  varnish  :  "  Fait  par  Feret, 
eleve  de  Medard,  1708."  His  instru- 
ments, following  the  Medard  pattern 
generally,  show  good  work,  and  the 
brown  varnish  is  fairly  brilliant. 
Ferguson,  Donald.  A  maker  in  Huntley, 

Ferguson  and  Son.     Makers  in  Edin- 
burgh at   the   beginning  of  the  19th 
Ferrari,  Agostino.     A  maker  in  Budrio 

(Italy)  in  the  i8th  century. 
Ferrari,  Alfonso.      Working    in    Carpi 

(Modena)  in  1738. 
Ferrari,  Carlo.     Was  working  in  Siena 

in  1740. 
Ferrari,  Gasparo.     A  maker  in  Rome  in 
173 1  5 1 .    In  a  mandoline  was  the  label : 
"  Gasparus    Ferrari,    Romanus,    fecit 
anno  173 1." 
Fcury  (or  Ferry),  Francois,  son-in-law  of 
Leclerc  the  violin  maker.    Was  working 
at     rue    de   I'Arbre  sec,   Paris,   about 
1750-60.     His  violins  are  on  a  small 
pattern,  the  sound-holes  are  small  and 
well-cut,  the  varnish  is  a  thick  red,  the 
work  is  good  for  the  period.     A  guitar 
and  a  double-bass  of  his  have  been 
seen,  but  he  devoted  most  of  his  time 
to  making  wind  instruments.     Labels  : 
"  F.  Feury,  rue  de  I'Arbre-sec,  vis-a- 
vis  Saint-Germain-l'Auxerrois,    Paris, 
1755  "  '»  2md  "  F.  Feury,  rue  de  Fosses, 
St-Germain-l'Auxerrois  proche  la  rue 
de  I'Arbre-sec  a  Paris,  17 — ." 
Fevrot.     Worked  in   Lyons  from   1780 
to  181 3.     His  work  was  poor.     In  an 
old     Italian    guitar    was    the    label : 
"  Racomode  par  Fevrot,  a  Lyon,  1788." 
Feyzeau.      A    maker    in    Bordeaux    in 
1760.     A  lyre  of  his  is  well  made,  with 
varnish  of  a  pale  yellow  colour.     In  a 
quinton,    or     five-stringed    viol,    also 
well  made,  with  a  pale  brown  varnish, 
was  the  label :  "  Feyzeau  a  Bordeaux, 
Fichthold  (Fichtold),  Hans.     A  German 
maker  of  fine  lutes,  who  lived  about 
Fichtl,    Martin.      A    maker   at    Vienna 
about  1706-68.    His  instruments  are  of 
large  pattern,  he  used  wood  of  good 
quality,  and  excellent  varnish. 
Ficker,  Johann  Christian.     Was  one  of 
a  family  of  makers  in  Markneukirchen. 



Lived  1735-80.  Work  fairly  good  ;  he 
used  brown  varnish.  For  trade  pur- 
poses, sometimes  dated  his  labels 
from  Cremona. 

Ficker,  Johann  Gottlob,  of  Markneu- 
kirchen,  b.  1744  ;  d.  1832.  His  violins 
were  excellent,  but  he  also  thought  it 
necessary  to  use  "  Cremona  "  labels. 

Fiker  (Ficker),  Johann  Christian.  Was 
working  in 'Neukirchen  (Saxony)  1700- 
22.  Label :  "  Johann  Christian  Fiker, 
Lauten-  und  Geigenmacher  in  Neu- 
kirchen, bey  Adorf." 

Filano,  Donate.  A  maker  of  mandolines 
in  Naples,  in  the  rua  di  S.  Chiara, 
about  1782.  In  a  mandoline  of  very 
pretty  workmanship,  inlaid  with 
mother-of-pearl  on  tortoiseshell,  with 
purfling  of  ivory,  was  the  MS.  label  : 
Donato  Filano,  fecit  alia  rua  di  S. 
Chiara,  a.d.  1782,  Napoli." 

Findlay,  J.  A  maker  in  Padanaram, 
Forfarshire.     He  died  1896. 

Fiorillo,  Giovanni.  Working  in  Ferrara 
in  1780.  His  instruments  are  made 
both  on  German  and  Italian  patterns, 
the  sound-holes  are  like  those  of  Stainer . 
His  violoncellos  are  among  his  best 

Fiorini,  Giuseppe,  son  of  Raffaele 
Fiorini,  b.  1867.  He  early  showed 
signs  of  having  inherited  his  father's 
tastes,  and  when  sixteen  (after  having 
received  a  good  education)  commenced 
making  violins.  He  made  rapid  pro- 
gress, and  the  instruments  which  he 
exhibited  at  Milan  and  Turin  show 
that  he  is  one  of  the  best  Italian  makers 
of  the  present  time. 

Fiorini,  Raffaele,  b.  1828  at  Pianoro  ; 
d.  1898.  When  still  a  child,  his  parents 
moved  to  Bazzano,  where  a  certain 
Tadolini,  of  Modena,  brother  of  the 
violin  maker,  remembering  what  he 
could  of  his  brother's  methods,  used 
to  make  small  violins  to  amuse  young 
Raffaele ;  the  latter  soon  became 
interested  and  endeavoured  to  assist. 
Raffaele  gradually  gained  knowledge 
and  experience,  and  in  1867  went  to 
Bologna  to  work  seriously  for  several 
years,  finally  opening  his  own  workshop 
in  the  Palazzo  Pepoli  there. 

Firth,  G.  Was  working  in  Leeds  in 
1836  according  to  the  following  label : 
'*  G.  Firth,  No.  no,  Briggate,  Leeds, 
1836."  He  was  a  pupil  of  William 
Booth,  sen. 

Fiscer,  Carlo  and  Giuseppe ;  two  brothers 
working  in  Milan  together  about  1760- 
64.  Their  work  resembles  more  that 
of  German  than  Italian  makers,  but 
their  varnish  is  better  ;  it  is  a  yellow- 

red  colour  and,  for  that  date,  very 
satisfactory.  In  a  well-made  violin  is 
the  label:  "Giuseppe  Carlo  fratelli 
Fiscer,  fabbricatori  d'instrumenti  in 
Milano,  vicino  alia  balla,  1764." 

Fischer,  Anton,  b.  1794;  d.  1879.  A 
maker  in  Vienna. 

Fischer,  Johann  Ulrich.  The  label,  "J. 
Fischer,  Landshut,  1722,"  was  in  a 
tromba-marina  in  the  Collection  of  the 
Gesellschaft  der  Musikfreunde,  Vienna. 
A  viola  da  gamba  was  dated  1720. 

Fischer,  Zacharie,  b.  Nov.  5,  1730, 
Wiirzburg;  d.  there  Nov.  27,  1812.  He 
announced,  in  1786,  that  in  making  his 
instruments  he  employed  a  new  method 
by  means  of  which  they  equalled  those 
of  Stradivari  and  of  Stainer.  This 
was  the  method  of  drying  the  wood  in 
an  oven,  which  has  since  often  been 
tried  but  never  found  to  answer,  as  it 
is  impossible  to  make  the  process 
gradual  enough,  the  result  being  that 
the  tone  loses  all  brilliancy.  His 
instruments  are  liked. 

Flac,  Philippe,  b.  about  1532.  A  maker 
of  lutes  and  guitars  in  Lyons  about 

Flctte  (or  Hette),  Benoist.  Worked  in 
Paris  about  1756-63.  Few  of  his 
instruments  are  known. 

Fleuri  (Fleury),  Jean  Francois.  Was 
working  in  Paris,  1783-5. 

Fleury,  Benoist.  A  maker  in  Paris  in 
the  rue  des  Boucheries  about  1 751 -91. 
He  made  fairly  good  violins.  An  alto 
dated  1751  is  known  and  a  guitar.  In 
the  Paris  Conservatoire  Collection  is 
a  bass-viol,  well  made,  dated  1755.  In 
1791  he  was  still  working,  repairing 
violins,  double-basses,  and  altos. 
Label  :  "  Benoist  Fleury,  rue  des 
Boucheries,  Faubourg  Saint-Germain, 
Paris,  1774" 

Florenus  (Florinus),  Guidantus  or 
Florentus.  A  maker  in  Bologna 
about  1700-60.  His  instruments  show 
a  distinct  decadence ;  the  workman- 
ship is  heavy,  the  varnish  alone  is 
satisfactory  ;  he  followed  the  model  of 
Nicola  Amati.  Label:  "Guidantus 
Florenus.  Bononiae,  170 — ";  a  similar 
one  dated  175 — .     St^e  "  Guidantus." 

Fonclause.  Joseph  (called  "Le  Mayeux"), 
b.   1800,  a  la  Conte ;    d.   1865,   Paris 
First  worked  with  Pageot  at  Mirecourt 
then,  about   1825,  went  to   Paris  and 
entered  the  employ  of  J.  B.  Vuillaume 
He   became   a  very  clever   maker  of 
violin  bows,  and  later,  when  he  started 
his  own  business,  first  in  rue  Pagevin, 
then  in  the   rue  Montmartre,  always 
marked  his  bows  with  his  name. 



Fontanelli,  Giovanni  Giuseppe.  A 
celebrated  maker  of  mandolines  and 
lutes  in  Bologna  about  1733-72.  In  a 
magnificent  lute,  purfled  in  ivory,  the 
neck  inlaid  in  tortoiseshell,  mother-of- 
pearl,  and  ivory,  in  every  way  a 
superbly  made  instrument,  was  the 
label:  "Giov.  Giuseppe  Fontanelli, 
fece  in  Bologna,  I'anno  1733-3  Xbre." 
Two  mandolines,  dated  1771  and  1772, 
are  in  the  Paris  Conservatoire  Collec- 
tion. Another  label  is:  "Giovanni 
Giuseppe  Fontanelli,  Bolognese,  f.  an. 
17— " 

Forcheville,  J.  Baptiste.  Was  working 
at  St.  Omer  (France)  in  1673,  according 
to  the  following  label  found  in  a 
pochette  or  little  violin,  made  with  a 
pentagonal  back:  "Fait  a  St.  Omer, 
par  J.  Bte.  Forcheville,  1673." 

Forster  (Foster  or  Forrester),  John,  b. 
about  1688,  at  Kirkandrews,  on  the 
Ksk ;  d.  Oct.,  1781,  Brampton,  Cum- 
berland. He  was  the  first  member  of 
the  celebrated  family  of  Forsters  to 
make  violins.  He  early  settled  in 
Brampton,  and  was  a  maker  of 
spinning-wheels,  also  a  gunmaker ; 
"a  very  ingenious  man,  and  occa- 
sionally made  fiddles."  A  violin,  said 
to  be  his,  is  made  on  a  very  high 
model,  resembling  that  of  Stainer, 
although  the  outline  was  some- 
what similar  to  the  pattern  of  an 
Amati,  but  the  work  was  rude  and 

Forster,  Simon  Andrew,  son  of  WilHam 
Forster  (1764-1824),  b.  May  13,  1801, 
London;  d.  Feb.  2,  1870.  He  carried 
on  the  business  first  at  Frith  Street, 
then  at  Macclesfield  Street,  Soho.  He 
learnt  his  trade  under  his  father, 
Samuel  Gilkes  (a  workman  in  his 
father's  employ),  and  his  brother 
William.  1828-40,  he  made  several 
instruments,  very  much  arched,  of  no 
great  merit,  using  the  label:  "  S.  A. 
Foster,    violin,  tenor,  and  violoncello 

maker.  No.  ,  London."     He  used 

spirit  varnish  for  his  second-class 
instruments,  and  only  inscribed  them 

"Foster,    No.   ,"   at    the    tailpin. 

His  name  is  well  known  as  joint-author, 
with  William  Sandys,  of  "The  History 
of  the  Violin,"  published  in  London, 

Forster,  William,  son  of  John  Forster, 
b.  1713-14  ;  d.  March  4,  1801.  He  was  a 
maker  of  spinning-wheels  in  Brampton, 
Cumberland,  merely  occupying  his 
spare  time  in  making  and  repairing 
in.struments ;  but  his  work  shows  a 
considerable  improvement  on  that  of 

his  father.  He  used  spirit  varnish, 
and  did  not  purfle  his  instruments  ; 
the  work  altogether  is  not  highly 
finished,  but  the  tone  is  fairly  good. 

Forster,  William  ("old  Forster"),  son  of 
William  Forster  (1713-1801),  b.  May, 
1739.  at  Brampton,  Cumberland  ;  d. 
Dec,  14,  1808.  Having  worked  for 
some  time  under  his  father,  he  went  to 
London  about  1759.  Was  first  a  gun- 
stock  maker,  only  occasionally  making 
violins  and  selling  them  to  the  dealers 
About  1785  he  started  his  business  at 
348,  Strand.  In  1762  he  was  making 
on  the  Stainer  pattern,  using  brown 
varnish.  These  instruments  are  not 
equal  to  the  later  ones  made  on  the 
Amati  pattern.  This  he  followed  from 
1772  till  the  end  of  his  life,  copying 
sometimes  from  Ant.  and  Gir.  Amati, 
sometimes  from  Nicola  Amati.  His 
violins  and  altos,  though  of  fair  work- 
manship, have  not  such  a  fine  tone  as 
his  violoncellos.  The  latter  were 
much  liked  in  England,  especially  the 
"  amber-coloured  "  ones  (the  dark  red- 
coloured  ones  were  really  equally  good) . 
For  a  time  they  were  neglected  owing 
to  the  large  number  of  Italian  violon- 
cellos sent  to  England,  but  they  still 
sell  at  high  prices.  He  only  made 
four  double-basses,  three  of  which 
were  for  the  private  band  of  George 
III.  Labels:  "  William  Forster,  violin 
maker  in  St.  Martin's  Lane,  London, 
1762  "  ;  another,  "  William  Forster, 
violin,  violoncello,  tenor,  and  bow 
maker.  N.B.  The  above  instruments 
are  made  in  the  best  manner  and 
finished  with  the  original  varnish  ;  and 
a  copy  of  every  Capital  instrument  in 
England  may  be  had." 

Forster,  William  ("young  Forster"), 
son  of  William  Forster  (1739-1808), 
b.  Jan.  7,  1764,  London  ;  d.  July  24, 
1824.  His  instruments  are  good  but 
not  equal  to  those  of  his  father  ;  the 
varnish  is  of  good  quality ;  some 
instruments  have  a  fine  tone ;  the 
work  is  well  and  neatly  finished.  A 
few  double-basses,  made  chiefly  for 
letting  out  on  hire,  were  the  same 
shape  as  a  violoncello,  and  of  inferior 
workmanship.  Labels:  "William 
Forster,  jun  ,  violin,  violoncello,  tenor, 
and  bow-maker,  1810 ;  also  Music 
Seller  to  their  Royal  Highnesses  the 
Prince  of  Wales  and  the  Duke  of 
Cumberland,  '  No.  43  '  "  ;  and  "William 
Forster,  violin,  violoncello,  tenor,  and 
bow-maker  to  their  Royal  Highnesses 
the  Prince  of  Wales  and  Duke  of 
Cumberland.  London."     To  this  latter 



label  were  added  in  manuscript  the 
number  of  the  instrument,  the  date, 
and  the  'jun.'  He  married,  1786,  and 
had  two  sons,  both  violin  makers. 

Forster,  William,  eldest  son  of  William 
Forster  (1764-1824),  b.  Dec.  14,  17S8, 
London;  d.  Oct.  8,  1824,  Cheltenham. 
Pupil  of  both  his  father  and  grand- 
father ;  he  also  worked  with  Thomas 
Kennedy.  Probably  only  made  twelve 
or  fifteen  instruments:  two  or  three 
violins  and  one  violoncello  were  well 
made,  the  work  being  beautifully 
finished  ;  the  others,  made  to  supply 
wholesale  orders,  are  inferior. 

Fouquet.     See  "  Lecomte." 

Fraiser,  Giorgio.  Was  working  in 
Cremona,  1666,  in  the  workshop  of 
Nicola  Amati. 

Franck.  Working  in  Ghent,  1800-30. 
Was  a  sculptor  before  he  became  a 
maker ;  he  was  extremely  clever  at 
repairing  instruments,  but  made  few 
new  ones. 

Frankland.  Was  working  in  London  in 
1785,  in  Robin  Hood  Court.  Shoe  Lane, 
and  was  occasionally  employed  by  the 
William  Forsters. 

Frebrunet,  Jean.  A  maker  in  Paris 
about  1750-60.  His  violins  show  care- 
fully finished  work,  with  a  yellow- 
brown  oil  varnish  of  good  eftect.  In  a 
violin  was  the  label:  "Joannes 
Frebrunet,  17C0." 

Freeman.     See  "  Hare." 

Frey,  Hans,  b.  about  1440.  at  Nuremberg ; 
d.  there  1523.  A  maker  of  lutes  and 
viols,  also  a  clever  performer  on  them. 
The  lutes  of  the  old  German  makers 
were  very  celebrated  and  fetched  high 

Fritsche  (Fritzche),  Samuel.     A  maker 

in  Leipzig  about  1787.  Was  a  pupil 
of  C.  H  Hunger  He  made  good 
instruments,  following  the  Cremona 
models,  and  using  amber-coloured 
varnish,  he  was  also  very  clever  at 
repairing  instruments. 

Fryer,  Charles.  Worked  in  London  and 
then  in  Leeds,  becoming  a  partner 
with  ^1  W.  Dearlove  there  He  died 

Furber,  David.  Was  the  first  member 
of  this  family  to  make  violins.  Learnt 
his  trade  from  John  Johnson  (1750-60), 
a  maker  in  London. 

Furber,  Henry  John,  son  and  pupil  of 
John  Furber.  He  continued  the  busi- 
ness in  Grafton  Street,  London,  and 
has  made  many  good  instruments. 

Furber,  James,  eldest  son  of  Matthew 
Furber,  sen.  It  is  doubtful  if  he  made 
new  instruments. 

Furber,  John,  third  son  of  Matthew 
Furber,  sen.  Pupil  of  his  father,  be- 
came an  excellent  workman  and  clever 
repairer.  Made  numerous  violins, 
following  the  Amati  pattern.  He  also 
worked  for  J.  K.  Betts  at  the  Royal 
Kxchange.  Label:  '"John  Furber. 
maker,  13  St.  Johns  Row.  top  of  Brick 
Lane,  Old  St.,  Saint  Luke.  1813."  In 
1841  he  was  living  in  Cow  Cross, 

Furber,  Matthew,  sen  ,  son  of  David 
Furber.  Pupil  of  his  father  He  died 
about  1790,  and  was  buried  at  Clerken- 
well  Church. 

Furber,  Matthew,  second  son  of  \Iatthew 
Furber.  sen.  i'upil  ot  liis  father  He 
died  about  1S30-1.  and  was  buried  at 
Clerkenwell  Church. 

Fux,  Matthew  A  maker  of  tine  lutes  to 
the  Court  ot  N'iennain  the  I'^-thcenturv. 


Gabrielli,  Antonio.  Worked  in  Florence 
about  1760.  He  made  good  violins, 
with  golden-coloured  varnish.  Label ; 
"Antonio  Gabrielli,  fece  in  Firenze, 
1760,  f." 

Gabrielli,  Bartolommeo.  A  maker  in 
Florence  about  1730. 

Gabrielli,  Cristoforo.  Worked  in 
Florence  about  1730. 

Gabrielli,  Ciioxanni  Battista.  A  maker 
in  Florence  about  1740-70.  Many 
well  made  instrujnents  are  known,  of 
good  tone;  he  used  excellei\t  wood, 
and  a  transparent  yellow  or  pale  red 
varnish  ;  his  violoncellos  and  altos  are 
considered    his    l>est    work ;     thev    are 

often  branded  with  his  initials,  Li   B.  G 
Labels  :   "Johannes  Baptista  Gabrielli, 
Florentinus,   fecit    1742",    and    "  Gio. 
Battista    CTal)rielli,    fece    in    Firenze, 
1757"  ;  a  similar  one  dated  1763. 

Gaetano,  Antoniazzi,  b.  1825,  Cremona  ; 
d.  1S97,  Milan.  A  good  maker,  gained 
medalb  c^f  honour.  His  son  Romeo 
was  alsi)  a  maker. 

Gaffino,  (iiuseppe  .\n  Italian,  a  pupil 
of  Castagnery,  who  worked  in  Paris, 
rue  tics  Prouvaircs,  .about  17-45-83; 
his  widow  was  still  li\iui;  at  the  same 
address  in  i7S>).  His  violins  are  care- 
fully made  and  he  used  pale  red  or 
vt'llow    varnish.        .\n    alto    of    larije 



pattern,  the  only  one  known,  is  dated 
rue  des  Prouvaires,  1748.  Label : 
"  Gaffino,  campagno  di  Castagneri, 
rue  des  Prouvaires,  Parigi,  anno  1755" 
Perhaps  he  was  more  of  a  dealer  than 
a  maker,  judging  by  the  advertisement 
on  another  label :  "  At  the  sign  of  the 
'  Musette  de  Colin,'  Joseph  Gaffino, 
maitre  et  marchand  luthier  a  Paris, 
rue  des  Prouvaires,  fait,  vend,  achate, 
et  loue  toutes  sortes  d'instruments 
de  musique,  savoir :  violons,  basses 
d'orchestre,  violoncellos,  alto-viola, 
violes  d'amour  et  toutes  sortes  de  sa 
fa9on,"  &c. 

Gagliano  (Galiano),  Alessandro,  b. 
about  1640,  at  Naples ;  d.  there  about 
1730.  At  first  studied  music,  in  leisure 
moments  making  a  few  mandoHnes 
and  lutes.  Having  killed  his  adversary 
in  a  duel,  he  was  obliged  to  leave 
Naples,  and  went  to  Cremona,  and 
there  entered  Ant.  Stradivari's  work- 
shop. He  remained  about  thirty  years 
and  showed  great  ability.  It  is  possible 
that  many  of  Stradivari's  instruments 
were  prepared  by  him.  He  was  able  to 
return  to  Naples  in  1695,  and  started 
a  business  there ;  he  soon  became 
well  known.  He  made  a  number  of 
instruments,  generally  on  a  large 
pattern,  which,  in  the  arching,  in  the 
thicknesses,  and  in  the  carefully  finished 
work,  recall  his  master.  He  used  a 
good  strong  varnish,  greyish-yellow 
colour,  and  good  wood,  that  of  the 
bellies  being  of  wide  and  even  grain 
and  very  resonant ;  the  scroll  is  rather 
roughly  cut,  the  sound-holes  are  wider 
and  more  perpendicular  than  those  of 
Stradivari,  the  tone  is  powerful.  He 
made  some  remarkably  beautiful  violon- 
cellos; a  violoncello  and  a  bass  are 
known  which  might  almost  be  mistaken 
for  the  work  of  Stradivari.  Labels : 
"  Alexandri  Gagliano,  Alumnus  Stradi- 
varius,  fecit  Neapoli,  anno  1725,"  and 
"Alexander  Gaglianus,  fecit  Neap., 
17 — ."  He  had  two  sons,  both 
makers — Nicola  and  Gennaro. 

Gagliano,  Antonio,  third  son  of  Nicola, 
grandson  of  Alessandro.  See ' '  Giuseppe 

Gagliano,  Antonio,  son  of  Giovanni, 
grandson  of  Nicola.  See  "  Raffaele 

Gagliano,  Ferdinando,  eldest  son  of 
Nicola,  grandson  of  Alessandro,  b. 
1706,  in  Naples;  d.  about  1781.  His 
work  shows  decadence,  although  it  is 
an  imitation  of  that  of  his  father ;  it  is 
not  so  arched,  the  thicknesses  are  not 
accurate,  the  work  is  not  so  carefully 

finished  ;  the  varnish  is  richer  in  colour 
than  that  used  by  other  members  of  the 
family.  As  he  also  worked  for  the 
trade  at  low  prices,  some  of  his  instru- 
ments are  not  of  much  value.  Violins 
and  basses  of  his  are  known  dated  up 
to  the  year  of  his  death,  and  a  very 
good  alto  dated  1753.  Label:  "  Fer- 
dinandus  Gagliano  filius  Nicolai.  fecit 
Neap.,  17 — ,"  and  "Ferdinando 
Gagliani,  me  fecit  Neapoli,  anno  1730." 

Gagliano,  Gennaro,  second  son  of  Ales- 
sandro, brother  of  Nicola,  b.  about  1680, 
at  Naples;  d.  1750.  He  was  the  best 
maker  of  this  family.  He  made  few 
instruments,  but  put  excellent  work 
into  them  ;  the  pattern  is  good,  slightly 
arched.  He  imitated  his  father  in 
general  outline  and  in  thicknesses,  was 
therefore  really  following  the  Stradivari 
pattern,  but  the  sound-holes  are  shorter 
and  wider.  The  wood  was  carefully 
selected,  and  the  yellow  varnish  is 
beautiful,  the  quality  of  tone  very  fine  ; 
his  successors  never  succeeded  in  pro- 
ducing varnish  equally  beautiful, 
although  a  recipe  in  Gennaro' s  own 
handwriting  remained  in  the  family  ; 
he  either  purposely  kept  secret  some 
essential  ingredient,  or  forgot  to  make 
it  known.  A  magnificent  violoncello, 
of  perfect  workmanship,  dated  Antonio 
Stradivari,  1732,  is  generally  supposed 
to  be  Gennaro's  work  ;  the  back  and 
belly  are  more  arched,  the  sides  lower, 
the  warm  red-brown  varnish  darker 
and  thicker  than  in  Stradivari's  instru- 
ments. It  was  bought  from  Gennaro 
himself,  about  1740,  by  an  Italian,  who 
sold  it  in  1765  to  M.  Champsor,  a  well 
known  violoncellist  in  Marseilles  ;  on 
his  death,  in  1826,  it  passed  from  an 
amateur  into  the  keeping  of  M.  Bonnet, 
so  that  its  tradition  remains  un- 
broken. If  it  could  be  proved  that 
Gennaro  made  it,  it  would  place  him 
at  once  in  the  front  rank  of  the  great 
Italian  makers.  He  seldom  used  labels 
for  his  instruments,  and  very  often 
omitted  to  date  them,  so  that  it  is  not 
known  exactly  how  many  years  he 
worked;  but  in  1730  his  work  was 
already  excellent,  and  it  steadily  im- 
proved. Labels  :  "  Gennaro  Gagliano 
fecit  Neapoli,  17- ",  and  "Januarius 
Gagliano  filius  Alexandri,  fecit  Neap., 
1732  "  ;  another  similar  one  is  dated 
1741.  He  sometimes  pencilled  his 
name  on  the  inside  of  the  belly. 

Gagliano,  Giovanni,  fouith  son  of  Ni- 
cola, nephew  of  the  great  Gennaro, 
lived  also  in  Naples  ;  b.  date  not 
known ;    d.   1806.     He   did   not   make 



many  instruments,  and  is  said  to  have 
been  superior  as  a  maker  to  his  three 
brothers :  but  some  vioHns  are  of 
poor  workmanship.  Label:  "Joannes 
Gagliano  nepos  Januarii,  fecit  Neapoli, 
1 8 — ."  He  had  two  sons,  RafFaele 
and  Antonio. 

Gagliano,  Giuseppe  and  Antonio,  second 
and  third  sons  of  Nicola,  lived  at 
Naples.  Giuseppe,  b.  1726,  Naples; 
d.  1793.  Antonio's  dates  are  not  known. 
Their  work  was  ordinary,  but  they  made 
some  good  cithers  and  mandolines  ; 
also  some  violins,  of  which  one  dated 
Naples,  1789,  was  sold  for  £^q  in  1852. 
Label :  "Joseph  et  Antonius  Gagliano, 
fecit  anno  1787,  in  platea  dicta  Cer- 

Gagliano,  Nicola,  eldest  son  of  Ales- 
sandro,  b.  about  1675,  at  Naples;  d. 
there  about  1745.  His  instruments 
are  smaller  and  narrower  and  his  work 
is  superior  to  that  of  his  father,  for  he 
copied  the  pattern  of  Stradivari  very 
cleverly,  both  in  outline,  in  thick- 
nesses, and  in  arching.  His  varnish  is 
very  transparent  and  rather  deep  in 
colour,  the  tone  is  very  brilliant,  the 
scroll  is  generally  well-cut ;  round  the 
purfiing  is  sometimes  an  ornamentation 
of  diamond  and  lozenge-shaped  pieces 
of  ebony  ;  he  also  sometimes  copied  the 
Maggini  design  on  the  centre  of  the 
back  of  his  violins.  He  made  a  great 
many  violins,  violas,  and  violoncellos, 
the  latter  being  especially  good,  with 
a  fine  rich  varnish,  not  often  seen  on 
instruments  of  the  Gagliano  family.  A 
certain  number  of  his  instruments 
contain  spurious  labels  of  Stradivari, 
others  have  his  own  label :  "  Nicolaus 
Gagliano  filius  Alexandri,  fecit  Neap., 
17 — ,"  or  "  Nicolaii  Gagliano,  fecit  in 
Napoli,  1711."  He  had  four  sons,  all 
makers  —  Ferdinando,  Giuseppe,  An- 
tonio, and  Giovanni. 

Gagliano,  Raffaele  and  Antonio,  sons 
of  Giovanni,  grandsons  of  Nicola. 
The  dates  of  births  are  unknown  ; 
Raffaele  d.  Dec.  9,  1857,  ^"^^  Antonio 
June  27,  i860.  They  worked  together 
in  Naples,  but  their  instruments  are 
inferior.  After  a  few  years  they  con- 
fined themselves  to  manufacturing 
strings,  their  factory  becoming  one  of 
the  best  in  Italy. 

Gagliano,  Vincenzo,  son  of  Raffaele, 
d.  about  1886,  was  the  last  of  this 
family,  and  never  made  instruments, 
but  continued  the  manufacture  of 
strings  at  Naples. 

Gaillard-Lajoue,  J.  B.  A  maker  at 
Mirecourt,  d.  about   1870.      First   an 

apprentice  and  then  first  workman  in 
the  workshop  of  Gand.  About  1852 
he  started  his  own  business,  and  in 
1855  obtained  a  medal  at  the  Paris 
Exhibition.  He  made  a  great  many 
violins,  of  fairly  good  proportions  :  the 
varnish  was  rather  harsh,  but  the  tone 
was  good. 

Gairoud,  Louis.  A  maker  at  Nantes 
about  1740-70. 

Galbani,  Piero.  A  maker  in  Florence 
in  1640. 

Galbicellis,  G.  B.    Working  in  Florence, 

Galbusera,  Carlo  Antonio.  At  first  an 
officer  in  the  Italian  army,  then  settled 
in  Milan,  and  began  to  construct 
instruments  on  the  principles  of 
Fran9ois  Chanot.  In  1832  he  was 
awarded  a  silver  medal  by  the  Milan 
Academy  of  Sciences  for  a  violin  very 
similar  to  that  of  Chanot ;  it  was  a  sort 
of  violin-guitar,  with  the  stringing, 
sound-holes,  scroll,  and  borders  of  an 
ordinary  violin ;  but  recalled  a  guitar 
in  having  no  corners  and  in  the 
lessened  curve  of  its  outline.  Although 
completely  ignored  now,  it  was  con- 
sidered such  a  great  success  at  the  time 
that  the  Leipzig  paper,  the  Allgemeine 
Mnsikalische  Zcitung  (Dec.  23,  1832), 
concluded  a  laudatory  article  by 
saying  "It  is  indeed  surprising  that  it 
should  have  taken  centuries  to  give 
the  violin  this  more  simple  form." 

Galerzena.  Was  working  in  Piedmont 
in  1790. 

Galland,  Jean.  A  maker  in  Paris,  rue 
St.-Honore,  about  1744-50.  He  died 
before  1761.  His  widow  continued  the 
business  at  the  same  address  till  about 

Galram,  Joachim  Joseph.  He  was 
working  in  Lisbon  in  1769.  In  some 
violins  and  altos,  four  instruments 
altogether,  of  very  good  workmanship, 
with  yellow  varnish,  which  formed 
part  of  the  private  collection  of  King 
Louis  of  Portugal,  was  found  the 
following  label:  "Joachim  Josef  Gal- 
ram, fecit  Olesiponoe,  1769." 

Galtani,  Rocco.  Working  in  Florence 
in  the  17th  century. 

Gand,  Charles  Adolphe,  eldest  son  of 
Charles  Francois  Gand,  b.  Dec.  11, 
1812,  Paris;  d.  Jan.  24.  1866.  Pupil  of 
his  father,  succeeded  him  in  1845. 
He  had  great  knowledge  of  old  instru- 
ments and  cleverly  repaired  them  ;  he 
made  few  new  instruments,  but  they 
show  good  and  sound  workmanship. 
Was  appointed  "  Luthier  de  la  musique 
du     Roi     et     du     Conservatoire     de 



Musique,"  and  later,  "  de  la  chapelle 
de  rEmpereur."  In  1855  his  brother, 
C.  N.  Eugene  Gand,  became  his 
partner,  and  at  the  Paris  Exhibition 
that  year  "Gand  freres "  gained  a 
medal  of  the  ist  class.  He  received 
the  cross  of  "  Chevalier  de  la  Legion 
d'honneur,"  August  19,  1862.  Labels: 
(i)  "Gand,  luthier  de  la  musique  du 
Roi  et  du  Conservatoire  de  Musique, 
rue  Croix-des-petits-Champs,  Paris, 
18—.  1845-1848,  A.  G."  ;  (2)  "Gand. 
luthier  du  Conservatoire  de  Musique, 
rue  Croix-des-petits-Champs,  No.  20, 
Paris,  1854.  A.  G."  ;  (3)  "  Gand  freres, 
luthiers  de  la  musique  de  I'Empereur 
et  du  Conservatoire  Imperial  de 
Musique,  No.  — .  Paris,  1855  a  1866." 
Gand,  Charles  Fran9ois,  eldest  son  of 
Charles  Michel  Gand,  b.  Aug.  5,  1787, 
Versailles;  d.  May  10,  1845,  Paris. 
First  worked  at  Versailles  with  his 
father;  in  1802  was  apprenticed  to 
Nicolas  Lupot,  of  Paris  ;  he  remained 
for  four  years,  returning  to  his  father 
July  17,  1806.  In  1810  he  again  went 
to  Paris,  and  started  his  own  business 
at  5,  rue  Croix-des-petits-Champs  ;  in 
1820  he  bought  Koliker's  property  at 
No.  24,  in  the  same  street,  where  he 
remained  till  his  death.  In  1824  he 
succeeded  Lupot,  whose  daughter  he 
had  married.  He  followed  in  Lupot 's 
footsteps,  making  his  instruments  with 
the  same  care  and  ability,  never 
letting  an  instrument  leave  his  shop 
which  was  not  entirely  made  by  his 
own  hands ;  he  used  brilliant  red-brown 
varnish,  rather  thick  in  quality. 
Lupot  left  unfinished  an  order  for  the 
Royal  Orchestra  ;  Gand  completed  it, 
making 6  violins,  3  violas,  5  violoncellos, 
and  4  doul)le-basses  between  1824  and 
1828  These  beautiful  specimens  of  his 
work  were  unfortunately  destroyed 
when  the  Tuileries  was  burnt  down  in 
1871.  He  was  especially  skilful  in 
repairing  old  instruments,  owing  to  his 
great  knowledge  of  Italian  work. 
Appointed"  Luthier  du  Conservatoire," 
he  for  some  time  made  the  violins  and 
violoncellos  given  as  prizes  to  the 
pupils.  Labels  :  "  Gand  chez  Lupot, 
rue  de  Grammont,  1805,"  used  when 
in  Lupot's  workshop;  "  Ch,  F.  Gand 
fils,  luthier  Versailles,  1807,"  used  when 
working  with  his  father ;  "  Ch.  F. 
Gand.  eleve  de  N.  Lupot,  luthier,  rue 
Croix-des-petits-Champs,  a  Paris,  an 
1812";  "Gand,  luthier,  eleve  de 
Lupot,  rue  Croix-des-petits-Champs. 
No.  24.  Paris,  1820  a  1824  "  ;  "  Gand. 
luthier  de    la    musique  du    roi    et   de 

I'Ecole  Royale  de  Musique,  rue  Croix- 
des-petits-Champs  a  Paris,  1825  a 
1830;"  "Gand,  luthier  du  Conser- 
vatoire de  Musique,  rue  Croix-des- 
petits-Champs,  1833";  "Gand, 
luthier  de  la  musique  du  roi  et  du 
Conservatoire  de  Musique,  rue  Croix- 
des-petits-Champs,  Paris,  18 — ,  1833  a 
1845."  He  had  two  sons,  both  makers, 
Charles  Adolphe  and  Charles  Nicolas 

Gand,  Charles  Michel,  the  head  of  the 
Gand  family,  b.  1748,  at  Mirecourt :  d. 
1820,  Versailles.  He  established  him- 
self in  Versailles  in  17S0.  at  71,  rue 
du  Commerce  ;  later  moved  to  32,  rue 
de  la  Paroisse,  at  the  sign  of  "  aux 
tendres  accords."  He  had  two  sons, 
both  makers,  Charles  Francois  and 
Guillaume,  the  latter  succeeded  him. 

Gand,  Charles  Nicolas  Eugene,  second 
son  of  Charles  Francois  Gand,  b. 
June  5,  1825,  Paris;  d.  Feb.  5,  1892, 
Boulogne-sur-Seine.  He  studied  music, 
at  the  same  time  learnt  his  trade  under 
his  father  and  brother.  Entered  the 
Paris  Conservatoire,  Nov.  19,  1834, 
being  admitted  to  Baillot's  special  violin 
class,  Nov.  28,  1840,  and  not  leaving 
until  Baillot's  death,  in  1842.  He 
joined  his  brother  Charles  Adolphe  as 
partner  in  1855  ;  Adolphe  dying  in  1866, 
the  two  houses,  Gand  and  Bernardel, 
became  one.  "  Gand  et  Bernardel 
freres"  were  first  at  21,  rue  Croix-des- 
petits-Champs,  then  at  4,  passage  Saul- 
nier  in  1883.  Instruments  were  no 
longer  carefully  constructed  by  the 
maker  himself,  workmen  had  to  be 
employed  to  make  the  quantities  of 
instruments  required  for  orchestra 
playing;  during  the  Ir'aris  Exhibition, 
1878,  the  firm  "  Gand  "  supplied  52 
violins,  18  altos,  18  violoncellos,  and 
18  double-basses  for  the  big  orchestras 
playing  there.  These  instruments  all 
have  "  Palais  du  Trocadero,  187S."  on 
their  labels.  Though  clever  workmen 
had  worked  on  them,  all  instruments 
that  bear  his  name  received  the 
finishing  touches  and  were  varnished 
by  Eugene  himself.  He  also  made 
very  good  bows,  the  violin  bows 
especially  are  noted  for  their  li;4ht- 
ness  and  perfect  balance.  Like  his 
father  he  was  a  great  authority  on  old 
instruments.  Between  1.S66  and  the 
year  of  his  death.  t,5o()  violins,  460 
violoncellos,  and  190  altos  passed 
through  his  hands,  the  last  violin  being 
finished  on  Au.i^ust  14,  1891.  In  1889 
he  and  (justave  liernanlel  exhibited  a 
double-bass,  noticeable  as  being  of  the 


ordinary  size,  but  having  five  strings. 
The  firm  was  awarded  the  silver  medal 
at  the  1867  Exhibition  ;  in  1878  they 
exhibited  a  double  quartet,  which  was 
reported  on  as  being  of  great  beauty, 
harmonious  proportions,  careful  work- 
manship, with  red  varnish  like  that  of 
Lupot,  excellent  tone,  everything  show- 
ing a  skilled  maker  ;  they  were  awarded 
the  gold  medal.  Label  :  "  Gand  et 
Bernardel  pres,  luthiers  de  la  musique 
de  I'Empereur  et  du  Conservatoire, 
No.  — .  Paris,  18 — ."  Eugene  was 
made  Chevalier  de  la  Legion  d'honneur 
(Oct.  20,  1878).  He  was  appointed  a 
member  of  the  jury  at  the  Exhibition 
of  Amsterdam,  1883  ;  Kouen,  1884 ; 
Antwerp,  1885  ;  Havre.  1887;  Barcelona, 

1888  ;  and  of  Paris,  1889,  when  he  was 
made  Officier  de  la  Legion  d'honneur 
(Oct.  29,  1889).  He  also  received  the 
following  orders  and  honours  :  Nicham 
Iftichar.  Oct.  20,  1885  ■  order  of 
Leopold  of  Belgium,  Feb.  i,  1886;  of 
Isabelle    la    Catholique,     March     18, 

1889  ;  and  "  les  palmes  academiques," 
Dec.  29.  1888. 

Gand,  Guillaume,  second  son  of  Charles 
Michel  Gand,  b.  July  22,  1792,  Paris; 
d.  May  31,  1858,  Versailles.  Was  a 
pupil  of  Nicolas  Lupot.  Succeeded  to 
his  father's  business  at  Versailles  in 
1820.  His  instruments  are  similar  in 
work  to  those  of  Lupot,  they  are  much 
liked,  and  always  fetch  a  good  price. 

Garani  (Garana) ,  Michelangelo.  A  maker 
in  Bologna  about  1680  to  1720.  He 
followed  the  pattern  of  Stradivari ;  his 
violas  were  particularly  well  made,  but 
his  instruments,  though  of  sweet  tone 
and  careful  work,  have  little  value 

Garani,  Nicola.  Worked  in  Naples 
about  1700.  Made  fair  instruments  on 
the  Gagliano  pattern  ;  used  plain  wood 
and  yellow  varnish. 

Garenghi  Guiseppe.  Worked  in  Brescia, 


Gaspan.     A  viol  maker  of  early  date. 

Gaspare  da  Salo,  son  of  Francesco 
Bertolotti,  b.  1542,  probably  in  Salo, 
a  small  town  in  Brescia  on  the  shores 
of  Lake  Garda  ;  d.  April  14,  1609. 
One  of  the  earliest  of  the  great  makers 
in  Brescia,  and  probably  among  the 
first  to  give  the  violin  the  form 
afterwards  definitely  adopted  by  the 
Italian  makers;  he  certainly  assisted  in 
the  transformation  of  the  ancient  viol- 
form  into  that  of  the  violin.  His 
violins  have  more  of  an  historical  than 
practical  or  artistic  interest ;  the  pattern 
is  primitive,  and  one  must  realise  the 

early  date  of  his  work  to  appreciate  its 
merit  in  spite  of  its  imperfections  ;  for 
it  is  not  to  be  compared  with  that  of 
G.  P.  Maggini,  who  came  soon  after 
him  (1580-1632).  He  was  famed  for 
his  viols,  l>ass-viols,  and  tenor-viols;  his 
bass-viols  have  generally  been  re- 
mounted as  double-basses  ;  one,  admir- 
able for  the  equality  of  its  tone, 
belonged  to  Dragonetti,  who  refused 
;^8oo  for  it,  and  bequeathed  it  to  Venice ; 
another,  with  four  strings,  is  in  the 
Paris  Conservatoire  Collection  ;  also  a 
little  bass-viol,  of  rather  clumsy  work- 
manship with  very  dark  varnish. 
About  1570  this  form  of  his  work 
varied  a  good  deal ;  the  lower  plate  is 
quite  flat  and  the  upper  plate  arched, 
whilst  the  upper  part,  instead  of  having 
the  round  form  of  the  violin,  sinks  on 
each  side,  similarly  to  a  viol ;  the  tone 
is  strong.  His  tenors  were  unquestion- 
ably his  best  instruments ;  one  that 
was  exhibited  in  London  in  1872  was 
sold  in  1894  for  £81  ;  the  varnish  was 
a  beautiful  golden-yellow ;  true  four- 
stringed  tenors,  made  with  only  two 
corners,  a  very  primitive  form,  exist, 
but  are  very  rare.  The  violoncello, 
with  a  head  with  four  pegs,  was  made 
in  Italy  from  about  1520,  but  the  first 
authentic  specimensdate  from  Gasparo, 
and  are  extremely  rare.  Only  about 
ten  viols,  viols  da  gamba,  and  other 
instruments  are  known,  and  of  really 
authentic  violins  only  six  or  seven, 
which  are  much  prized,  chiefly  because 
of  their  rarity.  They  are  made  on  a 
longer  and  more  arched  pattern  than 
the  Cremona  instruments  (his  viols  are 
generally  on  a  flat  model)  ;  the  sound- 
hole  is  straight,  long,  pointed,  and 
widely  opened  ;  the  centre  bouts  often 
short  and  shallow  ;  the  scroll  rough  ; 
the  wood  well  chosen  (pear  wood  and 
sycamore  wood  are  often  used),  the 
grain  of  the  bellies  usually  very  regular 
and  even  ;  the  varnish  sometimes  rich 
brown  (probably  darkened  with  age), 
sometimes  very  clear  brown-amber 
colour  ;  penetrating,  strong  tone  ;  the 
corners  not  very  promment  and  much 
rounded  ;  the  purfling  generally  single  ; 
the  workmanship  heavy  and  not  highly 
finished.  This  pattern  was  partially 
revived  by  Giuseppe  Guarneri  (1686- 
1745),  owing,  doubtless,  to  its  great 
tone-producing  capacity.  The  cele- 
brated violin  that  belonged  to  Ole  Bull 
was  made  of  light  wood,  with  rich 
varnish,  paler  in  colour  than  usual .  it 
had  a  beautifully  carved  head.  Another 
violin,  which  belonged  to  Dr.  Forster,  is 



said  to  have  been  dated  1613  ;  it  had 
beautiful  varnish  and  very  good  tone, 
but  had  a  new  head  and  neck.  Two 
other  violins  are  said  to  be  dated  1566 
and  1576  respectively.  Gasparo's 
usual  label  was  undated  :  "  Gasparo  da 
Salo  in  Brescia ' '  ;  but  his  name  has 
been  much  used  in  modern  altos  and 
violins  made  in  imitation  of  the  early 
Brescian  type  ;  many  instruments  with 
his  label  were  really  made  by  G.  P. 

Gattanani.  A  maker  in  Piedmont  about 

Gattinari  (Catenari),  Enrico.  See 
"  Cater ar." 

Gattinari,  Francesco,  son  of  Enrico 
Gattinari.  A  clever  maker  in  Turin 
about  1700-5.  A  violin  of  excellent 
tone,  rather  arched,  with  effective  red- 
brown  varnish,  was  of  good  workman- 
ship and  was  labelled  ' '  Francesco 
Gattinari,  fecit  Taurini,  anno  Domini 
1704."  An  alto  with  thick  red  varnish 
was  also  well  made. 

Gautrot.  A  maker  in  Mirecourt.  His 
instruments  are  strongly  and  well 
made  ;  he  started  a  factory  for  instru- 
ments of  all  kinds  at  Chateau-Thierry 
in  1855. 

Gavinies  (Gavanies),  Fran9ois,  b.  about 
1700.  Lived  first  at  Bordeaux,  but 
about  1730  moved  to  Paris  with  his 
son,  and  was  living  in  rue  St.-Thomas- 
du-Louvre,  1734-63.  He  made  two 
very  different  kinds  of  instruments ; 
the  one  inferior,  the  other,  for  which 
he  used  varnish  and  wood  of  good 
quality,  was  much  liked.  He  generally 
branded  them  with  his  name.  Instru- 
ments dated  1734,  1735,  and  1751 ;  also 
a  six-stringed  viol  dated  1744  in  the 
Paris  Conservatoire  Collection,  are 
known.  The  Conservatoire  also  has, 
for  the  use  of  its  pupils,  one  of  his 
double-basses  with  the  head  sculptured 
to  represent  King  David  ;  its  tone  is 
excellent,  it  was  made  in  1757.  Label : 
"  Gavinies,  rue  St-Thomas-du-Louvre, 
a  Paris.  1734"  He  had  a  son,  Pierre, 
the  celebrated  violinist. 

Gedler,  Johann  Anthony  and  Johann 
Benedict.  Two  brothers  who  worked 
together  in  Fiissen,  Bavaria,  about 
1750  to  1796.  They  made  inferior 

Geisenhof  (Gaissenhof,  Geigenhof), 
Franz,  b.  1754;  d.  1821.  A  maker  in 
Vienna.  He  made  fairly  good  instru- 
ments on  the  Stradivari  pattern. 
Sometimes  branded  them  with  his 
initials,  "  F.  G."  J.  B.  Schweizer  was  a 
pupil  of  his. 

Gemiinder,  August,  b.  1814,  Wiirtem- 
berg;  d.  Sept.,  1895,  New  York.  Pupil 
of  his  father,  who  was  also  a  maker. 
Went  to  the  United  States,  and  settled 
in  Massachusetts  in  1846.  He  made 
excellent  instruments,  much  used  for 
solo  playing.  He  made  such  an  exact 
copy  of  the  Amati  violin  belonging  to 
Serior  Sarasate  that  it  was  pronounced 
to  be  equal  to  the  original. 

Gemiinder,  George,  brother  of  August 
Gemiinder,  b.  1816,  Ingelfingen ;  d. 
Jan.  15,  1899.  Pupil  of  Vuillaume  in 
Paris.  Went  to  New  York  in  1849. 
He  made  excellent  copies  of  many 
celebrated  violins.  In  1881  he  pub- 
lished "George  Gemiinder's  Progress 
in  Violin  Making." 

Gennaro.  Worked  in  Naples,  1785-1820. 
He  made  very  beautiful  guitars,  in- 
laid with  mother-of-pearl,  ivory,  &c. 
Labels:  "Gennaro  fabricatore,  anno 
1802,  Napoli,  Strada  S.  Giacomo, 
No.  26,"  and  "Gennaro  fabricatore, 
anno  1820,  Napoli,  Strada  S.  Giacomo, 
No.  42,"  found  in  a  large  guitar. 

Gerans,  Paolo.  Working  in  Cremona 
about  1 61 4. 

Gerle,  Conrad.  An  early  maker  of  lutes, 
b.  at  Nuremberg ;  was  living  there  in 
1461  and  died  there  1521;  was  buried 
in  the  Church  of  St.  Roch.  He  was 
celebrated  both  as  a  lute  player  and 
lute  maker,  his  lutes,  called  "  Lutz 
d'Alemaigne,"  were  well  known  in  the 
15th  century.  The  Allgevieine  Musik- 
alische  Zeitung  (Leipzig)  published  the 
old  notice  of  his  death:  "An  St. 
Barbara  Abend  starb  der  erbar  Conrad 
Gerle.  Lautenmacher.  Dem  Gott 
gnaedig  sey.  Amen." 

Gerle,  Hans,  (?)  a  son  of  Conrad.  Date 
of  birth  unknown,  about  1500  ;  d.  1570. 
Lived  in  Nuremberg.  Was  a  lute  player, 
composer,  and  author,  and  as  early  as 
1523  was  famed  for  the  lutes  he  made. 
In  1532  his  portrait  was  published  with 
the  inscription,  "  Hanns  Gerle,  lutenist 
(lute  player)  in  Niirnberg,  anno  1532." 
He  published  a  work  on  the  lute  in 
1532,  entitled  :  "  MusicaTeusch  auf  die 
Instrument  der  grossen  und  kleinen 
Geygen,  auch  Lautten,  etc. ,  durch  Hans 
Gerle  lutinist  zu  Nurenberg  auszgan- 
gen,  1532  "  ("  German  music  for  instru- 
ments of  large  and  little  viols,  also  for 
lutes,"  edited  by  Hans  Gerle,  lute 
player  at  Nuremberg,  1532)  ;  a  second 
edition  appeared  in  1546,  entitled  : 
"  Musica  und  Tabulatur,  aiiff  die  Instru- 
menten  der  kleinen  und  grossen  Geygen 
auch  Lautten,  etc.  Von  newen  corri- 
girt   und   durch    aussgebessert    durch 



Hansen  Gerle,  Lautenmacher  zu  Niirn- 
berg  von  1546  jar  "  ("  Music  and 
Tablature  for  instruments  of  little  and 
large  viols,  also  for  lutes,  &c.,  revised 
and  corrected  by  Hans  Gerle,  lute 
maker  at  Nuremberg,  in  1546").  Both 
the  I  St  and  2nd  editions  are  in  the 
Imperial  Library  at  Berlin.  These 
two  interesting  editions  are  most  rare 
and  valuable. 

Germain,  Emile.  son  of  Joseph  Louis 
Germain,  to  whose  business  he  suc- 
ceeded in  1870;  b.  July  24,  1853,  Paris. 
In  1865  he  was  sent  to  Mirecourt  to 
be  apprenticed  to  the  trade,  returned 
to  Paris  in  1867,  and,  until  his  father's 
death  (1870),  worked  with  him.  Went 
into  partnership  with  Dehommais, 
living  first  at  12,  rue  Croix-des-petits- 
Champs,  and  then  at  5,  Faubourg 
Montmartre.  Dehommais  retired  in 
1882,  and  Emil  continued  the  business 
alone  ;  in  ten  years'  time  he  made  more 
than  500  instruments,  nearly  all  personal 
work,  showing  talent  and  care  ;  he  used 
a  good  varnish.  Was  very  experienced 
in  repairing  old  Italian  instruments. 
Labels  :  "  Dehommais  et  Germain  a 
Paris,  12  rue  Croix-des-petits-Champs, 
1878,"  and  "  Emil  Germain,  a  Paris, 
5  Faubourg  Montmartre,  1888." 

Germain,  Joseph  Louis,  b.  July  23,  1822, 
Mirecourt  ;  d.  there,  July  5,  1870. 
A-pprenticed  at  Mirecourt,  went  to 
Paris,  1840,  and  worked  under  Charles 
Francois  Gand,  till  the  death  of  the 
latter  (1845).  Was  then  employed  by 
J.  B.  Vuillaume,  for  whom  he  made 
several  excellent  instruments,  till  1850, 
when  he  became  first  workman  under 
"  Gand  Fils."  In  1862  he  started  his 
own  business  at  364,  rue  Saint-Denis. 
He  retired  to  Mirecourt  in  1870,  and 
died  the  same  year.  He  was  a  maker 
of  great  talent,  and  his  instruments 
show  superior  workmanship.  He  was 
especially  skilful  in  repairing  old  in- 
struments. Label:  "Joseph  Louis 
Germain  ;  a  Paris,  annee  1868."  His 
son  Emile  was  also  a  violin  maker. 

Geroni,  Domenico.  A  maker  in  Ostia, 
Italy,  about  1800-20.  Made  inferior 

Gherardi,  Giacomo.  Was  working  in 
Bologna  in  1677. 

Ghidini,  Carlo.  A  maker  in  Parma 
about  1746. 

Gianoli,  Domenico.  Worked  at  Milan 
in  1731. 

Gibbs,  James.  Worked  in  London  about 
1800-45 ;  probably  died  in  1845.  He 
was  employed  by  J.  Morrison,  George 
Corsby,  and  Samuel  Gilkes. 

Gibertini,  Antonio.  A  maker  in  Parma, 
1830-33.  Made  a  number  of  violins  on 
the  Stradivari  pattern,  using  rather 
dark  red  varnish ;  his  work  was  care- 
fully finished.  Paganini,  the  great 
violinist,  sometimes  employed  him  to 
repair  his  violins 

Gigli,  Giulio  Cesare.  Worked  in  Rome 
about  1730-62.  Label:  "  Julius  Caesar 
Gigli  Romanus  fecit  Romae,  anno  176 1." 

Gilbert,  Nicolas  Louis.  A  maker  in 
Metz  about  1700.  In  the  Paris  Ex- 
hibition, 1878,  a  very  pretty  five- 
stringed  viol — dated  "  Metz,  1701  " — 
of  his  was  shown. 

Gilbert,  Simon,  son  of  Nicolas  Louis 
Gilbert.  Worked  at  Metz  about  1737- 
65.  A  five-stringed  viol,  dated  1744  ; 
another,  dated  1749;  and  another,  dated 
1765,  are  known.  Label:  "Simon 
Gilbert,  luthier,  musicien  de  la  Cathe- 
drale  a  Metz,  1737." 

Gilkes,  Samuel,  b.  1787,  Morton  Pinkney, 
Northamptonshire;  d.  Nov.,  1827, 
London.  Apprenticed  to  Charles 
Harris,  sen.,  in  London,  afterwards 
worked  for  William  Forster(  1764- 1824). 
In  1810  he  started  his  own  business, 
labelling  his  instruments  with  his  own 
name.  He  followed  the  Nicola  Amati 
pattern,  and  was  a  clever  maker, 
although  his  style  showed  traces  of  his 
training  under  Charles  Harris.  He 
used  varnish  of  rich  quality,  and  his 
work  was  beautifully  finished.  He 
made  various  classes  of  instruments  for 
country  dealers.  Label:  "  Gilkes  from 
Forster's,  violin  and  violoncello  maker, 
34,  James  Street,  Buckingham  Gate, 

Gilkes,  William,  son  of  Samuel  Gilkes, 
b.  about  181 1,  in  Grey  Coat  Street 
Tothill  Fields,  Westminster;  d.  1875, 
London.  Taught  by  his  father  and 
succeeded  to  his  business  in  James 
Street,  but  afterwards  moved  to  Dart- 
mouth Street.  He  made  a  great  many 
instruments,  of  various  patterns,  princi- 
pally double-basses,  but  did  not  gain 
the  same  reputation  as  his  father.  He 
ceased  to  make  instruments  for  some 
time  before  his  death. 

Gioffreda,  B.    A  maker  in  Turin  in  i860. 

Giordano  (Giordane),  Alberto.  A 
maker  in  Cremona  about  1735-40.  A 
little  pocket  violin  with  rose-coloured 
varnish  is  beautifully  made,  with  the 
label :  "  Alto  Giordano  fecit  Cremonae  " 
(the  date  illegible). 

Giorgi,  Nicola.  A  maker  in  Turin  in 
1745,  according  to  the  following  label  : 
"  Nicolaus  Giorgi  fecit  Taurini,  anno 



Giquelier,  Ciistoioto.  In  the  Paris 
(.'onservatoiie  Collection  is  a  viola 
bastarda  with  five  strings  dated  1712, 
made  by  him. 

Giraniani.  Working  in  Leghorn  in 
1730.  according  to  a  MS.  label  found 
in  a  violin,  fairly  well  made,  with 
yellow  varnish  of  good  quality. 

Girod,  Claude  A  French  maker  of 
whom  little  is  known. 

Giron.     Si'i-  "  Villaume." 

Giuliani.  A  maker  of  viols  in  Cremona 
in  1660.  He  was  a  pupil  of  Nicola 
Amati,  and  made  some  excellent  copies 
ot  his  instruments. 

Gobetti.  Francesco.  A  maker  at  Venice 
about  1705.  Said  to  have  been  a  pupil 
of  Antonio  Stradivari ;  he  used  splendid 
wood,  very  beautiful  red  varnish, 
rather  transparent,  and  made  on  a 
large  flat  pattern,  with  sound-holes 
similar  to  those  of  Kuggeri ;  the 
purlling  is  not  very  neat,  and  the  scroll 
is  rather  weak  in  character ;  but  the 
workmanship  throughout  is  carefully 
finished  and  the  tone  is  of  a  rich  full 
quality.  A  very  beautiful  violin  was 
exhibited  in  Paris,  1878,  with  fine 
go!den-red  varnish,  with  label  : 
"  Franciscus  Gobetti,  fecit  Venetiis, 
1715."  A  similar  label  has  been  seen 
dated  1705.  His  instruments  are  much 

Goffriller  (Gofriller),  Ant(jnio.  A 
member  of  the  family  of  this  name 
working  in  Venice  at  the  beginning  of 
the  i8tli  century. 

Goffriller,  brancesco,  brother  of  Matteo  ; 
probably  worked  as  his  collaln)rat()r  in 
V'cnice.  He  made  few  instruments, 
and  seldom  put  his  label  into  them  ; 
they  were  of  fairly  good  work,  with 
u^ly  yellow-brown  varnish 

Goffriller,  Matteo  A  maker  in  Venice 
about  1690  to  1740  He  had  great 
ability,  and  his  work  is  peculiarh- 
beautiful  and  c;riginal  ;  his  pattern  is 
slightly  arched,  the  sound-hole  well  cut, 
the  golden-yelluw  varnish  very  trans- 
parent. It  is  the  exception  to  find 
violins  and  violoncellos  in  which  the 
wood  was  carefully  chosen  ;  as  a  rule 
he  was  careless  about  his  material, 
seveial  \ioloncellos  ha\  e  the  back  made 
of  po})lar  tree  wood  ;  but  the  same 
accurate  and  skilful  workmanship  is 
always  shown  ;  the  tone  was  powerful 
and  even  in  (juality.  His  whole  work, 
in  arching,  proportions,  and  \arnish, 
is  so  unlike  that  of  Stradivari  that  it  is 
absurd  to  insert  Stradivari  labels  into 
his  instruments.  His  violoncellos  are 
especially  liked,  two  being  known,  most 

beautifully  made.     Label:   "  Mattheus 
Goffriller     faciebat      Venetiis,     anno 

Goldt,  Jacob  Heinrich.  Amaker  in  Ham- 
burg, 1700-54.     A  lute  is  known  of  his. 

Gonnet,  Pierre  Jean  Was  working  in 
rue  du  Temple,  Paris,  1775-83. 

Gosselin.  An  amateur  maker  in  Paris 
about  1814-30,  whose  work  is  little 
known  and  little  valued.  He  learnt  a 
great  deal  from  Koliker  He  made 
violins,  altos,  and  violoncellos  of 
ordinary  workmanship  and  good  tone, 
often  using  for  the  back  and  sides  a 
speckled  wood,  which  gave  them 
rather  a  peculiar  look.  Label:  "  Fait 
par  (iosselin,  amateitr,  Paris,  annee 
1826,"  in  a  violin  of  sonorous  tone; 
and  "  Fait  par  Gosselin,  luthier,  Paris, 
annee  1830." 

Gosset.  A  maker  at  Rheims,  who,  in 
1769.  proposed  to  alter  the  frets  on 
the  various  kinds  of  viols  and  guitars 
in  such  a  way  as  to  produce,  instead 
of  equal  semitones,  the  major  or  minor 
semitone  which  was  required. 

Gough.  John.     Sir  "  Dearlove,  M.  \V." 

Gough.  Walter,  d.  about  1830.  He  was 
not  a  particularly  good  workman 

Gouvernari,  Antonio.  A  maker  in 
Cremona  about  1600-10. 

Grabensee,  J.  A.  A  maker  in  Diisseldorf 
about  1850-55.  Label  :  "  Reparirt 
{Re{)aired)  von  J.  A.  Grabensee  in 
Diisseldorf,  1854." 

Gragnani,  Antonio.  A  maker  in  Leghorn 
about  1741-80.  His  work  is  a  little 
rough  ;  he  used  inferior  wood  and  the 
varnish  is  poor,  but  the  tone  is 
sympathetic,  sweet,  and  clear.  He 
generally  branded  his  instruments  with 
his  initials,  "A.  G  "  A  fi\e-stringed 
viol  exhibited  at  South  Kensington 
Museum,  London,  in  1872,  had  the 
label :  "  Antonius  Ciragnani,  fecit  anno 
1 74 1."  In  an  inferior  \iolin  was  the 
label  :  "  Antonius  Gragnani  fecit 
Liburni.  anno  1780";  a  similar  one 
was  dated  1752. 

Gragnani,  Gennaro,  presumably  a 
relation  of  Antonio.  Was  working  in 
Leghorn,  1730. 

Gragnani,  Oiiorato,  son  of  Antonio 
Gragnani.  His  work  was  inferior  to 
that  of  his  father. 

Granadino      Sec  "Contreras.  Joseph." 

Grancino,  IVancesco  and  Giam  Hattista, 
sons  of  Giovanni  and  grandsons  of 
Paolo  (Jrancino.  Worked  together  at 
Milan,  1700-46.  They  were  the  best 
makers  of  this  family  and  made  a  great 
many  instruments,  using  generally 
spirit  varnish,  very  clear,  and  an  ugly 



yellowish  colour,  and  wood  of  poor 
quality  ;  their  work  was  rough,  but 
the  tone  of  their  violoncellos  and 
double-basses  was  fairly  f?ood.  A 
violoncello,  of  fine  powerful  tone,  was 
made  of  plain  wood,  that  of  the  belly 
only  being  fine  ;  the  light  yellow 
varnish  had  become  darkened  with 
age.  Their  instruments  generally  were 
not  beautiful  to  look  at,  but  had  a 
good  tone.  Labels  :  "  (jio.  e  Francesco 
fratelli  de  Grancini  in  contrada  larga 
di  Milano.  17—-,"  and  "  (iiov.  Hattista 
e  PVancesco  fra.  Grancini  in  contrada 
largo  di  Milano,  17—." 

Grancino,  (jiovanni,  son  of  Paolo 
Grancino.  Worked  in  Milan  about 
1690  to  1730  Pupil  of  his  father,  and 
did  similar  but  better  work  ;  his  instru- 
ments are  not  so  arched,  with  yellow 
varnish,  and  the  wood  was  more  care- 
fully chosen  ;  they  have  a  powerful 
tone  ;  the  details  are  not  very  carefully 
finished.  Many  of  his  violins,  violas, 
and  violoncellos  are  to  be  met  with, 
usually  made  on  a  large  flat  pattern. 
Labels:  "  Giovan  Grancino  in  con- 
trada larga  di  Milano  al  segno  della 
Corona,  1692,"  and  "Giovanni  Gran- 
cino in  Contrada  Largha  di  Milano, 
al  segno  della  Corona,  1721."  He  had 
two  sons,  Francesco  and  Giam  Battista, 
both  makers. 

Grancino,  Pa(;lo.  Worked  at  Milan, 
1665-90.  Pupil  of  Nicola  Amati  at 
Cremona.  He  made  a  large  number 
of  instruments;  the  altos  and  the 
violoncellos  are  generally  liked.  He 
used  poor  material,  often  making  the 
back  and  sides  of  poplar  tree  wood  ; 
followed  a  large  pattern,  slightly 
arched,  with  large  sound-holes  widely 
opened,  and  a  dry  varnish  of  an 
effective  golden-yellow  colour.  The 
scroll  was  often  rouglily  cut,  and  the 
purfling  and  corners  carelessly  worked. 
His  work  on  the  whole  was  but 
moderately  good.  His  son,  Giovaimi, 
was  also  a  maker. 

Grand-Gerard.  .\  maker  in  tht;  Vosges 
alioiit  1790-1810.  Also  worked  in 
I'aris.  Made  a  great  many  instru- 
ments; the  work  is  inferior,  the  varnish 
a  dull  brown  colour.  He  l)randed  his 
instruments  with  his  name.  Label  : 
'  (irand-Ge'rard  a  I'aris." 

Grandini,  Gcronimo,  .sen  One  of  the 
well  known  makers  at  Mirecouit 
whose  instruments  have  merit 

Grandjon,  sen.  A  maker  at  Mirecourt. 
^\'(lrl•:  only  moderately  good. 

Grandjon,  |  ,  son  of  (jrandjon,  sen  ;  also 
a  maker  at  Mirecourt.     Was  awarded 

medal  of  the  ist  class  in  1855  (Paris 
Exhibition),  bronze  mecial  in  1867, 
and  a  "  Mention  honorable"  in  187S, 

Gray,  J.  A  maker  in  Fochabers,  Banff- 
shire, Scotland,  in  1870. 

Greffts,  Johann.  Was  working  at  Fussen, 
Bavaria,  in  1622. 

Gregori.   Worked  in  Bologna  about  1793. 

Gregorio,  Antoniazzi.   See  "  Antoniazzi." 

Griesser,  Matthias.  A  maker  in  Inns- 
bruck in  1727.  A  viola  d'amore,  with 
seven  strings  for  bowing  and  twelve 
harmonic  strings,  of  which  the  nineteen 
pegs  are  all  in  the  head,  which  is  very 
long,  is  in  the  Collecticm  of  the  Liceo 
filarmonico  at  liologna.  Label  : 
"  Matthias  (rriesser,  Lauten  und 
Geigenmacher  in  Innsbrugg,  anno 

Grimm,  Carl,  b.  1794  ;  d.  June,  1855,  at 
Berlin.  A  musician  who,  showing  great 
talent  in  making  violins,  started  a  busi- 
ness in  Berlin,  and  was  soon  considered 
one  of  the  best  German  makers  of  his 
time.  He  made  a  great  many  experi- 
ments, combined  with  a  serious  study 
of  the  work  of  the  old  Italian  makers  ; 
and  his  instruments  are  celebrated  for 
their  powerful  tone  and  for  the  beautiful 
(juality  of  their  varnish.  The  firm 
ne\'er  made  more  than  thirty  instru- 
ments per  year,  thus  devoting  much 
time  to  their  construction  and  finish. 
A  quartet  of  his  instruments  was  very 
generally  praised  at  the  London  K\- 
hibition  in  1862  for  their  rich  and  full 

Grimm,   Ludwig,   son   of  Carl   Grimm 
In  association  with  his  brother-in-law 
Hellmig,  continued   his    father's  busi- 
ness in  Berlin. 

Griseri,  Filippo.  A  maker  in  Florence 
in  1650. 

Grobitz,  A  A  German  who  was  work- 
ing in  Warsaw  in  1750,  and  made  good 
violins  on  the  Stainer  pattern 

Groll,  Matthew  A  maker  in  Meran, 
Tyrol,  in  1800. 

Grosset,  Paid  Francois.  A  maker  in 
Paris,  1747-59.  Pupil  of  Claude 
Pierrajv  lie  made  few  instruments  ; 
the  proportions  were  generally  bad,  too 
much  arched  ;  he  used  a  good  varnish 
of  brilliant  Nellow colour  ;  the  wf^rk  was 
fairly  good.  Two  five-stringed  viols  of 
Iiis  are  known,  onv,  dated  1749,  the 
otVier  T752.  In  a  violoncello  was  the 
lal)el  :  "  P.  F.  Grosset.  Au  dieu 
Apollon,    rue  de  la  Verrerio,  a  Paris, 

Grossi,  Giuseppe.     Work(;d  in  Bologna 

in  1S03 
Grou       A  maker  in  Paris  about  1752. 



Grulli,  Pietro.  Was  working  in  Cremona 
in  1883  ;  ^6  died  there  in  1898. 

Guadagnini,  Antonio,  son  of  C^aetano, 
grandson  of  Carlo  Guadagnini,  b.  1831  ; 
d.  1 88 1  at  Turin.  He  made  a  great 
many  instruments. 

Guadagnini,  Carlo  (?),  son  of  Gaetano, 
grandson  of  Giambattista  Guadagnini. 
A  maker  of  guitars  at  Turin  about 
1780.  He  also  repaired  instruments. 
His  three  sons,  Gaetano,  Giuseppe,  and 
Felice,  were  all  makers,  but  chiefly 
worked  at  repairing  old  instruments. 

Guadagnini,  Felice,  son  of  Carlo 
Guadagnini.  A  maker  in  Turin  about 
1835.  His  work  was  excellent,  he 
made  good  useful  instruments,  with 
well-cut  scroll,  but  the  varnish  hard 
and  cold. 

Guadagnini,  Francesco  and  Giuseppe, 
sons  of  Antonio  Guadagnini.  Makers 
at  Turin. 

Guadagnini,  Gaetano,  son  of  Giam- 
battista, grandson  of  Lorenzo.  Worked 
at  Turin  about  1750.  He  made  few 
new  instruments,  but  chiefly  repaired 
old  ones.  His  son.  Carlo,  was  also  a 

Guadagnini,  Gaetano.  Sec  "  Carlo 

Guadagnini,  Giambattista,  son  of 
Lorenzo,  b.  1711  at  Cremona;  d. 
Sept.  i8,  1786,  at  Turin.  Possibly 
worked  under  Antonio  Stradivari  in 
Cremona  before  he  accompanied  his 
father,  about  1730,  to  Milan.  Later 
he  went  with  him  to  Piacenza  and 
worked  there  many  years,  but  left 
when  his  father  died,  and  went  to 
Parma,  where  he  was  appointed  instru- 
ment maker  to  the  Duke ;  but  when  the 
pensions  to  the  artists  of  the  Duke's 
Court  were  discontinued,  m  1772,  he 
went  to  Turin  and  worked  there  till  his 
death,  1786.  A  pupil  of  hii'  father,  his 
violins  and  basses  show  the  same  form, 
the  same  qualities,  and  the  same 
defects.  He  followed  the  Stradivari 
pattern,  and  his  instruments  stand 
high  in  public  estimation.  He  often 
suffers  in  reputation  from  having  the 
same  Christian  name  as  his  uncle, 
Giovanni  liattista,  Lorenzo's  brother, 
whose  work  was  much  inferior  He 
used  wood  of  the  finest  (juality,  and 
the  varnish,  which  shows  unmistakable 
signs  of  inferiority  to  that  of  the 
great  makers,  was  that  brilliant  golden- 
red  colour  which  is  often  considered 
a  characteristic  of  a  "Guadagnini"  ; 
the  tone  is  not  large,  the  work  is 
well  and  carefully  done.  Labels  : 
"  Joannes   Baptista    Guadagnini    Cre- 

monensis  fecit  Taurini,  1776";  a 
similar  one  dated  1775;  and  "Joannes 
Baptista  Guadagnini.  Cremonensis 
fecit  Taurini.  Alumnus  Antoni  Stradi- 
vari. G.B.G.  1780."  He  had  two 
sons,  Gaetano  and  Giuseppe,  both 
Guadagnini,  Giovanni  Battista,  brother 
of  Lorenzo  Guadagnini.  Worked  in 
Milan,  Piacenza,  and  Turin  about  1695 
to  1775.  He  made  a  great  number  of 
instruments,  of  ordinary  workmanship, 
but  some  violins  are  well  finished  and 
the  tone  is  good  ;  they  are  made  on 
a  small  pattern,  slightly  arched,  the 
sound-holes  long  and  well  cut,  the 
varnish  a  rich  dark  red  colour,  very 
different  from  that  used  by  his  nephew 
Giambattista.  Labels  :  "  Joannes 
Guadagnini  fecit  Placentiae.  anno 
1747,"  and  "Joannes  Baptista  Guadag- 
nini Placentinus  fecit  Mediolani, 
1 775 ' ' ;  another  label  in  a  violin  is  dated 


Guadagnini,  Giuseppe,  second  son  of 
Giambattista,  grandson  of  Lorenzo,  b. 
about  1736;  d. about  1805.  Firstapupil 
of  his  father  in  Turin  (about  1751), 
then  worked  at  Milan,  Como,  and 
Parma  (about  1793).  Had  not  so 
much  ability  as  other  members  of  his 
family  ;  he  made  a  quantity  of  violins, 
altos,  and  violoncellos  on  the  Stradivari 
pattern.  His  work  was  much  inferior 
to  that  of  his  father,  whose  label  he 
often  used,  and  consequently  have  less 
market  value  ;  but  his  instruments 
generally  have  a  good  tone. 

Guadagnini,  Giuseppe.  See  "  Carlo 

Guadagnini,  Giuseppe.  See  "  Francesco 

Guadagnini,  Lorenzo,  b.  at  Piacenza  (?) 
about  1665 ;  worked  till  about  1740.  A 
well-known  pupil  of  Antonio  Stradivari 
at  Cremona,  he  worked  there  for  many 
years;  later  went  to  Milan  (about  1730) 
and  then  to  Piacenza.  His  instruments 
are  much  liked,  especially  the  violins; 
generally  made  on  a  small  pattern, 
slightly  arched,  of  good  proportions, 
the  wood  of  good  quality,  with  very 
beautiful  golden-red  varnish ;  the  purfl- 
ing  and  corners  rather  heavy,  the 
scroll  not  so  well  cut  as  that  of  Stradi- 
vari, the  tone  rich  and  powerful.  His 
instruments,  when  in  good  condition, 
are  of  a  high  commercial  value. 
Labels  :  "  Laurentius  (iuadagnini  Cre- 
monae  Alumnus  Stradivari  fecit,  anno 
Domini  17  — ,"and  Laurentius  Guadag- 
nini pater.  Alumnus  Antoni  Stradivari 
fecit  Placentiae,  anno  1743  "  ;    similar 



labels  are  dated  1742  and  1743- 
His  son,  Giambattista,  was  also  a 

Quatini,  Joseph,  b.  at  Geneva.  A 
maker  in  Germigny,  Vosges,  in  partner- 
ship with  Jules  Martin.  His  violins 
show  thoroughly  good  workmanship, 
they  have  double  purfling,  are  not 
much  arched,  and  are  made  of  carefully 
selected  wood,  with  a  full  and  powerful 

Guarneri,  Andrea,  b.  about  1626  at 
Cremona;  d.  there  Dec.  7,  1698  ;  was 
buried  in  the  Church  of  San  Domenico 
the  following  day.  He  was  descended 
from  an  ancient  and  noble  Cremonese 
family,  and  was  the  head  of  the  cele- 
brated family  of  makers^  known  by  the 
Latin  form  of  their  name , ' '  Guarnerius . ' ' 
Pupil  of  Antonio  and  Girolamo  Amati ; 
later,  about  1641,  of  Nicola  Amati,  a 
fellow  student  being  Antonio  Stradivari. 
He  was  one  of  the  witnesses  at  N. 
Amati's  marriage  in  1645,  but  was  not 
with  him  in  1646,  but  was  again  there 
in  1653.  While  influenced  by  Ant. 
and  Gir.  Amati  he  made  on  a  large 
pattern,  but  then  for  many  years 
followed  Nicola's  pattern.  About  1670 
the  character  of  his  sound-holes 
changed,  his  model  became  flatter,  and 
the  scroll  showed  much  character ;  this 
was  probably  when  the  influence  of 
Stradivari  began  to  be  felt,  one  of 
whose  earliest  followers  he  became ; 
but  throughout  he  always  retained  a 
quite  original  and  distinctive  style  of 
his  own.  Some  of  his  instruments  are 
beautifully  made,  especially  his  violins, 
which,  in  good  condition,  are  very  rare  ; 
violas,  of  which  three  are  known, 
suggest,  both  in  size  and  in  a  general 
way,  Maggini's  work  ;  a  violoncello  is 
known,  very  beautiful  not  only  in 
wood  and  varnish,  but  also  in  tone. 
As  a  rule  he  used  good  wood  and 
excellent  varnish,  which  varied  greatly 
in  colour  from  a  golden  yellow  to 
orange,  or  even  darker  rose  colour. 
The  sound-holes  also  vary,  but  are 
generally  straight ;  the  pattern  is 
slightly  arched,  the  sides  often  low  ; 
the  tone  is  brilliant,  but  does  not  carry 
well ;  the  work  is  neat,  but  not  highly 
finished.  Labels:  "  Andreas  Guarne- 
rius fecit  Cremonen  sub  titulo  Sanctae 
Teresiae,  1650"  (similar  labels  are 
dated  1670,  1675,  1690,  and  1696) ; 
"Andreas  Guarnerius  Cremonae  sub 
titulo  Sanctae  Teresiae,  i6gi  "  ;  and 
"  Sub  disciplina,  Andreae  Guarnerii  in 
ejus  officina  sub  titulo  S.  Teresiae 
Cremonae,  1676."     He  married,  in  the 

Church  of  San  Clemente,  Dec.  31,  1652, 
Anna  Maria  Orcelli  (d.  Jan.  13,  1695). 
He  lived  in  Piazza  San  Domenico,  now 
Piazza  Roma.  Two  of  his  sons,  Pietro 
Giovanni  and  Giuseppe  Giovan 
Battista,  were  makers. 

Guarneri,  Antonio.  Two  labels,  of 
doubtful  authenticity,  are  dated  1722. 

Guarneri,  Caterina  (?),  daughter  of 
Andrea.  Is  said  to  nave  worked  with 
her  father  and  brothers,  and  to  have 
made  some  violins  in  which  were  MS. 

Guarneri,  Gian  Battista,  son  of 
Bernardo,  who  was  a  younger  brother 
of  Andrea.  He  married  Angiola  Maria 
Locatelli,  Aug.  3,  1682,  and  had  six 
children ;  four  were  sons,  the  eldest, 
Giuseppe  Antonio,  b.  June  8,  1683  ;  d. 
a  few  months  after  his  birth  ;  the 
second,  the  only  violin  maker  of  this 
branch  of  the  family,  was  Giuseppe 
(del  Jesu),  b.  Oct.  16,  1686.  This 
is  mentioned  because  the  date  of  the 
eldest  son,  Giuseppe  Antonio,  is  very 
frequently  quoted  as  being  that  of 
Giuseppe,  known  as  del  Jesu,  the  great 
maker.  Gian  Battista  himself  was 
not  a  violin  maker. 

Guarneri,  Giuseppe,  known  as  "del 
Jesu,"  because  of  the  mark  of  a  cross 
with  the  letters  "  I.H.S."  beneath  on 
all  his  labels.  Was  the  second  son  of 
Gian  Battista  Guarneri,  b.  Oct.  17, 
1686,  at  Cremona;  d.  there  1745. 
The  date  of  his  birth  is  entered  in  the 
registers  of  the  parish  of  San  Donato, 
at  Cremona  ;  his  name  also  appears  in 
other  archives  till  the  end  of  the  year 
1702,  when  all  trace  of  him  is  lost  ; 
but  "  fecit  Cremonae"  on  all  his  labels 
proves  that  all  his  work  was  done  at 
Cremona.  Was  said  to  be  a  pupil  of 
Antonio  Stradivari,  but  the  character 
of  his  work  does  not  authorise  such  a 
statement ;  it  is  impossible  to  say 
from  whom  he  learnt,  he  worked  on 
such  totally  different  principles  from 
those  of  contemporary  makers ;  but 
his  work  sometimes  resembles  that  of 
his  cousin  Giuseppe,  son  of  Andrea. 
There  is  a  tradition  that  he  led  an 
irregular  life,  was  finally  imprisoned 
until  his  death,  and  made  violins  in 
prison,  with  wood  and  varnish  obtained 
first  from  one  maker  and  then  from 
another  by  the  gaoler's  daughter,  who 
afterwards  hawked  the  instruments 
round  at  miserable  prices,  to  obtain 
money  for  him.  This  was  probably 
invented  to  account  for  the  number  of 
inferior  violins  which  contain  his 
labels,  probably  all  spurious,  for  even 



early  imitations,  which  are  well  made, 
are  numerous.  Giuseppe  del  Jesu  was 
the  greatest  maker  of  this  family,  his 
violins  are  especially  celebrated  for 
their  powerful  tone.  Paganini  played 
on  a  particularly  fine  one,  of  grand 
tone,  dated  1743  ;  he  bequeathed  it  to 
the  City  of  Genoa,  where  it  is  now 
kept  in  the  I'alazzo  Municipale.  An- 
other very  fine  one,  dated  1714, 
belonged  to  Ole  Bull,  the  great 
violinist.  Another  magnificent  one, 
dated  1734,  was  nicknamed  "  Le 
violon  du  diable,"  because  it  was  the 
instrument  played  on  in  an  opera  of 
that  name.  A  most  beautiful  one, 
.which  belonged  to  the  violinist  Alard, 
was  labelled  "  Joseph  Guarnerius  fecit 

Cremonae,  anno  1742,  I.H.S."  A 
violin,  dated  1741,  which  formerly 
belonged  to  Vieuxlemps,  has  not  a 
single  crack  ;  the  wood  is  very  thick,  it 
is  not  arched,  with  high  sides ;  the 
varnish,  thickly  put  on,  is  a  splendid 
brownish-red  tinged  golden  colour  ;  the 
work  is  carelessly  finished,  but  the 
tone  is  splendid.  The  "  King  Joseph  " 
violin  was  on  a  large  pattern,  made  of 
splendid  wood,  not  arched,  with 
peculiarly  shaped  sound-holes,  and  rich 
amber-coloured  varnish  ;  it  was  sold  for 
700  guineas.  A  violin,  made  with  the 
back  in  two  parts,  with  brownish-red 
varnish,  was  dated  1723.  A  beautifully 
made  viola  was  labelled:  "Joseph 
Guarnerius  Cremonensis  faciebat, 
1724."  His  W'Ork  is  generally  divided 
into  three  periods :  the  first  shows  no 
originality,  for  he  either  imitated 
Nicola  Amati  or  G.  P.  Maggini, 
reviving  the  pattern  of  the  latter,  which 
is  arched  from  the  purfling,  with  semi- 
circular middle  bouts,  pointed  sound- 
holes,  and  short  corners;  the  tone  is 
good.  In  the  second  period,  the 
pattern  is  small  and  slightly  arched  in 
a  gradual  rise  from  the  purfling,  the 
thicknesses  vary,  but  especially 
increase  at  the  centre  of  the  back — a 
delect,  in  so  far  as  it  prevents  free 
vibration  ;  the  proportions  are  accurate, 
the  sound-holjs  well  cut  (often  sharply 
pointed  top  and  bottom),  the  tone  is  full 
of  r)rilliancy,  the  rich  golden  or 
brownish-red  varnish  is  of  fine  elastic 
qualit}-,  very  transparent,  and  rivals 
that  of  Stradivari.  The  work  is  most 
carefully  finished;  the  wood,  generally 
sycamore,  varies  both  in  quality  and 
appearance  ;  it  is  thought  that  he  used 
the  same  large  piece  of  pine  for  nearlv 
all  the  bellies-   a  stain  or  sap  mark  runs 

through  it,  which,  though  sometimes 
faint,  can  always  be  seen.  For  this 
reason  three  violins  of  Carlo  Bergonzi, 
with  bellies  evidently  cut  from  the 
same  piece  of  pine,  were  for  a  long  time 
thought  to  be  Giuseppe's  work.  In 
the  third  period,  dating  from  about 
1735,  to  which  Paganini's  and  Alard's 
violins  belong,  the  instruments  vary 
greatly  in  pattern  and  appearance,  but 
show  his  originality  and  ability  ;  they 
are  equal  to  the  most  beautiful  work  of 
Stradivari.  Made  on  a  large  pattern,  of 
excellent  wood,  with  accurate  propor- 
tions and  thicknesses,  and  beautiful 
varnish,  as  remarkable  for  its  fine  and 
elastic  quality  as  for  its  colour,  either 
rich  amber  or  rose-red,  slightly  darker 
and  thicker  than  that  of  Stradivari ; 
the  quaint  head,  very  characteristic,  is 
entirely  different  from  Stradivari's;  the 
purfling  is  embedded,  the  sound-hole, 
losing  its  pointed  form,  is  rather  open  ; 
the  edges  are  heavy,  the  tone  is  power- 
ful, mellow,  and  rich.  It  was  at  this 
time  that  the  so-called  "prison"  violins, 
already  mentioned,  suddenly  appeared. 
All  his  variety  of  work — the  different 
sized  patterns,  sometimes  arched,  some- 
times flat  ;  the  sound-holes,  long, 
perpendicular,  or  short  and  slanting — 
was  a  continuous  effort  to  increase 
the  tone  of  his  instruments,  and  he 
finally  succeeded  in  obtaining  a  notably 
pure  and  powerful  volume  of  tone. 
He  made  more  violins  than  violas. 
About  fifty  genuine  violins  and  ten 
violas  are  known  ;  no  violoncello  is 
known.  His  instruments  have  steadily 
increased  in  price,  no  doubt  owing  to 
the  strong  wood  he  used  ;  it  depreciates 
the  tone  at  first,  but  with  time  vibrates 
more  freely,  the  quality  of  tone  becom- 
ing stronger  and  more  refined.  In 
1876  a  violin  was  sold  for  600  guineas 
in  a  sale-room  ;  another  was  recently 
sold  for  /500. 
Guarneri,  Giuseppe  Giovan  Battista, 
second  son  of  Andrea,  b.  Nov.  25,  1666, 
Cremona  ;  d.  soon  after  1738.  Said  to 
have  been  a  pupil  of  his  father,  but 
showed  much  originality  ;  some  of  his 
instruments  are  very  similar  to  those 
of  his  cousin,  Giuseppe  del  Jesu,  but 
the  tone  is  not  so  powerful  and  round  ; 
others  follow  the  pattern  of  Stradi- 
vari: His  violins  are  numerous  and 
show  good  work.  They  are  generally 
made  on  a  small  pattern,  the  waist  of 
the  instrument  narrow  and  rapidly 
widening  fnjm  the  centre  ;  the  sound- 
holes,  placed  lower  than  usual,  are 
widely  opened  about  the  middle ;   the 



brilliant  reddish  varnish  is  of  excellent 
quality,  the  wood  well  chosen,  the  tone 
\ery  lull  and  rich,  the  work  carefully 
finished ;  two  beautiful  instruments 
were  exhibited  at  South  Kensington 
Museum,  1872,  dated  respectively  16S4 
and  1707.  Many  of  his  best  violins 
have  been  given  labels  of  Giuseppe  del 
Jesu,  since  the  latter's  name  became 
well  known,  and  some  good  imitations 
of  Stradivari  have  been  labelled  with 
Stradivari's  name.  He  also  made 
tenors  and  violoncellos  ;  the  latter  are 
very  rare,  the  wood  generally  plain, 
workmanship  rather  careless,  but  the 
tone  always  excellent.  A  very  fine 
violoncello,  with  back,  sides,  and  neck 
of  beautiful  small-figured  wood,  belly 
of  fine-grained  wood,  with  rich  red 
varnish,  and  of  good  tone,  was  dated 
1713.  Label:  "Joseph  Guarnerius, 
filius  Andreae  fecit  Cremonse,  sub 
titulo  S.  Teresiae,  16  —  ";  a  similar 
one  dated  1706.  On  Jan.  4,  1690,  he 
married  Barbara  Franchi  (d.  1738), 
and  had  six  children.  Of  his  three 
sons,  Pietro  was  the  only  one  who 
became  a  maker. 
Guarneri,  Pietro,  son  of  Giuseppe  Giovan 
Battista  Guarneri,  grandson  of  Andrea, 
b.  April  14, 1695,  at  Cremona.  Worked 
first  in  Mantua  and  then  in  Venice  till 
about  1760.  He  followed  the  patterns 
of  his  uncle  I'ietro,  and  may  have  been 
his  pupil  while  in  Mantua.  His  work 
is  very  good ;  his  instruments  are 
rather  arched,  have  splendid  varnish, 
and  a  fine  rich  tone.  A  most  beautiful 
violoncello  is  known,  the  sides  and  back 
made  of  maple,  beautifully  marked,  the 
varnish  admirable,  a  golden  amber 
colour  tinted  with  rose,  rather  similar 
to  that  of  Montagnana.  In  it  is  the 
label  :  "  Petrus  Guarnerius  filius 
Joseph  Cremonensis  fecit  Venetiis, 
anno  1739";  a  similar  label   is  dated 

Guarneri,  Pietro  Giovanni,  eldest  son  of 
Andrea,  b.  Feb.  iS,  1655,  at  Cremona; 
d.  about  1740.  He  remained  in  Cre- 
mona till  1680,  then  went  to  ^lantua ; 
he  visited  Cremona  for  a  few  months 
in  1698  (the  year  of  his  father's  death), 
but  returned  to  Mantua  and  probably 
lived  there,  1700-40.  Said  to  have 
been  a  pupil  of  Girolamo  Amati.  His 
instruments  differ  from  those  of  his 
father  and  brother,  but  he  used  their 
labels  for  the  violins  made  before  he 
had  left  Cremona.  His  work  shows 
great  originality ;  his  violins  are  on  a 
large  pattern,  very  arched,  made  of 
good  wood,   that  of  the  bellies  being 

wide  in  grain  and  very  even ;  the 
breadth  between  the  sound-holes  is 
increased  and  the  corners  are  delicately 
worked ;  the  purfiing  excellent ;  the 
scroll  very  characteristic ;  the  trans- 
parent varnish,  of  beautiful  rich  quality, 
either  warm  yellow  or  pale  red  colour  ; 
the  tone  is  full,  but  lacks  brilliancy. 
The  \  ioloncellos  he  made  when  in  Man- 
tua are  often  of  exaggerated  form,  and 
were  intended  for  use  in  processions, 
the  performers  having  them  suspended 
round  the  neck.  His  work,  generally 
excellent,  had  some  serious  defects 
Though  quite  correctly  making  the 
backs  and  bellies  of  his  violins  of 
equal  thicknesses,  he  made  them  too 
thin,  which  rendered  the  tone  veiled 
and  dull,  and  also  gave  too  much 
flexibility  to  the  instrument,  so  that 
the  tension  on  the  strings  is  great, 
it  is  difficult  to  keep  them  up  to  pitch, 
and  they  are  liable  to  break.  His 
instruments,  however,  are  much  valued. 
Labels:  "Petrus  Guarnerius  Cre- 
monensis fecit  Mantuai  sub.  tit.  Sanct?e 
Teresiae,  1695,"  similar  ones  are  dated 
1690  and  1710 ;  and  "  Revisto  e  corretto 
da  me  Pietro  Guarneri  Cremonese  in 
IMantova,  1697."  ^^  i^77  he  married 
Caterina  Sussagni ;  had  one  son,  Andrea 
Francesco,  b.  Jan.  29,  1678,  who  was 
not  a  violin  maker. 

Gudis,  Hieronimo.  A  maker  in  Cremona 
in  1727.  A  very  beautiful  viola d'amore 
of  his  is  known,  the  belly  made  of  good 
pine,  the  back  and  sides  of  beautifully 
marked  maple ;  the  carved  neck  ends  in 
a  woman's  head  with  eyes  bandaged, 
it  has  17  pegs;  the  varnish  is  light,  a 
golden  yellow  colour,  and  the  work  is 
carefully  finished. 

Guedon,  Jacques  Antoine.  A  maker  in 
Paris;  working,  1775-77,  i^  rue  de  la 
Tissanderie ;  and,  1779-83,  in  rue 

Guerin,  Alexandre  Sauveur,  b.  Aug.  20, 
1834,  HN-eres  ;  d.  1897.  Pupil  and 
successor  of  Edmond  Daniel.  Worked 
at  Marseilles,  18  rue  Paradis.  Repaired 
old  instruments  and  made  new  ones  on 
the  pattern  of  Stradivari ;  used  an 
orange-red  varnish.  Exhibited  at  Mar- 
seilles, 1861  and  1886;  Nimes,  1863; 
and  Paris,  1889  ;  and  was  awarded  gold 
medals,  i  silver  medal,  i  bronze  medal, 
and  a  diploma  of  honour.  He  was 
assisted  by  his  son  Marius  (b.  1871) 
who  was  a  pupil  of  Darte  a* 
Mirecourt,  and  then  worked  under 
Gand  and  Bernardel  in  Paris. 

Guerra,  Giacomo.  A  maker  in  Modena 
in  1810. 



Guerrero,  Juan.  Working  in  Malaga  in 
the  i8th  century.  In  a  guitar  is  the 
label :  "  Juan  Guerrero  me  fecit  en 
Malaga  en  el  ano  de  175 — ." 

Guersan,  Louis.  A  maker  in  Paris  about 
1 730-69 ;  was  living  in  rue  de  la  Comedie- 
Fran^aise  in  1 760,  and  in  rue  des  Fosses 
St. -Germain  in  1769.  Was  one  of  a 
family  whose  members  for  more  than 
a  century  had  been  violin  makers ;  he 
himself  was  one  of  the  best  French 
makers  of  his  period.  Pupil  and  suc- 
cessor of  Claude  Pierray .  When  he  left 
the  latter' s  workshop  he  made  various 
experiments  in  altering  the  arching,  the 
thicknesses,  &c.,  using  spirit  varnish 
on  his  instruments ;  the  result,  however, 
was  not  good,  the  tone  produced  being 
harsh  and  shrill.  He  was  appointed 
maker  to  the  Dauphin  and  to  the  Opera ; 
in  the  archives  of  the  latter  is  a  quaint 
memorandum  of  repairs  done  by  him 
to  the  double-bass  of  the  Opera, 
which  proves  that  at  this  date  (1749) 
there  was  only  one  double-bass  in  the 
orchestra.  He  made  many  instru- 
ments, and  they  fetch  good  prices. 
Made  on  a  small  pattern,  the  propor- 
tions, depth  of  the  sides  and  thicknesses 
vary  continually,  especially  in  the 
violoncellos  ;  the  alcoholic  varnish  is 
hard  and  dry,  either  a  pale  yellow  or 
rose  colour ;  its  great  drawback  is  that 
it  dries  too  quickly  and  paralyses  the 
vibrations,  doing  a  great  deal  of  harm 
to  the  tone ;  the  work  is  beautifully 
finished.  A  viola  of  middle  size,  with 
the  back  in  two  parts  and  a  brownish- 
red  varnish,  is  known.  Several  five- 
stringed  viols  of  his  are  in  the  Collection 
of  the  Paris  Conservatoire  ;  two  are 
dated  1747.  one  1751.  and  one  1755. 
Two  six-stringed  viols  are  dated  1755 
and  1763.      A  treble-viol,  in  beautiful 

preservation,  with  pale  yellow  varnish, 
and  of  very  careful  workmanship,  is 
dated  1752.  A  handsome  violin  is 
dated  1737,  another  1744,  and  another 
1766.  Two  violoncellos  were  dated 
1740.  Labels:  "Louis  Guersan  pres 
la  Comedie-Fran(;aise  a  Paris,  1730," 
and  "  Ludovicus  Guersan,  prope 
comcediam  gallicam,  Lutetiae,  1766." 

Gugemmos  (Guggemos).  A  maker  in 
Fussen,  Bavaria,  in  the  i8th  century. 
His  work  was  poor  and  he  used 
varnish  of  bad  quality. 

Guglielmi,  Gio.  Battista.  A  maker  in 
Cremona,  1747. 

Guidantus,  Joannes  Florenus.  A  maker 
in  Bologna  about  1685  to  1728.  Was 
possibly  a  pupil  of  Nicola  Amati.  He 
was  an  excellent  workman,  his  instru- 
ments look  well,  are  on  a  high  model, 
with  long  sound-holes ;  but  the  purfling 
is  carelessly  done  and  the  tone  is 
rather  poor.  A  viola  d'amore,  exhibited 
at  Milan  in  1881,  ornamented  with  a 
beautiful  head,  artistically  carved,  re- 
presenting a  blindfolded  Cupid,  was 
labelled:  "Joannes  Guidantus  fecit 
Bononiae,  anno  1715."  Another  label 
was:  "Joannes  Florenus  Guidantus 
fecit  Bononiae,  1724."  A  viola  da  gamba 
was  dated  1728.     See  "Florenus." 

Guidomini,  Lorenzo.     In  Milan,  1740. 

Guillami.  A  Spanish  family  of  violin 
makers  who  worked  about  1680-1780. 

Guillaume.  A  guitar  of  his  is  dated 
1789.  A  Fran9ois  Guillaume,  a  maker 
of  harps  in  Paris,  was  working  in  rue 
de  rUniversite,  1783-86;  and  in  the 
rue  de  Beaune,  1788-89. 

Guiton,  R.,  of  Cork;  clever  maker. 

Gusetto,  Nicola.  Worked  in  Florence, 
1730.     Was  later  in  Cremona. 

Gutermann.  A  maker  of  good  instru- 
ments in  Vienna  in  the  19th  century. 


Haensel,  Johann  Anton.  W^as  maker 
and  chamber  musician  to  the  Duke  of 
Schonburg,  at  Rochsburg,  about  1800- 
15.  In  Jan.,  181 1,  he  published  an 
article  in  the  Allgemeine  Musikaltsche 
Zeiiung  (Leipzig),  called  "  Ueber  den 
Bauder  Violine,"  in  which  he  described 
a  new  form  for  the  violin,  which  he 
said  he  had  invented  as  early  as  1801. 
The  invention  did  not  live. 

Haff.  A  maker  in  Augsburg  in  the  19th 

Hamberger.  Joseph.  A  celebrated 
maker    in    Pressburg,    Hungary ;     he 

died  i858.  His  son  also  worked  in 
Pressburg  ;  he  died  in  1891.  Another 
son  is  a  maker  in  Vienna. 

Hamm,  Johann  Gottfried.  A  German 
maker  who  worked  1780-1810.  Instru- 
ments are  known,  with  ivory  edges, 
in  which  his  name  is  branded. 

Hammig,  W  H,  b.  1838.  A  maker  in 
Leipzig,  who  turns  out  good  instru- 

Harbour  or  Harbur.  A  maker  who 
lived  in  1785  at  Duke  Street.  Lincoln's 
Inn,  London  ;  in  1786,  at  Southampton 
Buildings,  Holborn. 



Hardanger.  For  instruments  made  by 
the  Hardanger  peasants  in  Norway, 
s€e  "  Eriksen"  and  "  Heldal." 

Hardie,  James,  and  Sons.  Makers  at 
117,  Nicolson  Street,  Edinburgh. 
James  Hardie,  b.  Aguhadley,  Ellon, 
about  1837 ''  grandson  and  pupil  of 
Peter  Hardie.  Started  his  own  busi- 
ness in  Edinburgh,  where  he  is  assisted 
by  his  four  sons.  They  have  made 
between  two  and  three  thousand 
instruments,  on  the  Maggini,  Stradi- 
vari, and  Guarneri  patterns,  using  oil 
varnish,  reddish-yellow  colour,  of  good 
quality.  Exhibited  in  Edinburgh, 
1887  ^^^  1890;  received  bronze  medal, 
1887,  and  gold  medal,  1890. 

Hardie,  Matthew,  b.  1755  ;  d.  1826,  and 
his  son,  Thomas,  b.  1804  ;  d  Jan.  19, 
1856.  They  worked  together  in  Edin- 
burgh and  made  good  violins,  violas, 
and  violoncellos  on  the  Amati  pattern  ; 
his  instruments  have  a  fine  tone,  and 
the  work  is  neatly  finished. 

Hardie,  Peter.      A  maker  in  Dunkeld, 
b.    1773 ;    d.    1863.      He    turned    out 
excellent  instruments,  and  his  violon- 
cellos have  an  especially  fine  tone. 

Hare,  Joseph  (or  John).  A  maker  in 
London  about  1700-30.  He  made  the 
innovation  of  following  the  pattern  of 
Stradivari,  instead  of  that  of  Stainer 
as  his  contemporaries  did  ;  he  also  used 
a  rich  red  varnish,  of  very  good  quality, 
more  transparent  than  that  generally 
used  by  English  makers.  Is  said  to 
have  been  in  partnership  with  Freeman. 
Label:  "Joseph  Hare  at  ye  viol  and 
flute  near  the  Royal  Exchange  in 
Cornhill,  London,  1726." 

Harham.    Working  in  London,  1765-85. 

Harmand.  A  makerin  Mirecourt  in  1772. 

Harris,  Charles.  A  maker  in  London, 
1780-1800 ;  lived  in  Cannon  Street 
Road,  Ratcliffe  Highway.  He  was  a 
Custom  House  officer.  He  was  one  of 
the  best  Enghsh  makers  of  his  time, 
and  was  noted  for  his  violoncellos  and 
the  excellent  varnish  that  he  used,  of  a 
particular  reddish  tinge.  He  copied  the 
Stradivari  and  Amati  patterns,  but 
seldom  labelled  his  instruments  with 
his  name.  Samuel  Gilkes  worked  for 
him  for  some  time. 

Harris,  Charles,  eldest  son  of  Charles 
Harris.  Was  a  fellow  apprentice  of 
Samuel  Gilkes  under  his  father,  and 
also  worked  for  John  Hart  for  a  little 
time.  His  work  was  well  finished,  he 
used  yellow  varnish. 

Hart,  John  Thomas,  b.  Dec.  17,  1805, 
London;  d.  Jan.  i,  1874.  In  May, 
1820    he  became  a  pupil   of  Samuel 

Gilkes.  He  made  few  new  instruments, 
but  had  a  great  reputation  for  his 
experience  and  skill  in  repairing  old 
Italian  instruments.  Label:  "John 
Hart,  maker,  14,  Princess  Street, 
Leicester  Square,  London,  anno  18 — ." 

Hartung,  Michael.  A  maker  in  Padua, 
1602.  A  lute  of  his  of  that  date  is  in 
the  Collection  of  the  Germanic  Society, 

Hassert.  A  maker  in  Eisenach  in  the 
i8th  century.  He  made  very  good 
instruments,  not  much  arched,  used 
beautiful  wood,  and  an  amber-coloured 
varnish ;  his  imitations  of  Italian 
instruments  were  excellent. 

Hassert.  A  brother  of  Hassert,  of 
Eisenach.  Worked  about  1790  in 
Rudolstadt.  His  instruments  were 
not  so  good  as  those  of  his  brother  ; 
they  are  much  arched,  of  excellent 
wood,  and  finished  with  great  care,  but 
the  tone  is  rather  harsh. 

Haudek,  Carl.     S^<:  "  Lembock." 

Haynes,  Jacob.  Was  working  in  London 
in  1746.  He  followed  the  Stainer 

Heberlein,  Heinrich,  jun.  A  very  clever 
maker  in  Markneukirchen,  Saxony,  at 
the  present  time. 

Heesom,  Edward.  Was  working  in 
London  about  1748-50.  He  followed 
the  Stainer  pattern.  Label :  "  Edward 
Heesom,  Londini,  fecit  1749." 

Heidegger.     A  maker  in  Passau. 

Heinle,  J.  A  maker  in  Paris.  Only  one 
violin,  dated  1761,  of  his  is  known. 

Hel,  Pierre  Joseph,  b.  Feb.  8,  1842,  at 
Mazirot,  near  Mirecourt  ( Vosges) .  Was 
apprenticed  for  seven  years  in  Mire- 
court, was  then  for  two  years  with 
Sebastien  Vuillaume  in  Paris,  and  for  a 
year  (1864-5)  with  Nicolas  Darche  at 
Aix-la-Chapelle.  In  1865  he  started  his 
own  business  at  14,  rue  Nationale, 
Lille.  He  was  an  excellent  workman 
and  made  all  his  instruments  himself; 
the  pattern  is  very  beautiful  ;  the  tone 
is  good ;  he  used  oil  varnish  ;  all  the 
details  are  carefully  finished.  He  also 
showed  great  skill  in  repairing  old 
Italian  instruments.  He  had  a  special 
method  of  seasoning  the  wood  he  used, 
removing,  without  the  use  of  fire  or 
acids,  every  element  that  interferes 
with  the  tone.  In  1886  he  invented 
an  ingenious  method  of  fixing  the 
pegs,  which  enables  the  strings  to  be 
gradually  tightened,  and  prevents  their 
suddenly  running  down ;  the  shape  of 
the  head  remains  the  same.  Was 
awarded :  gold  medal,  Lille,  1S82  ; 
diploma  of  honour,   St.  Omer,   1884  ; 




gold     medal,     Antwerp,     1885 ;     gold 
medal,   Liverpool,   1886;    gold  medal, 
Paris,  1889  ;  a  member  of  the  jury  at 
the  Munich  Exhibition,   1893,  conse- 
quently unable  to  compete ;  the  same 
at   Chicago,   1893 ;    and  at  Bordeaux, 
1895.     Made  "  Officier  de  1' Academic" 
and  "  Luthier  to  the  Lille  Conserva- 
toire."    Label:   "Joseph  Hel,  luthier 
a  Lille,  18 — ."     He  died  1902. 
Held,  J.  J.,  b.  July  17,  1823,  Flamers- 
heim,    Rheinbach    (Cologne).      When 
only  14   began   to   repair   old   instru- 
ments, and  a  few  years  later  made  new 
ones.     In  i860  started  his  business  in 
Euskirchen ;     moved    to    his    present 
abode  at  Beuel  vis-a-vis  Bonn  (Rhine), 
1871.     He  makes  from  12  to  16  violins 
and  violas  a  year,  assisted  by  his  son 
and  one  workman,  but  always  does  the 
varnishing  himself ;  copies  the  Italian 
patterns.      Was    awarded :    Diploma, 
Vienna,  1873;  medal,  Diisseldori,  1880; 
diploma,  Detmold,  1881  ;  silver  medals 
at  Krems  and  Wels,  1882 ;  Milan.  1884 ; 
and  medal,  Gorlitz,  1889. 
Heldal,    A.,    of    Bergen.      In    1862   he 
exhibited  in   London    a   "  Hardanger 
violin,"      more     interesting     for     its 
nationality  than  for  its  musical  merit, 
as  it  was  one  made  by  the  peasants  in 
Hardanger,  Norway. 
Hell,  Ferdinand.     A  maker  in  Vienna. 
In    1854   he    exhibited    in    Munich   a 
double-bass  of  rather   small   pattern, 
but  of  powerful  tone.     He  is  also  the 
inventor    of    the    trumpet-violin,    an 
instrument  which  can   be   used   as   a 
trumpet  or  as  a  violin  equally  well. 
Helmer(Hellmer),  Carl.b.  1739,  Prague; 
d.  181 2.     Son  of  a  maker  there.     He 
was  working  under  Ulrich  Eberle  for 
some  years,  and  made  some  very  good 
violins,  with  red-brown  varnish.     The 
earliest  date  found  in  his  instruments 
is  said  to  be  1769.     Label:  "  Carolus 
Hellmer  me  fecit  Praga?,  17 — . " 
Helmer,  Jehan.     A  maker  of  guitars  in 
Lyons  about  1568-72.    Was  of  German 
Hellmig,    son-in-law    of    Carl    Grimm, 
whose    business    he    continued    with 
Louis  Grimm   on   the   death  of  Carl 
Henderson,  D      A  maker  in  Aberdeen. 
Hence  (or  Henocq),  Fran9ois.    A  maker 
in  Paris,  rue  Jacob,  1775-77,  and  rue 
des  Saints-Peres,  1779-89. 
Hence     (Henocq),     Jean     (?     Georges 
Bienaime).      A  maker  in   Paris  from 
1768  to  about  1790.     Lived  in  the  rue 
Henry.     A  maker  in  Paris  in  rue  Saint- 

Andre-des-Arcs.     A   bass  of  his  dated 
1737  is  known,  of  good  workmanship, 
and  with  red-brown  varnish.     It  is  not 
known  if  he  was  related  tc  the  present 
Henry  family  in  Paris. 
Henry,  Charles,  called  Carolus,  second 
son  of  Jean  Baptiste  Henry;  b.  1803  ; 
d.  1859.     Pupil  of  his  father,  to  whose 
business  in  Paris  he  succeeded  in  183 1  ; 
he   made  a   large   number  of  violins, 
altos,  and  violoncellos.      The  pattern 
varied,  especially  in    the    violins ;    he 
used  yellow-red  varnish,  and  his  work 
was  carefully   finished.      In    1847   he 
made     an      instrument      called      the 
"baryton,"  which,  though  played  like 
the  violin,  sounded  an  octave  below. 
Awards  :   bronze  medal,  Paris,   1849  ; 
' '  Mention  honorable ' '  and  second-class 
medal,  1855.    Label:  "Carolus  Henry, 
luthier,    rue    Saint-Martin    No.    151, 
fecit  Anno  Domini  (1831  a  1859)."    His 
son,  Eugene,  was  also  a  maker. 
Henry,  Eugene,  son  of  Charles  Henry  ; 
b.  1843 ;  d.  Sept.  7, 1892.    He  succeeded 
his  father,  and  was  one  of  the  best 
Parisian    makers    of    his    time;    was 
especially  successful  in  repairing  old 
instruments.     Many  of  the  new  violins 
that  bear  his  name  were  not  entirely 
made    by    him,    although    made    in 
his    workshop.       Awards:    "Mention 
honorable,"  Paris,    1878,  and  bronze 
medal,     1889.       His     business     was 
continued  after  his  death  by  Charles 
Henry,  Jean  Baptiste,  b.  1757  at  Matain- 
court,    near    Mirecourt    (Vosges)  ;    d. 
1 83 1,  Paris.     He  was  the  head  of  the 
present  family  of  makers.    Was  appren- 
ticed in  Mirecourt,  then  went  to  Paris, 
and  established  himself  in  connection 
with  the  St.  Martin  Monastery,  thereby 
obtaining  exemption  from  certain  fees 
and  penalties  he  would  otherwise  have 
had   to   pay.      He    worked   there   till 
1788,  when  the  ancient   privileges  of 
the  monasteries  were  abolished.    Then 
moved  into  No.  175,  rue  Saint-Martin ; 
the  number  was  afterwards  changed  to 
151,  but  his  family  always  continued 
working  in  the  same  house.     A  violin 
is  dated  1781,  but  he  did  not  put  labels 
in  his  instruments,  and  those  that  bear 
his  name   were  labelled  by  his  sons, 
Jean  Baptiste  Felix  and  Charles,  who 
were  both  makers. 
Henry,  Jean  Baptiste  Felix,  eldest  son  of 
Jean  Baptiste  Henry;  b.  1793,  Paris; 
d.  there,   1858.      Pupil  of  his  father. 
Worked  first  in  1817  at  rue  Montmartre, 
Paris ;   in  Bordeaux   in  1822,  and  in 
Marseilles  in  1825.    In  1844  he  returned 



to   Paris,  living    in    the  rue    Flechier 
tUl    his    death.       He    made    a    great 
many   instruments,   but   never  signed 
them.      His  son,  Octave,  was  also  a 
Henry,    Octave,    son   of  Jean    Baptiste 
Felix  Henry  ;   b.   1826.     Worked  first 
with  his  uncle,  Charles,  and  then  with 
Maucotel  at  Paris.     He  settled  in  Gre- 
noble in  1854  and  made  a  great  many 
Henry.     A  violin  bow  maker,  b.  1812  at 
Mirecourt ;  d   1870  at  Paris.     He  left 
Mirecourt  for  Paris  in  1837,  and  first 
worked  with  Chanot,  then  w;ith  Peccate. 
Was  partner  of  Simon,  1848-51,  then 
worked  alone,  first  at  8,  rue  des  Vieux- 
Augustins,  later  in    the   rue   Pagevin. 
His    bows   are  excellent,    he    marked 
them    "  Henry,    Paris."      He  was   no 
relation  to  the  Henrys  of  rue  Saint- 
Hetel,  G.     Maker  of  lutes  and  cithers  in 
Rome   in    1763.      Label  :    "  G.    Hetel 
fecit  Rom.'c.  anno  1763." 
Heubsch,    J.    G.   G.      He   published   a 
work  on  the  making  of  musical  instru- 
ments about  1764. 
Hieben,  Giovanni.     A  maker  of  lutes  in 
Venice  in  1581.     In  an  arch-lute  was 
the  label  "  Giovanni  Hieben  e  Martine, 
faciebat  in  Venezia,  Ao.  1381." 
Hieronymus,  Geraldi.    A  maker  of  lutes 
and  cithers  in  Brescia  about  1574.     In 
a  cither,  remarkably  well  made,  is  still 
legible"  .     .     .     onimus  Bresciensis." 
In   a  cither   in   the  Hof.-Museum   at 
Vienna,    beautifully   worked    and    de- 
corated,   is    the   name   "  Hieronymus 
Brixiensis"  and  the  date  1574. 
Higgins,  P.  H.     A  maker  in  Montreal, 
who  exhibited  some  of  his  instruments 
in  1851. 
Hildebrandt,  Michael  Christopher.     A 
maker  in   Hamburg  about   1765-1S00. 
Good  violins,  violas,  violoncellos,  and 
double-basses  of  his   are  known  ;    he 
was  also  extremely  skilful  in  repairing 
old  instruments. 
Hill,    Henry    Lockey.    son   of    Lockey 
Hill  ;      grandson     of     Joseph      Hill  ; 
b.   1774  ;   d.   x\ug.,   1835.     Worked  for 
some    time     with     John     Betts,    was 
probably  still  with  him  when  he  took 
patterns  (still  preserved  by  the  firm)  of 
a     Stradivari     violoncello,    sent     by 
Friedrich  Wilhelm  III.  of  Prussia  to 
John    Betts   in    1810,    to    be    sold    in 
England.     He  was  an  excellent  work- 
man,   and    some    violins,    violas,    and 
violoncellos   of   his   are   exceptionally 
good  instruments.     Of  his  four  sons,   I 
Henry  (d.  1856)  was  a  fine  viola  player,   1 

Joseph  (d.  1837)  and  William  Ebsworth 
were  both  makers. 
Hill,  John.  A  maker  who  apparently 
worked  in  Red  Lion  Street.  Holborn, 
was  there,  at  any  rate,  in  1794. 
Hill.  Joseph,  b.  1715  ;  d.  1784.  He  was 
a  fellow-apprentice  of  Banks,  working 
at  "  Ye  Harp  and  Hautboy,"  in  Picca- 
dilly, London,  under  Peter  Wamsley, 
about  1740-42.  Then  worked  in  High 
Holborn  (1753).  then  at  the  sign  of 
"Ye  Violin,"  in  Angel  Court,  West- 
minster (1756).  and  lastly  at  the  sign 
of  the  "  Harp  and  Flute  "  in  the  Hay- 
market  (1762).  Later  on.  his  sons 
became  partners  in  the  business.  His 
instruments  are  of  great  merit;  his 
violoncellos  and  double-basses  are 
especially  liked,  some  have  a  fine  oil 
varnish.  Label:  "  Joseph  Hill,  maker 
at  the  *  Harp  and  Flute '  in  the  Hay- 
market,  17  London,  69"  ;  similar  labels 
are  dated  1772.  His  sons.  William, 
Joseph.  Lockey,  and  Benjamin,  were 
all  makers. 

Hill,  William,  son  of  Joseph  Hill. 
Worked  in  London  about  1740-80.  He 
made  some  good  instruments,  rather 
similar  to  those  of  Edmund  Aireton  ; 
the  varnish  was  a  beautiful  yellow 
colour,  rather  transparent ;  the  tone 
though  good  was  not  powerful.  Label  • 
"  William  Mill,  maker  in  Poland  Street, 
near  Broad  Street,  i74i,"and  "  W'illiam 
Hill,  makerin  Poland  Street,  near  Broad 
Street,  Carnaby  Market,  177 — ." 

Hill,  William  Ebsworth,  son  of  Henry 
Lockey  Hill;    b.    Oct.    20.    1817;    d. 
April  2.  1895.      A  maker  in  London. 
Learnt  from  his  elder  brother.  Joseph. 
Began  by  making  violin-bridges,  always 
beautifully  shaped  and  designed  ;  quite 
200   are  still    preserved    by   the    firm. 
He   worked   for  a  year  with    Charles 
Harris,  at  Oxford,  returning  to  London, 
1838.       First   worked    in    Southwark, 
then    in   Wardour   Street,   and   finally 
removed    to    38,    New    l>ond    Street. 
When  he  began  to  repair  and  deal  in 
old  instruments  he  did  everything  with 
his  own  hands,  and  had  no  assistants 
until  his  sons  grew  up.     He  exhibited 
some  very  beautiful  violins  of  carefully 
finished  work   and   an  excellent   viola 
of  large  pattern,  with  full  round  tone, 
in  London,  in   1862,  obtaining  special 
commendation    and    a    prize     medal. 
Probably  few,  if  any,  of  W.   E.   Hill's 
contemporaries  had  such  a  wide  and 
thorough    knowledge   of    the   art   and 
craft  of  violin  making  as  he  himself 
Those  who  had  the  pleasure  of  knowing 
him  personally  found  his  conversation 



full  of  the  most  interesting  facts  and 
reminiscences,  while  at  the  same  time 
a  kindly,  straightforward,  and  un- 
assuming manner,  peculiarly  his  own, 
made  him  the  object  of  general  regard 
and  respect.  His  death  removed  one 
who  was  a  prominent  and  charac- 
teristic link  between  modern  times  and 
a  bygone  type  of  personality.  His 
four  eldest  sons  became  members  of 
the  firm  :  William  Henry,  b.  June  3, 
1857,  followed  the  musical  profession 
for  some  years,  before  joining  his 
brothers  in  the  business  ;  Arthur  Fred- 
erick, b.  Jan.  25,  i860  ;  Alfred 
Ebsworth,  b.  Feb.  1862,  who  worked 
for  some  time  at  Mirecourt  (Vosges) 
and  was  the  first  Englishman  to  go 
there  to  study  ;  and  Walter  Edgar, 
b.  Nov.  4,  1871,  d.  1905,  who  also 
worked  at  Mirecourt.  They  employ 
a  large  staff  of  assistants  in  their 
workshops  at  Han  well. 

Hiltz,  Paul.  A  maker  of  viols  in 
Nuremberg,  1656.  In  the  collection 
of  musical  instruments  there  is  a  viola 
da  gamba  dated  1656. 

Hircutt.  A  maker  working  in  London 
about  1600. 

Hochbriicker.  A  maker  in  Donauworth, 
Bavaria,  about  1699.  Later  he  worked 
at  Augsburg.  He  made  some  fairly 
good  violins,  but  is  chiefly  known  as 
the  inventor  of  pedals  for  the  harp, 
about  1720. 

Hohne.  Worked  both  in  Dresden  and 
Weimar,  in  the  19th  century. 

Horlcin,  Carl  Adam,  b.  1829  at  Winkel- 
hof,  near  Wiirzburg.  Pupil  of  Joseph 
Vauchel ;  later  he  worked  for  three 
years  in  Vienna,  chiefly  under  Anton 
Hoffmann,  but  also  under  Gabriel 
Lembock.  In  1853  he  settled  in 
Kitzingen,  Bavaria;  but  in  1866  moved 
to  Wiirzburg.  where  he  remained. 
Both  as  a  maker  of  new  instruments 
and  as  a  repairer  of  old  ones  he  had 
a  great  reputation.  In  1875,  under 
Professor  Hermann  Ritter's  direction, 
he  made  a  "  viola  alta  "  exactly  on  the 
principles  laid  down  in  the  little  book 
called  "  Die  Geschichte  der  Viola 
Alta"  (Leipzig,  1877);  it  had  a  full, 
sonorous  tone.     He  died  1902. 

Hoffmann,  Anton.  Court  maker  in 
Vienna  about  1850. 

Hoffmann,  Johann  Christian,  son  of 
Martin  Hoffmann.  A  maker  of  lufes 
and  viols  in  Leipzig  about  1720.  He 
was  an  excellent  workman.  His 
younger  brother,  who  also  worked  in 
Leipzig  about  the  same  time,  made 
good  violins  and  bass-viols. 

Hoffmann,  Martin,  d.  in  Leipzig,  1725. 
A  maker  of  good  lutes  and  viols,  who 
worked  in  Leipzig  from  about  1685. 
He  also  made  violins  and  violoncellos 
of  good  tone,  although  the  inelegant 
pattern  (the  cut  of  the  sound-holes,  the 
sharp  corners  and  weak  edges)  has 
caused  them  to  be  neglected.  In  1720 
he  began  to  make  the  ' '  Viola  pomposa, ' ' 
a  small  violoncello  with  five  strings 
tuned  C,  G,  D,  A,  E,  the  invention  of 
which  is  ascribed  to  J.  S.  Bach.  It 
was  never  much  used  and  seems  to  have 
been  merely  the  reproduction  of  an 
obsolete  form  of  violoncello.  A 
specimen  was  exhibited  in  Paris,  1878; 
it  was  on  a  good  model,  very  much 
arched,  the  head  ending  in  a  scroll, 
and  the  sound-holes  well  cut. 

Hofmans,  Matthias.  A  maker  in 
Antwerp  1680-1740.  He  made  beauti- 
ful instruments  on  the  pattern  of 
Amati  and  Guarneri  del  Jesu,  he  used 
a  warm  dark  red  varnish,  similar  to 
that  of  Italian  instruments  of  the  same 
period.  In  a  little  pocket  violin  was 
the  label :  "  Matthys  Hofmans  tot 
Antwerpen,  1740." 

Hollo  way,  John.  A  maker  in  London 
at  31,  Gerard  Street,  Soho,  in  1794. 

Homolka,  F.  A  maker  in  Kuttenberg, 
Bohemia,  about  1850.  He  exhibited 
two  violins  in  Munich,  1854,  o^  beauti- 
ful workmanship ;  the  wood  was  rather 
thick,  which  perhaps  rendered  the 
tone  a  little  harsh,  but  otherwise 

Hopkins.  A  maker  in  Worcester,  who 
exhibited  a  double-bass  in  London  in 

Horil,  Giacomo.  A  maker  in  Rome 
about  1720-50. 

Horlein.     See  "  Horlein." 

Hornsteiner.     See  "  Neuner." 

Hornsteiner  (Hornstainer),  Joseph.  A 
maker  in  Mitten wald  about  1730.  He 
made  some  good  double-basses. 

Hornsteiner  (Hornstainer),  Mathias.  A 
maker  in  Mittenwald  about  1770-1800. 
His  instruments  were  better  made  than 
those  of  Joseph  Hornsteiner.  Label : 
"  Mathias  Hornsteiner  der  Geigen- 
macher  in  Mittenwald,  1770." 

Hosbom,  Thomas  Alfred.  A  maker  in 
London  in  1629.  A  bass  viol  of  this 
date  was  exhibited  in  Paris,  1878. 

Huel,  d.  in  1845.  A  maker  in  Rennes. 
Pupil  of  Lacote.  He  made  some  fairly 
good  guitars. 

Huet,  Henri.  A  maker  in  Paris  about 
1775-90 ;  lived  first  at  rue  Saint-Martin 
(1778),  then  rue  du  Grand-Hurleur  in 
1783.     This  latter  date  was  in  an  alto 



of  his,  of  good  workmanship,  with 
yellow-brown  varnish.  He  made  at 
the  sign  of  "  Au  Roi  des  Instruments." 

Hulinski.  Worked  in  Prague  in  1760  ; 
his  instruments  were  well  made,  with 
small  sound-holes  and  gracefully  cut 
scroll,  the  varnish  red-brown  colour. 

HuUer,  August,  A  maker  in  Shoeneck 
about  1735-76. 

Hulskamp,  G.  H.,  b.  in  Westphalia. 
Settled  in  New  York,  U.S.A.  In  the 
1862  London  txhibition  he  exhibited 
violins  made  on  a  new  pattern.  Instead 
of  the  ordinary  sound-holes,  was  one 
round  hole  in  the  middle  of  the  violin, 
just  below  where  the  bow  sets  the 
strings  in  motion;  other  innovations 
were  also  made,  but  the  result  seems 
to  have  been  that  the  tone  suffered  in 

Hume  (or  Home),  Richard.  Born  in 
England,  but  settled  in  Edinburgh  and 
became  the  great  viol  and  lute  maker 
there,  about  1530-35.  In  the  Scottish 
Treasurer's  accounts  in  1535  is  "Item 

to  the  Kingis  Grace  to  Richard  Hume, 
Inglismanne,  quhilk  suld  mak  violis  to 
the  Kingis  Grace,  to  by  stuffe  for  the 
samin  xx  lib." 

Humel,  Christian.  A  maker  in  Nurem- 
berg in  1709. 

Hunger,  Christoph  Friedrich,  b.  1718, 
Dresden  ;  d.  1787,  Leipzig.  Pupil  of 
Jauch  in  Dresden.  He  made  very 
good  violins,  violas,  and  violoncellos 
on  the  Italian  pattern  ;  the  wood  was 
of  excellent  quality,  the  varnish  amber- 
coloured  ;  his  instruments  are  some  of 
the  best  of  that  time. 

Hurel,  Jean.  A  maker  in  Paris,  living 
in  1686,  rue  des  Arcis,  at  the  sign  of 
"A  I'image  de  St. -Pierre";  from  1689 
to  1717,  rue  St.  -  Martin,  near  the 
Fontaine  Maubue.  He  was  maker  of 
instruments  "pour  la  musique du  Roy," 
and  is  said  to  have  been  a  very  clever 
workman.  A  Charles  Hurel  is  also 
mentioned  as  being  a  maker  of  musical 
instruments  in  Paris  in  1636. 

Husson.     See  "  Buthod." 


Indelami,  Matteo.  A  name  found  in  a 
very  old  mandora,  with  no  mention  of 
town  or  date. 

Ivrontigni,     Wougelli. 

A    maker    in 


Jacobi.  A  maker  of  lutes  at  Meissen, 
Saxony,  in  the  first  part  of  the  i8th 
century.  His  instruments  were  much 

Jacobs,  Hendrik.  A  maker  in  Amsterdam 
about  1690-1740.  He  made  a  great 
number  of  good  violins,  altos,  and 
violoncellos ;  he  copied  the  large  pattern 
of  Nicola  Amati  so  faithfully  that  his 
violins  are  often  taken  for  genuine 
Italian  instruments ;  the  wood  is  care- 
fully chosen  ;  the  red-brown  varnish  of 
good  quality  ;  the  scroll  and  the  sound- 
holes  are  not  very  well  cut ;  the  purfling 
is  of  whalebone ;  the  tone  sweet,  but 
not  very  powerful. 

Jacobs.  Worked  at  Amsterdam  rather 
later  than  Hendrik  Jacobs;  was 
probably  his  son.  He  used  dark  red 
varnish  of  very  good  quality ;  his 
work  was  not  carefully  finished. 

Jacot,  A.,  eldest  son  of  Jean  Charles 
Jacot.     Is  working  in  Paris. 

Jacot,  Jean  Charles.     A  maker  at  Metz, 

b.  1811;  d.,  about  1887,  at  Pont-a- 
Mousson.  Had  two  sons,  the  elder  a 
maker,  the  second,  Lucien,  a  bassoon 
Jacquot  (Jacquart),  Charles,  b.  1804  at 
Mirecourt ;  d.  March  29,  1880,  at 
St.  Maur-les-Fosses  near  Paris. 
Although  his  father  was  not  a  maker, 
but  an  army  tailor,  he  was  descended 
from  a  family  of  makers,  who  dated 
back  to  one  Charles  Jacquot,  who  lived 
in  1645.  In  1819  he  was  apprenticed 
to  Nicolas,  sen.,  later  to  Breton,  both  of 
them  makers  in  Mirecourt.  He  went 
to  Nancy,  1823,  and  worked  there  till 
1827,  when  he  started  his  own  business 
there;  in  1854  he  transferred  it  to  his 
son  Pierre  Charles,  and  went  to  Paris. 
There  he  started  another  workshop  in 
rue  des  Vieux-Augustins,  moving  to  42, 
rue  de  I'Echiquier  in  1857.  His  work 
is  very  good ;  the  violins  that  he  made 
in  Paris  are  especially  esteemed  for 
their  careful  finish  and  regularity  of 



form  ;  he  was  also  learned  on  the  subject 
of  old  instruments.  Label :  "  Medailles 
d'or  et  d'argent,  Charles  Jacquot,  42, 
ruede  I'Echiciuier  a  Paris."  Awards  at 
Exhibitions;  bronze  medal,  Nancy, 
1838;  silver  medal,  Nanc}',  1843;  ist 
and  2nd  prize,  Paris,  1849 ;  2rid  class 
medal,  I^ondon,  1851  ;  silver  medal. 
Paris,  1855  ;  gold  medal,  Bayonne,  1S64  ; 
bronze  medal,  Paris,  1867. 

Jacquot,  Etienne  Charles  Albert,  eldest 
son  of  Pierre  Charles  Jacquot,  b. 
Sept.  18.  1853,  Nancy.  Learnt  under 
his  father,  and  was  associated  with 
him  in  his  work.  He  published  two 
important  works:  "La  Musique  en 
Lorraine,"  in  1882,  and  "  Dictionnaire 
des  instruments  de  musique,"  S:c.  He 
is  Officier  de  I'lnstruction  publique 
and  member  of  the  Society  "  des 
Beaux- Arts  des  departements." 

Jacquot,  Jules  Victor,  second  son  of 
Pierre  Charles  Jacquot,  b.  Aug.  12, 
1855.  Also  learnt  his  trade  with  his 
father  and  continued  to  work  in  associa- 
tion with  him. 

Jacquot,  Pierre  Charles,  son  of  Charles 
Jacquot;  b.  March  10,  1828,  Nancy. 
I'upil  of  his  father,  to  whose  business 
in  Nancy  he  succeeded  in  1854.  He 
was  a  clever  maker  and  gained  a  great 
reputation  by  the  instruments  he  sent 
to  various  exhibitions.  Honours  and 
awards  :  ist  prize,  Metz,  1861  ;  prize 
medal  (for  the  good  quality  and 
moderate  price  of  his  instruments), 
London,  1862  ;  bronze  medal,  Paris, 
1867  ;  great  gold  medal,  Lyons,  1872  ; 
silver  medal,  Paris,  1878  ;  diploma  of 
honour,  Bar-le-Duc,  1880,  and  at 
Algiers,  1881  ;  silver  medal  (awarded 
to  Jacquot  and  Sons  for  their  instru- 
ments, of  a  beautiful  pattern,  varnish 
copied  from  that  on  old  instruments, 
the  equal  quality  of  the  tone  being  re- 
markable), Paris,  1889  ;  he  received  the 
Cross  of  the  Legion  of  Honour,  July 
14,  1892.  He  died  1900.  Had  two 
sons  who  worked  with  him ;  they 
exhibited  instruments  at  Moscow  in 
1891  ;  Vienna,  1892  ;  and  Chicago,  1894. 

Jais,  Johann.  A  maker  at  Botzen  about 
1775.  His  instruments  are  varnished 

J 'Anson,  Edward  Popplewell.  Worked 
in  Manchester.  Learnt  from  WMlliam 
Booth,  jun. 

Jaspars,  Jean,  b.  at  Coesvelt.  A  maker 
of  lutes  at  Antwerp  about  1568. 

Jauch,  Johann,  b.  Gratz,  Styria,  but 
was  working  in  Dresden,  1765-74.  He 
followed  the  Cremona  pattern,  making 
very  good  violins  ;    he  used  excellent 

wood  and  amber-coloured  varnish, 
and  showed  great  knowledge  of  the 
correct  proportions  and  thicknesses 
of  wood  required  in  various  parts  of  the 
instrument  ;  the  tone  is  occasionally 
weak  and  shrill.  His  instruments  were 
signed  with  his  name.  C.  E.  Hunger 
was  a  pupil  of  his. 

Jay,  Henry.  A  maker  of  viols  in  London 
about  1615-67.  A  viol,  that  had  been 
converted  into  a  small  \'ioloncello  with 
four  strings,  was  e.xcellently  made  and 
of  fine  tone,  the  varnish  of  good 
quality,  the  head  well  cut,  the  purfling 
very  fine ;  it  was  dated  "in  Southwarke, 
1615  "  A  small  bass-viol  dated  1624  is 
in  the  Paris  Conservatoire  Collection  ; 
a  tenor  viol  was  exhibited  at  the  South 
Kensington  ISIuseum,  London,  1872, 
with  the  label  "  Henry  Jay  in  South- 
warke, 1667."  It  has  six  strings,  tuned 
one-fifth  higher  than  the  bass-viol, 
catgut  frets,  and  a  beautifully  carved 
scroll.  It  is  probably  this  maker,  alluded 
to  in  Thomas  Britton's  Catalogue  of 
Musical  Instruments:  "a  viol  said  to  be 
the  neatest  and  best  that  J  ay  ever  made. ' ' 
This  passage,  from  Thomas  Mace's 
"  Musick's  Monument  "  (published 
1676),  also  probably  applies  to  him  : 
"  Your  best  provision  (and  most  com- 
pleat)  will  be  a  good  chest  of  viols  .  .  . 
of  such  there  are  no  better  in  the 
world  than  those  of  Aldred,  Jay  .  .  .  . 
these  were  old  ....  yet  we  chiefly 
value  Old  Instruments  before  new;  for 
by  experience  they  are  found  to  be  far 
the  best." 

Jay,  Henry.  Worked  in  London  about 
1746-68.  He  was  best  known  for  the 
small  violins  or  "  kits  "  that  he  made, 
which  were  used  by  dancing-masters  ; 
the  varnish  was  a  red-brown  colour, 
•the  work  was  neatly  finished,  and  he 
received  £5  for  each  one — a  very  large 
sum  for  those  days.  He  also  made 
some  violoncellos,  often  signed  on  the 
back  "  Longman  and  Broderip."  Two 
labels  are  known  :  "  Made  by  Henry 
Jay  in  Long  Acre,  London,  1746,"  and 
"  Made  by  Henry  Jay  in  Windmill 
Street,  near  Piccadilly,  London,  1768." 
He  is  supposed  to  have  been  related  to 
Thomas  Jay. 

Jay,  Thomas.  Working  in  London  from 
about  1690  May  have  been  related  to 
the  other  Ja\s.  He  made  some  excel- 
lent violins.  Was  possibly  in  partner- 
ship with  Edward  Lewis,  but  there  is 
no  proof  of  it. 

Jean.  A  maker  in  Paris,  rue  Saint- 
Martin.  A  guitar  is  known  dated 



Jeandel,  Pierre  Napoleon,  b.  181 2, 
Courcelles-sous- Vaudemont  (Meurthe) ; 
d.  May  10,  1879,  Rouen.  Appren- 
ticed at  Mirecourt ;  went  to  Rouen, 
worked  under  Charotte  of  Mirecourt, 
1830-36  ;  then,  in  partnership  with 
Lucien  Delau,  succeeded  to  the  busi- 
ness at  36,  rue  Beauvoisine.  They 
separated  in  1848,  and  Jeandel  worked 
at  51,  quai  de  Paris  till  1878,  when 
his  health  failed,  and  he  was  ad- 
mitted into  the  "hospice  general" 
of  Rouen,  Dec.  27,  1878.  He  was  a 
clever  workman,  and  his  instruments 
are  well  made  and  have  a  good  tone ;  he 
used  red  varnish.  Awards :  bronze 
medal,  Rouen,  1854  ;  ist  class  medal, 
Paris,  1855;  silver  medal,  Rouen, 

Johnson,  John.  A  maker  in  London, 
1750-60.  He  followed  the  Stainer  pat- 
tern. Two  labels,  one  undated :  ' '  Sold 
by  J ohn  Johnson ,  Cheapside ,  London ' ' ; 
the  other,  "  Made  and  sold  by  John 
Johnson  at  the  '  Harp  and  Crown  '  in 
Cheapside,  17  London,  53  "  ;  a  similar 
label  was  dated  1759. 

Jombar,  Paul.  A  maker  in  Paris.  He 
worked  for  some  time  in  the  workshop 
of  Gand  and  Bernardel,  but  started  his 
own  business  in  1892. 

Jorio,  Vincenzo.  Was  working  in  Naples 
in  1847.     Was  a  good  maker. 

Joseph,  J.     A  maker  in  Vienna  in  1764. 

Juliano,  Francesco.  A  maker  in  Rome 
about  1720-70.  Label:  "Francesco 
Juliano  in  Roma,  1725,"  in  a  well- 
made  violin. 


Kambl  (Kambl),  Johann  Andreas.  A 
maker  in  Munich  in  1740,  according  to 
the  label:  "Johann  Andreas  Kambl 
Churfiirstl.  Hof  Lauten  und  Geigen- 
macher  in  Mijnchen,  1740." 

Kambl  (Kambl),  Johann  Cornelius.  Was 
working  in  Darmstadt,  1635-40. 

Kaiser,  Martin.  A  German  maker  who 
settled  in  Venice ;  was  working  there 
in  1609.  There  is  an  arch-lute  of  this 
date  in  the  Paris  Conservatoire  Col- 

Karb.    A  maker  of  viols  in  Konigsberg. 

Kempter.  A  maker  in  Dillingen  about 
1725-75.  He  followed  the  Stainer 
pattern ;  his  violins  are  arched,  of  a 
good  pattern,  with  varnish,  sometimes 
yellow-brown,  sometimes  pale  red 
colour ;  the  wood  is  excellent  and  the 
purfling  well  done. 

Kennedy,  Alexander,  b.  in  Scotland 
about  1695  ;  d.  in  London,  1785.  Was 
the  first  maker  of  this  family.  He 
followed  the  Stainer  pattern,  and  gained 
a  great  reputation  in  England  for  his 
beautiful  violins  (no  other  instruments 
of  his  are  known) ;  the  work,  both  of 
the  interior  and  exterior,  was  good 
and  neatly  finished,  and  the  purfling 
well  done  ;  the  spirit  varnish  was  of 
a  brownish-yellow  colour.  Label  : 
"Alexander  Kennedy,  musical  instru- 
ment maker,  living  in  Market  Street, 
in  Oxford  Road,  London,  1749."  A 
violin  is  dated  1743. 

Kennedy,  John,  b.  1730,  London;  d. 
there,  1816.  Was  buried  in  Shoreditch 
Church.  He  was  a  nephew  and  pupil 
of    Alexander    Kennedy.      The    only 

instruments  he  made  were  violins  and 
violas,  all  very  arched,  on  the  Stainer 
pattern ;  he  chiefly  worked  for  the 
dealers.  He  lived  first  in  Cobper's 
Gardens  near  Shoreditch  Church,  then, 
after  various  changes,  in  Long  Alley, 
Sun  Street,  Moorfields,  where  he 

Kennedy,  Thomas,  b.  Jan.  21,  1784, 
London  ;  d.  1870.  Was  a  son  of  John 
Kennedy  ;  pupil  of  his  father,  also  of 
Thomas  Powell,  to  whom  he  was 
apprenticed  June  17,  1795.  He  worked 
at  times  for  William  Forster  (1764- 
1824),  but  his  own  workshop  was  first 
in  Princes  Street,  Westminster,  and 
then  at  364,  Oxford  Street.  He  retired 
from  business  in  June,  1849,  having 
made  at  least  300  violoncellos  as  well 
as  other  instruments ;  all  his  work 
was  well  and  neatly  finished. 

Kerlino,  Joann.  A  maker  of  rebecs  and 
viols  of  all  sorts  at  Brescia  about 
1449-93.  He  is  one  of  the  earliest 
makers  known,  and  was  probably  the 
founder  of  the  Brescian  School.  It 
has  been  suggested  that  he  originally 
came  from  Brittany,  as  many  family 
names  there  commence  with  the 
syllable  "  Ker."  A  viol  of  his,  which 
had  had  the  neck  changed  (probably 
by  Koliker,  of  Paris,  in  1804),  and  was 
mounted  with  four  strings  like  a  violin 
— only  instead  of  a  tail-piece  it  had  a 
piece  of  ivory  pierced  with  four  holes 
to  which  to  attach  the  strings — was 
very  much  arched,  and  had  a  soft, 
muffled  tone.  Inside  was  the  inscrip- 
tion :  "Joann  Kerlino,  ann.  1449." 



Kiaposse,  Sawes.  A  maker  in  St. 
Petersburg  about  1748-50. 

Kiesgen,  Louis.  A  maker  in  Paris, 
first  at  84,  boulevard  Magenta,  and 
then  at  134,  rue  de  Turenne.  He  has 
not  made  many  instruments,  but  those 
known  are  of  beautiful  workmanship  ; 
he  followed  the  pattern  of  Gand  and 
used  red  varnish. 

Kirschschlag.  Was  working  in  the 
Tyrol  in  1780. 

Klein,  A.  In  1884  he  founded  an  im- 
portant business  in  Rouen,  at  65,  rue 
Ganterie,  under  the  title  of  "A.  Klein 
et  Cie,"  reviving  the  trade  in  instru- 
ment making  that  had  entirely  dropped 
after  Jeandel's  death  in  1879.  He 
placed  Antoine  Brubach  at  the  head 
of  the  workshop,  which  has  now 
turned  out  about  200  violins,  and 
numbers  of  altos  and  violoncellos  ;  the 
work  is  carefully  finished  and  the 
varnish  good,  of  a  brilliant  red  colour. 
Label:  "A.  Klein,  luthier  a  Rouen, 
18 — .  A.K."  Awards  from  Exhibitions : 
silver  medal.  Rouen,  1884;  diploma  of 
honour,  Evreux,  1886  ;  silver  medal, 
Havre,  1887.  In  1887  he  was  made 
Officer  of  the  Academy. 

Kloss,  Ernst.    A  maker  in  Breslau,  i860. 

Klotz  (Kloz),  Egidius.  Was  probably  a 
pupil  of  Stainerin  Absam,  returning  to 
Mittenwald,  his  native  place,  to  work. 
He  was  the  first  member  of  this  family 
to  make  violins.  He  followed  the 
Stainer  pattern,  using  good  wood  and 
amber-coloured  varnish ;  his  instru- 
ments have  a  fine  full  tone,  are  well 
finished,  and  are  signed  with  his  name. 

Klotz,  George.  Another  member  of 
the  Klotz  family,  was  working  in 
Mittenwald  about  1750-80.  He  also 
followed  the  Stainer  pattern.  His 
instruments  were  well  made,  but  the 
spirit  varnish,  sometimes  yellow,  some- 
times red,  is  of  bad  quality ;  it  is  thin 
and  brittle  and  laid  on  a  coat  of  size 
which  prevents  its  penetrating  the 
wood,  making  it  opaque  and  perishable  ; 
the  wood  is  often  worm-eaten.  In  a 
violin  of  beautifully  finished  work  with 
red  varnish  was  the  label :  "  George 
Klotz  propria  meamanu  feci  in  Mitten- 
wald ,1753";  another  label  was ' '  George 
Klotz  in  der  Mittenwald  an  der  Iser, 

Klotz,  Johann  Carl.  Worked  in  Mitten- 
wald about  1740-55.  He  died  young; 
his  instruments  are  rare  and  but  little 
known,  but  are  said  to  be  among 
the  best  of  those  made  by  the  Klotz 
family.  In  a  very  well  made  violin 
with    dark    varnish,   almost    black   in 

colour,  is  the  label :  "  Joan  Carol  Klotz 
in  Mittenwald,  an.  1750";  a  similar 
label  was  dated  1753. 

Klotz,  Joseph,  son  of  Sebastian  Klotz. 
Was  still  working  in  Mittenwald  in 
1774.  Also  followed  the  Stainer 
pattern .  He  was  careful  in  his  selection 
of  wood  and  his  instruments  have  a 
very  good  tone,  but  he  used  varnish  of 
poor  quality.  Label:  "Joseph  Klotz 
in  Mittenwald  an  der  Iser,  an.  1774." 

Klotz,  Mathias,  b.  about  1650.  Worked 
in  Mittenwald  till  about  1735.  Is  said 
to  have  learnt  his  trade  from  Stainer 
himself;  in  his  instruments  he  closely 
followed  the  Stainer  pat'ern.  He 
travelled  in  Italy,  visiting  Florence  and 
Cremona,  before  he  finally  started, 
about  1683,  his  great  work  in  Mitten- 
wald. The  small  town  was  then  in  a 
state  of  great  poverty,  but  Mathias, 
taking  advantage  of  the  famed  pine 
woods  around,  in  which  he  found  just 
the  material  he  required,  employed 
numbers  of  workmen  to  make  cheap 
violins,  which  were  afterwards  hawked 
round  from  house  to  house  and  sold  at 
extraordinarily  low  prices.  As  a  rule 
each  workman  made  one  and  only  one 
of  the  required  parts  of  the  instrument, 
other  workmen  were  employed  in 
putting  the  parts  together  into  one 
whole.  Mittenwald  soon  rivalled 
Markneukirchen  in  Saxony  and  Mire- 
court  in  the  Vosges  in  this  industry, 
and  the  fortune  of  the  town  was  made. 
The  tone  of  the  instruments  is  not 
bad,  but  the  yellow-brown  varnish  is 
of  poor  quality  and  the  sound-holes 
rather  small.  In  a  viol,  of  which  the 
neck  and  head  had  been  changed  so  as 
to  turn  it  into  a  viola,  was  the  label  : 
"  Mathias  Klotz  Lautenmacher  in 
Mittenwald,  anno  17 — ."  In  the  Paris 
Conservatoire  Collection  is  a  viola 
d'amore  with  seven  strings  and  fifteen 
sympathetic  strings,  dated  Mittenwald, 
1732.  His  three  sons,  George.  Sebas- 
tian, and  Joseph,  were  all  makers. 

Klotz,  Michael  and  Carl,  two  brothers, 
working  in  Mittenwald  about  1770. 
A  great  many  of  the  violins  with 
"Stainer"  labels  are  made  by 
members  of  the  Klotz  family  and  their 
imitators,  the  "Klotz"  labels  having 
been  destroyed  by  the  dealers  and 
spurious  "Stainer"  ones  substituted. 
Probably,  also,  when  these  makers  had 
turned  out  a  specially  good  instrument 
they  used  a  "  Stainer  "  label  instead  of 
their  own.  Authentic  instruments  of 
the  Klotz  family  are  consequently  not 



Klotz,  Sebastian,  a  brother  of  Joseph 
and  George  Klotz.  Worked  in  Mitten- 
wald  about  1710-40.  He  seems  to 
have  been  the  best  maker  in  the 
family.  His  violins  are  of  a  large 
pattern,  not  much  arched  ;  as  a  rule 
the  varnish  is  excellent,  the  tone  is 
clear  and  full,  and  the  work  is  carefully 
finished.  Label:  "  Sebastian  Klotz  in 
Mittenwald,  an.  1730."  A  similar 
label  in  a  violin,  with  yellow-brown 
varnish,  was  dated  1740. 

Knichtel.  A  maker  in  Liibeck  in  the 
i8th  century. 

Knilling,  Philipp.  Was  working  in 
Mitten w-ald  in  1760. 

Knittle  (Knitl),  Joseph.  A  maker  in 
Mitten wald  in  1790. 

Knoop,  Wilhelm.  A  maker  in  Meiningen. 
Exhibited  in  Munich,  1854  ;  his  instru- 
ments are  made  on  the  Stainer  pattern  ; 
the  tone  is  good  and  full. 

Koeuppers  (Cuypers),  Jean.  A  maker  at 
The  Hague,  1755-80.  Many  of  his 
instruments  are  to  be  had  ;  they 
are  excellently  made,  but  the  yellow 
varnish  is  ugly  and  of  thick  quality. 

Kohl,  Johann.  A  lute-maker  in  Munich 
about  1570- 1600.  He  was  appointed 
maker  to  the  Court  of  Bavaria. 

Kolb,  Hans.  Was  working  in  Ingolstadt, 
Bavaria,  in  1666. 

Kolditz,  Johann.  A  maker  in  Rumburg, 
Bohemia.  He  died  there  1796.  He 
made  excellent  violins  and  violas. 

Kolditz,  Mathias  Johann.  A  maker 
in  Munich  about  1720-55.  Label: 
"  Mathias  Joannes  Kolditz  Lauten  und 
Geigenmacher  in  Miinchen,  17—." 

Koliker,  Jean  Gabriel.  Worked  in  Paris, 
1783-99,  in  rue  des  Fosses-Saint-Ger- 
main-des-Pres ;  in  1800  he  moved 
to  24,  rue  Croix-des-petits-Champs. 
Ch.  F.  Gand  bought  his  business  in 
1820.     It  is  doubtful  if  he  made  any 

new  instruments,  but  he  was  an 
extremely  clever  repairer  of  old  ones. 

Kram,  Andreas  Ernst.  A  maker  of 
cithers  in  Nuremberg,  about  1765-85. 
Label :  "  Andreas  Ernst  Kram,  Instru- 
ment Macher  in  Niirnberg,  an.  1767  "  ; 
a  similar  one  is  dated  1781. 

Kramer,  H.  A  maker  in  Vienna  in  1717. 
In  the  Collection  of  the  Gesellschaft 
der  Musikfreunde  there  is  a  viola  di 
bordone  dated  "  Wien,  1717." 

Krebar,  Giovanni.  A  maker  in  Padua 
in  1629. 

Kren,  Franz.  A  maker  of  cithers  in 
Munich,  1833. 

Krigge,  Heinrich.  A  maker  in  Danzig, 
I ''56-58.  His  instruments  suggest  the 
Maggini  pattern,  in  the  general  model, 
large  size,  neat  edges  and  work,  and 
double  purfling  in  ink.  Three  violins 
and  a  tenor  of  his  are  known,  the  latter 
with  a  fine  tone. 

Kriner,  Joseph.  A  maker  in  Mitten- 
wald  about  1785-95. 

Krupp.  Pierre.  Worked  in  Paris,  rue 
St.-Honore,  1777-91  ;  he  also  made 

Kiihlewein  und  Tetzner.  Makers  in 
Markneukirchen.  Exhibited  in  Munich, 
1854.  A  violoncello  of  theirs,  ex- 
cellently made  on  the  Stradivari 
pattern,  not  much  arched,  had  a  fairly 
good  tone. 

Kiintzel,  Laurent,  b.  1790,  at  Hof, 
Bavaria.  About  1815,  after  rather  a 
chequered  career,  settled  in  Breslau, 
and  worked  for  some  years  under 
Fichtel,  an  instrument  maker  there  ;  he 
then  devoted  himself  entirely  to  violin 
making,  producing  good  imitations  of 
Italian  violins  and  violoncellos.  Later 
on  moved  to  Berlin,  where  he  died  in 
1864.  He  exhibited  a  quintet  of 
instruments  in  London,  1862;  the  tone 
was  excellent. 


Lacasso      See  "  Lavazza." 

Lacote.  A  maker  of  guitars  in  Paris 
from  about  1820.  His  work  is  very 
good,  but  it  varies,  and  it  is  possible 
that  his  labels  are  to  be  found  in  instru- 
ments he  had  not  made.  In  the  Paris 
Conservatoire  Collection  are  two 
guitars,  one  made  with  six  strings,  dated 
1852;  the  other  "a  heptachord,"  the 
seventh  string  being  placed  like  the 
lower  string  of  the  theorbo  ;  the  label  is 
dated  "  182 — ."  He  patented  a  guitar 
with   ten   strings,    a  "decachord,"  in 

1826,  and  exhibited  it  in  1827.  Ex- 
hibited a  guitar  of  seven  strings,  beauti- 
fully made  and  of  very  fine  tone,  in 
1839,  was  awarded  a  bronze  medal. 
In  1844  his  instruments  were  also 
placed  in  the  first  class,  and  a  bronze 
medal  was  awarded  him.  He  branded 
his  guitars  with  "  Lacote  a  I'aris." 

Lacroix,  Salomon.  A  French  maker  of 
the  19th  century. 

Lafleur.  A  maker  in  London,  brother 
of  the  Parisian  maker. 

Lafleur,  Jacques    A  bow  maker  in  Paris; 



b.  1760, at  Nancy ;  d.  1832,  at  Paris.  In 
1783  he  had  been  settled  for  several 
years  in  rue  de  la  Coutellerie;  he  had 
moved  to  rue  de  la  Verrerie  by  1785, 
and  to  30,  rue  de  la  Juiverie  by  1788, 
there  he  probably  remained  till  his 
death.  Pie  closely  copied  the  bows  of 
Francois  Tourte,  and  his  work  has  a 
well-merited  reputation.  In  the  Paris 
Conservatoire  Collection  is  a  bow  of 
his.  His  son,  Joseph  Rene,  was  also 
a  bow  maker. 

Lafieur,  Joseph  Rene,  son  of  Jacques  ; 
b.  July  8,  1812,  Paris  ;  d.  Feb.  19,  1874, 
Maisons  Lafitte.  Was  living  in  the 
rue  de  la  Cite  in  1835,  probably  moved 
there  from  rue  de  la  Juiverie  after  his 
father's  death.  Pupil  of  his  father, 
and  a  very  clever  workman,  producing 
bows  which  rival  those  of  Franc^ois 
Tourte ;  a  very  beautiful  one  is  in  the 
Paris  Conservatoire  Collection.  Since 
about  1840  the  Lafleur  firm  has  been 
established  in  the  boulevard  Bonne- 
Nouvelle  pres  de  la  porte  Saint-Denis, 
and  has  added  a  music-publishing 
business  to  that  of  instrument  making. 

Lafranchini,  Jacobo  de.  Was  appren- 
ticed to  Gasparo  da  Salo  at  the  same 
time  as  Maggini,  and  afterwards  (1615) 
was  living  with  Maggini  as  workman 
and  assistant. 

Lagetto,  Louis.  An  Italian  maker  who 
was  working  in  Paris,  1745-53.  at  the 
sign  of  "  La  ville  de  Cremone  "  in  the 
rue  des  Saints-Peres.  He  followed 
the  pattern  of  Andrea  Amati,  using 
spirit  varnish  ;  his  instruments  were 
much  liked.  Label  :  "  Louis  Lagetto, 
luthier  rue  des  Saints-Peres  faubourg 
Saint-Germain  a  Paris,  1753.  '  A  la 
ville  de  Cremone.'     (Signed)  Lagetto," 

Lajoue.     See  "  Gaillard-Lajoue." 

La  Loe.  A  maker  in  France  in  the 
18th  century.  A  six-stringed  viol  of 
his  is  known. 

Lambert.  A  maker  said  to  be  living  in 
Nancy  in  1750,  who  was  called  the 
"  Carpenter,"  because  of  the  extra- 
ordinary number  of  violins  he  made  ; 
they  were  of  no  particular  merit, 
Saunier  is  said  to  have  been  a  pupil  of 

Lambert,  Jean  Nicolas.  A  maker  in 
Paris.  Was  working  in  rue  Michel-le- 
Comte  about  1743-85.  The  date  of 
his  death  is  not  known,  but  in  1788 
the  business  was  being  carried  on  by 
his  widow.  He  was  possibly  a  brother 
of  the  maker  in  Nancy.  The  label : 
"J.  N.  Lambert,  rue  Michel-le-Comte, 
Paris,  1750,"  was  in  a  violin  of  flat 
pattern,   with  badly  cut  sound-holes  ; 

a  similar  label,  dated  1759,  is  in  a 
violoncello  in  the  Paris  Conservatoire 
Collection  ;  another  violoncello  is  dated 
1752  ;  "  Lambert  a  Paris  "  was  branded 
on  the  inside  of  the  back  of  an  alto, 
and  "  Lambert  a  Paris,  1782,"  was 
inscribed  in  a  cither ;  a  guitar  was 
dated  1784. 

Lambin.  A  very  clever  repairer  of  old 
instruments  in  Ghent,  1800-30. 

Lamy,  N.  Alfred  Joseph.  A  bow  maker, 
b.  Sept.  8,  1850,  at  Mirecourt.  In  1863, 
apprenticed  in  Mirecourt  ;  1866-77, 
worked  under  the  Gautrots  at  Chateau- 
Thierry  ;  then  went  to  Paris  to  work 
with  F.  N.  Voirin  ;  the  latter  dying  in 
1S85,  Lamy  started  his  own  business  at 
34,  rue  Poissonniere.  He  is  a  clever 
and  conscientious  workman,  and  his 
bows  are  as  carefully  finished  as  those 
of  his  old  master.  He  brands  his 
bows  below  the  nut  with  "  A.  Lamy,  a 
Paris."  He  was  awarded  a  silver 
medal  in  1889,  a  gold  medal  1900. 

Landi,  Pietro.  Was  working  in  Siena 
in  1774. 

Landolfi,  Carlo  Ferdinando.  A  maker 
in  Milan  about  1740-75.  He  made  a 
large  number  of  violins,  which  vary  in 
character  ;  some  carefully  finished  with 
brilliant  red  varnish,  very  transparent, 
are  much  liked  ;  others  have  a  yellow 
\'arnish,  thin  and  hard  and  not  of  good 
quality.  He  used  fine  wood,  the  outer 
edge  is  generally  grooved,  the  sound- 
holes  are  badly  cut,  and  the  scroll  is 
weak  ;  the  work  is  often  unfinished, 
only  one  coat  of  varnish  being  used 
and  no  purfling.  He  occasionally 
copied  Giuseppe  Guarneri  very  closely. 
His  violoncellos,  generally  of  small  size, 
are  extremely  good,  and  rank  higher 
than  his  violins ;  they  are  rather 
similar  to  those  of  Pietro  Guarneri, 
but  not  so  arched ;  the  proportions 
are  more  accurate  ;  they  are  worth 
from  /30  to  /50 ;  a  remarkably  fine 
violin  was  priced  at  /50.  Labels : 
"  Revisto  da  me  Carlo  Ferdinando 
Landolfi,  I'anno  1744  "  ;  "  Carolus 
Ferdinandus  Landulfus  fecit  Mediolani 
in  via  S.  Margarita;,  anno  1755  "  ; 
"  Carlo  Ferdinando  Landolfi  nella 
contrada  di  Santa  Margherita  al  segno 
dellaSirena.  Milano,  1758"  ;  "Revisto 
da  Carlo  Ferdinando  Landolfi,  I'anno 
1 77 1."  Two  violins  were  dated  1752 
and  1753. 

Lantez,  M,  E.,  son-in-law  of  Grandjon, 
sen.     Was  a  maker  at  Mirecourt. 

Lanza  (Lansa  or  Lausa),  Antonio  Maria. 
A  maker  in  Brescia  about  1675.  He 
followed  the  patterns  of  Gasparo  da 



Salo  and  Maggini ;  his  instruments 
were  well  made,  with  red-brown  var- 
nish, and  had  a  good  tone. 
Lapaix,  J.  A.  A  maker  in  Lille  (Nord, 
France),  who  from  1840  to  1855  made 
various  attempts  to  improve  upon  the 
usual  violin  pattern.  The  first  instru- 
ment, dated  "  1840,  No.  i,"  was  of  a 
very  exaggerated  character  ;  he  con- 
tinued to  make  other  instruments, 
which  differed  less  from  the  traditional 
form,  and  tried  the  experiment  of 
cutting  the  sides  out  of  one  piece  of 
wood,  hollowed  out  and  carved  in  the 
usual  shape,  so  that  there  were  only 
six  pieces  instead  of  the  usual  twenty- 
four  to  join  together.  In  1848  he  was 
awarded  a  medal  by  the  Society  for  the 
Encouragement  of  National  Industries, 
and  in  1852  the  merit  of  his  instruments 
was  noticed  by  the  Imperial  Society  of 
Lille.  He  obtained  a  medal  of  the 
2nd  class  at  the  Paris  Exhibition,  1855. 
Label  :  "  Fait  par  Lapaix  luthier  a 
Lilleeni843,  Brevete." 

Laprevotte,  Etienne,  b.  Mirecourt ;  d. 
1856,  Paris.  He  worked  first  at  Mar- 
seilles and  was  still  there  in  1821,  but 
from  about  1823  was  established  in 
Paris.  His  violins  were  admired  for 
the  beautifully  finished  work  ;  one  is  in 
the  Paris  Conservatoire  Collection,  its 
varnish  is  a  very  good  colour ;  he 
received  a  "  Mention  "  at  the  1823 
Exhibition,  and  a  bronze  medal  in  1827. 
Soon  after  he  began  to  make  guitars 
and  gained  a  great  reputation,  he  and 
Lacote  being  considered  two  of  the 
best  French  makers  of  this  instrument. 
Two  fine  guitars  of  his,  with  the  label 
inside  of  "  Guitare  Laprevotte,  dediee 
aux  dames,"  are  in  the  Paris  Con- 
servatoire Collection.  He  received  a 
"  Mention  "  in  1834  and  a  bronze 
medal  in  1844  for  the  guitars  he 

Larche.  A  maker  in  Brussels,  1847.  He 
copied  the  instruments  of  old  makers, 
and  endeavoured  to  gain  their  quality 
of  tone  by  the  use  of  acids,  but  unfortu- 
nately the  wood  suffered  thereby. 

Larcher,  Pierre.  A  maker  in  Tours, 
1785  He  was  a  pupil  of  Guersan  in 
Paris,  but  his  work  is  very  dissimilar ; 
he  used  a  brown  varnish  of  poor 
quality.  Label  :  "  Larcher,  Pierre, 
luthier  de  Paris,  eleve  de  Guersan, 
Grande  Rue  au  Grand  Dauphin  a 
Tours,  1785." 

Laska,  Joseph,  b.  March  18,  1738,  at 
Rumburg  ;  d.  Nov.  30,  1805,  at  Prague. 
Was  a  pupil  of  J.  Kolditz,  later  he 
travelled   a  good  deal,  working  under 

some  of  the  best  makers  in  Dresden, 
Berlin,  Vienna,  and  Brimn.  In  1764  he 
settled  in  Prague,  and  proved  an  excel- 
lent workman,  his  instruments,  violins, 
altos,  violoncellos,  violas  d'amore,  and 
mandolines,  were  especially  liked  in 
Bohemia,  Saxony,  and  Poland. 

Laurent,  Louis  Sigismond.  A  maker  in 
Paris  about  1773-90.  He  worked  at 
the  sign  "  Au  Cytre  Allemand."  In  a 
theorbo  with  yellow  varnish  was  the 
label  :  "  Laurent  luthier  passage  de 
Saumont,  rue  Montmarre  pres  I'egout 
a  Paris,  1774." 

Lausa.     iiee  "  Lanza." 

Lautten,  L.  W.  A  maker  in  the  Tyrol. 
One"  fine  and  handsome  "violin  known. 

Lavazza  (or  Lacasso),  Antonio  Maria.  A 
maker  in  Milan  about  1700.  Followed 
the  Stradivari  pattern,  used  a  good 
varnish,  pale  red  colour.  Label : 
"  Antonio  Maria  Lavazza  fece  in 
Milano  in  contrada  larga,  1708  " 

Lavazza,  Santino.  Was  working  in 
Milan  at  the  same  time  as  Antonio 
Maria  Lavazza.  Label:  "Santino 
Lavazza  fece  in  Milano  in  contrada 
larga,  1718." 

Lavinville.  A  maker  in  Paris  in  1777, 
especially  known  for  his  mandolines. 

Leb  (Leeb).  Worked  in  Pressburg  in 
the  iSth  century  ;  was  one  of  the  best 
German  makers  of  his  time. 

Le  Blanc.  W^as  the  name  of  a  family 
of  makers  who  through  four  genera- 
tions worked  in  Paris.  There  was  a 
Le  Blanc  still  living  in  1819,  whose 
work  was  fair,  he  used  brown  varnish 
and  branded  his  instruments  "  Le 
Blanc,  Paris." 

Leblanc,  Claude.  A  maker  in  Mire- 
court in  the  i8th  century. 
Le  Blond,  G.  A  maker  in  Dunkirk 
about  1775-90.  A  five-stringed  viol 
with  yellow  varnish  is  dated  1789,  and 
a  cither,  1779.  Another  cither  was 
signed  "  Leblond,  Dunkerque."  Label: 
"Fait  par  G.  Le  Blond  a  Dunkerque, 
Le  Camus,  Pierre.     A  maker  of  lutes  in 

Lyons,  1573-75. 
Leclerc,  J.  N.  Worked  in  Paris,  1760- 
80,  in  connection  with  the  "  Quinze- 
Vingt,"  thereby  enjoying  various 
privileges,  such  as  not  having  to  pay 
certain  taxes,  &c.  Besides  making 
new  instruments,  he  was  a  clever 
repairer  of  old.  Labels:  "  Racomode 
par  Leclerc  au  15  vingt  a  Paris,  1771," 
and  in  a  violin,  "J.  N.  Leclerc,  luthier 
aux  quinze  vingt  a  Paris,  1770."  Other 
labels  are  known  dated  1761,  1768, 
and  1777. 



Lecomte(orFouquet-Lecomte),  Antoine. 
Was  working  in  Paris,  rue  des  Fosses, 
Saint-Germain-des-Pres,  about  1775- 

Lecuyer,  Pierre.  A  maker  in  Paris,  rue 
des  Fosses-Saint-Jacques,  1775-83. 

Leduc,  Pierre.  Was  working  in  Paris  in 
rue  St.-Honore  in  1647,  is  therefore  one 
of  the  oldest  makers  there  of  whom 
anything  definite  is  known.  In  a 
small  violin  or  "kit,"  fairly  well  made, 
is  the  label  :  "  Pierre  Leduc  a  Paris  rue 
Saint-Honore  au  Due  dore,  1647." 

Leeb,  J.  Carl,  b.  1792  ;  d.  1819.  Was  a 
maker  in  Vienna. 

Lefebvre  (Lefebre),  J.  B.  Was  a  French- 
man who  worked  in  Amsterdam  about 
1735-70-  He  followed  the  Amati 
pattern,  using  good  yellow  varnish  ;  it 
is  supposed  that  he  gained  experience 
in  Italy  before  going  to  Amsterdam,  as 
his  work  is  superior  in  merit  to  that 
made  in  France  at  that  date.  In  a 
violoncello  of  small  size,  with  yellow 
varnish  and  of  carefully  finished  work, 
is  the  label :  "J.  B.  Le  Febvre  fecit  in 
Amsterdam,  1770." 

Lefevre  (Lefebvre),  Toussaint  Nicolas 
Germain.  A  maker  in  Paris  in  rue  du 
Cimetiere  Saint-Jean  about  1783-89. 

Legrosdela  Neuville,  Nicolas.  A  French 
maker  who  exhibited  in  1823  guitars, 
violins,  and  violoncellos. 

Le  Jeune.  A  family  of  makers  who  for 
several  generations  worked  in  Paris. 
About  1 8 19  there  was  Le  Jeune  (aine) 
working  at  Cour  du  Commerce— label 
in  a  guitar  :  "  Le  Jeune,  luthier,  Cour 
du  Commerce  No.  19  faubK-  St- 
Germain,  Paris  "  ;  and  Lejeune  (fils) 
working  at  Passage  du  Saumon  ;  and 
Lejeune,  rue  du  Marche-Palu  ;  there 
was  another  member  of  the  family 
living  at  13,  rue  Boucherat,  1836-46  ; 
and  finally  one  established  in  1862  at 
rue  Claude  au  Marais,  who  died  about 

Lejeune,  Benoit.  A  maker  of  lutes, 
living  in  Lyons  in  1557. 

Le  Jeune,  Francois  Worked  in  Paris 
at  the  sign  "  a  la  Harpe  royale  "  from 
about  1745  ;  he  was  still  living  in  1785. 
His  instruments  are  rare  and  of  not 
particularly  good  work,  the  varnish  is 
of  poor  quality.  Two  violins  are 
dated  1747  and  1754,  a  five-stringed 
viol  in  the  Paris  Conservatoire  Collec- 
tion is  dated  1755,  another  1757,  and  an 
alto  also  1757.  Label:  "  Fran9ois  Le 
Jeune  rue  de  la  Juiverie,  a  Paris  annee 

Le  Jeune,  Jean  Baptiste.  Was  a  maker 
of  harps  as  well  as  of  violins  in  Paris, 

rue  Montmartre  au  passage  Charot, 
from  about  1775 ;  he,  or  a  maker  of 
this  name,  was  still  there  in  i8ig. 

Le  Jeune,  Jean  Charles.  A  maker  of 
violins  in  Paris  in  1776  at  the  sign 
"  Au  Dieu  de  I'Harmonie"  ;  worked  in 
the  rue  du  Four  Saint-Germain  till 
1783,  and  was  succeeded  by  his  nephew, 
Guillaume  Martin,  in  1822. 

Le  Jeune,  Louis.  A  maker  of  violins  in 
Paris,  rue  de  la  Juiverie,  1783-89. 

Le  Lievre.  A  maker  in  Paris  about 
1750-80.  Label  in  a  violin,  fairly  well 
made,  with  yellow  varnish  :  "  Le 
Lievre  rue  des  Noniandieres  a  Paris, 


Lembock,  Gabriel,  b.  Oct.  16,  1814, 
Budapest;  d.  March  27,  1892.  Pupil 
of  J.  B.  Schweizer  in  Budapest, 
then  worked  with  Fischer  in  Vienna. 
In  1840  he  started  a  business  there  in 
Canovastrasse.  Was  appointed  Instru- 
ment maker  to  the  Imperial  Court. 
He  was  celebrated  for  his  skill  in  re- 
pairing old  instruments.  He  exhibited 
two  violins,  very  good  copies  of  Guar- 
neri,  at  Munich,  1854.  A  quartet  of 
instruments,  exhibited  in  London,  1862, 
were  also  made  after  the  Italian  pattern, 
and  were  admired  for  the  beauty  and 
fulness  of  their  tone.  Carl  Haudek, 
who  had  worked  with  Lembock,  until 
thi  death  of  the  latter,  succeeded  to 
the  business. 

L'Empereur,  Jean  Baptiste.  A  maker 
in  Paris  in  1750,  who  left  few  instru- 

Lenk,  W.,  b.  1840,  at  Schonbach  bei 
Eger,  Bohemia.  Worked  under  Kessler 
in  Markneukirchen  ;  then  for  five  years 
in  Berlin  ;  also  under  E.  Liebich  in 
Breslau';  in  Vienna,  Budapest,  and 
Munich.  He  finally  settled  at  Frankfort 
a/M.  in  the  Promenade  Platz.  Was 
awarded  a  silver  medal  at  Frankfort, 

Lentz  (Lenz),  Johann  Nicolaus.  A 
German  who  came  from  the  Tyrol  to 
London  ;  was  a  friend  of  Bernhard 
Fendt,  and  thus  probably  gained  some 
knowledge  of  violin  making.  He  began 
his  own  business  in  Chelsea  about 
1800;  he  was  a  good  maker,  generally 
used  a  close-grained  maple- wood,  and 
varnish  similar  to  that  used  by  Dodd 
and  J.  F.  Lott,  sen.  Label:  "Johann 
Nicolaus  Lentz  fecit  near  the  Church, 
Chelsea,  1803." 

Leoni,  Carlo.  AmakerinTrevisoin  1861. 

Leoni,  Ferdinando.  Was  working  in 
Parma  in  1816. 

Le  Pileur,  Pierre.  A  maker  in  Paris 
about  1750-55.     He  worked  in  connec- 


tion  with  the  Abbaye  Saint-Germain, 
thus  gaining  certain  privileges,  it  no 
longer  being  necessary  for  him  to  go 
through  the  expensive  ceremony  of 
being  received  into  the  Corporation  of 
Instrument  makers;  he  was  also  exempt 
from  taxes.  His  instruments  are  not 
particularly  good,  of  rather  a  long 
pattern,  and  with  ugly  brown  varnish. 
Label:  "Pierre  Le  Pileur,  privilegiez 
du  Roy  dans  I'abbaye  Saint-Germain  A 
Paris,  1754  "  ;  a  similar  label  is  dated 

Le  Riche,  C.  J.  A  maker  of  cithers  in 
Lille,  rue  de  la  Clef,  about  1765-85.  In 
a  cither  with  eleven  strings,  four 
double  and  three  single,  was  the  label : 
"  C.  J.  Le  Riche  Me.  luthier  rue  de 
la  Clef  1768  "  ;  in  another  cither  was 
"  rue  de  la  Clef  a  Lille,  1781." 

Lete,  Simon,  b.  about  1768.  A  maker 
at  Mirecourt,  who  made  instruments  at 
very  cheap  prices  for  the  trade ;  in 
1823  he  was  awarded  a  silver  medal 
for  a  very  satisfactory  violin,  which 
was  priced  25  francs  {£1).  J.  B. 
Vuillaume  entered  his  workshop  in 
1821,  and  1825-28  was  in  partnership 
with  him.  He  married  the  daughter 
of  Pique,  the  violin  maker ;  his  son, 
Nicolas  Anloine,  b.  March  29,  1793, 
Mirecourt,  became  an  organ  builder. 

Levalois.  A  maker  of  all  kinds  of 
instruments  in  Paris,  ruedelaCalandre, 
about  1760. 

Lewis,  Edward.  A  maker  in  London 
about  1700.  His  work  was  most 
excellent,  showing  great  accuracy  and 
finish  ;  he  used  good  wood  and  very 
fine  varnish,  generally  a  light  yellow 
colour,  but  sometimes  red  with  golden 
ground.  His  violins  are  rare,  but  are 
very  beautiful.  In  Thomas  Britton's 
Collection  was  an  "  excellent  tenor  by 
Mr  Lewis"  and  a  "  rare  good"  bass- 

Liebich,  Ernst,  b.  Oct.  27,  1796, 
Reibnitz,  near  Hirschberg  (Silesia) ;  d. 
1876,  Breslau.  Pupil  and  successor  of 
his  uncle,  Johann  Gottfried  Liebich. 
He  followed  the  Stradivari  and  Guar- 
neri  patterns ;  and  also  made  harps  and 
guitars.     He  was  the  father  of 

Liebich,  Ernst,  b.  1830.  Breslau ;  d. 
1884,  who  succeeded  to  the  business, 
and  continued  to  make  instruments  on 
the  Italian  pattern      His  son, 

Liebich,  Ernst,  b  May  z^.  1862,  Breslau. 
learnt  from  his  father ;  later  worked 
with  Bittner  in  Vienna.  In  1884 
succeeded  to  the  business  at  2,  Cather- 
inenstrasst*.  Hreslau  He  was  especially 
skiltul    in    repairing;    old   instruments, 

about  300  a  year  passing  tnrough  his 
hands  ;  but  also  made  from  six  to  ten 
new  instruments  per  year ;  they  have  a 
fine  full  tone,  and  generally  follow 
the  Stradivari  or  Guarneri  patterns, 
with  transparent  varnish,  reddish- 
yellow  colour.  He  also  copied  the  Amati 
and  Maggini  patterns ;  he  employed  five 
workmen  in  his  shop,  but  varnished 
all  instruments  himself.  Was  awarded 
silver  medal,  Breslau,  i88i,  and  a  gold 
medal,  Posen,  1895.  Appointed  instru- 
ment maker  to  the  Duke  of  Saxe- 
Coburg  and  Gotha.     He  died  1896. 

Liebich,  Johann  Gottfried,  b.  1752  ;  d. 
1 81 3.  Son  of  a  maker  who  left 
Bohemia  to  settle  in  Silesia.  He 
founded  the  business,  1790,  which  has 
remained  ever  since  in  the  family. 

Liedolf  (Leiiolf),  Joseph  Ferdinand. 
A  maker  in  Vienna  in  the  i8th  century. 

Liessem,  Remerus.  A  maker  in  London, 
1756.  This  name  and  date  were  found 
in  a  cither  of  old-fashioned  shape. 

Light.  A  beautiful  arch-lute  was  found 
to  be  inscribed  "479  Light,  Foley 
Place,  London." 

Lignoli,  Andrea.  A  maker  in  Florence 
in  the  17th  century. 

Lilly,  James.  An  English  maker,  work- 
ing in  1821. 

Linarolo  (Linerolli).  Francesco.  The 
first  maker  in  the  family.  Worked  in 
Bergamo,  later  in  Venice.  -\  tenor- 
viol  was  labelled  "  Franciscus  Linarolus 
Bergomensis  Venetii  faciebat."  Was 
probably  the  maker  of  an  "accordo" 
dated  1514,  beautifully  made,  the  back 
inlaid  with  tortoiseshell. 

Linarolo,  Giovanni,  son  of  Venturo 
Linarolo.  Label:  "Giovanni  D'Ven- 
tura  Linarol  in  Venetia,  1622." 

Linarolo  (Linerolli,  Linelli),  Venturo, 
son  of  Francesco  Linarolo.  A  maker 
of  lutes  and  viols  in  Venice,  worked 
there  till  1581.  Label:  "Ventura  di 
Francesco  Linarolo  in  Venetia,  1581." 
Was  then  in  Padua:  label,  "Ventura 
de  Francco  Linarol  in  Padova,  f. 
1585  "  ;  but  probably  returned  to  Venice 
shortly  after,  for  there  is  a  label  "  fece 
in  Venetia,  a.  1591."  Two  tenor-viols 
exhibited  in  London  in  1872  were 
probably  made  by  him  ;  they  both 
had  a  scroll  with  four  pegs  substituted 
for  the  ancient  head  with  six  or  seven 
pegs ;  the  great  breadth  left  between 
the  sound-holes  shows  that  the  instru- 
ments were  originally  made  for  six  or 
sjven  strings. 

Lippold.  A  family  of  makers  in 
Markneukirchen  in  the  i8th  century. 

Lippold,      Johann      Georg,      b.      1739, 



d.  i8z4  ;  made  fairly  good  instruments  ; 
used  yellow-brown  varnish. 

Lister,  John.     Leeds,  1727. 

Lolio,  Giambattista.    Bergamo,  17 — . 

Loly,  Jacopo.  Was  working  in  Naples 
in  1627  ;  followed  the  pattern  of 
Grancino ;  used  yellow  varnish  ;  his 
instruments  were  not  arched,  and  the 
wood  was  of  too  hard  a  quality.  He 
made  some  large-sized  tenors. 

Longman  and  Broderip  were  not  violin 
makers,  but  were  instrument  sellers  in 
Cheapside,  London,  about  1760,  and 
many  of  the  instruments  they  sold, 
marked  with  their  name,  were  made 
for  the  firm  by  Benjamin  Banks,  or 

Lorenzini,  Gaspare.  AmakerinPiacenza 
in  the  i8th  century. 

Lott,  George  Frederick,  eldest  son  of 
John  Frederick  Lott,  sen.  ;  b.  1800, 
London  ;  d.  there,  1868.  He  was  an 
excellent  workman  and  was  for  a  long 
time  employed  by  Davis  of  Coventry 
Street,  London.  He  copied  Italian 
instruments  with  great  cleverness. 

Lott,  John  Frederick,  sen.,  b.  1775, 
Germany  ;  d.  April  13,  1853,  London, 
and  was  buried  in  the  Churchyard  of  St. 
Giles-in-the-Fields.  While  still  young 
came  to  England  and  settled  in  London. 
He  was  first  a  chair-maker ;  but  forming 
a  friendship  with  Fendt,  he  began  to 
work  at  violin  making  under  Thomas 
Dodd,  in  March,  1798.  He  showed 
great  ability  and  made  many  excellent 
violoncellos  and  basses  for  Thomas 
Dodd,  in  which  were  inserted  the 
latter's  labels.  He  was  especially 
famed  for  his  double-basses,  which 
rival  Italian  instruments ;  the  work  is 
beautifully  finished,  both  inside  and 
out ;  the  scrolls  are  well  cut,  but  the 
varnish  is  not  of  good  quality.  His 
two  sons,  George  Frederick  and  John 
Frederick,  were  both  makers. 

Lott,  John  Frederick,  second  son  of 
John  Frederick  Lott,  sen.;  d.  1871. 
He  worked  for  Davis,  of  Coventry 
Street,  London,  and  made  skilful 
imitations  of  Italian  instruments. 

Lotz,  Theodor.  A  maker  of  good  violins 
in  Pressburg,  1730-40. 

Louis.  There  was  a  maker  of  this  name 
in  Geneva. 

Louvet,  Jean,  brother  of  Pierre  Louvet. 
He  worked  in  Paris  about  1730-60. 
His  violins  were  not  well  made ;  they 
were  varnished  brown  He  chiefly 
made  hurdy-gurdys  and  harps,  and 
was  one  of  the  first  to  make  pedal- 
harps.  In  the  Paris  Conservatoire 
Collection  are  two  hurdy-gurdys,  one 

dated  1733,  made  by  Louvet,  rue 
Grenier  St.-Lazare ;  the  other  with 
the  label  :  "  Fait  par  Jean  Louvet  rue 
de  la  Croix-des-petits-Champs,  pres  la 
porte  St.-Honore.  Paris,  1750."  In  an 
alto  was  the  label:  "Louvet  a  la 
Vielle  Royale  rue  Croix-des-petits- 
Champs  a  cote  de  la  Porte  Saint- 
Honore  a  Paris,  1755  "  ;  a  similar  label 
in  a  hurdy-gurdy  was  dated  1757. 

Louvet,  Pierre,  brother  of  Jean  Louvet ; 
also  worked  in  Paris  about  1740-85. 
He  chiefly  made  harps,  which  he 
signed  "P.  Louvet  a  Paris";  but  a 
five-stringed  viol  is  known,  and  two 
hurdy-gurdys,  one,  dated  1750,  is 
prettily  ornamented,  the  other  is  in 
the  Paris  Conservatoire  Collection 
and  has  this  label:  "Fait  par  P. 
Louvet,  rue  Montmartre  a  Paris,  a  la 
Vielle  Royale,  juin,  1747."  He  later 
moved  to  the  rue  St. -Denis,  and  was 
still  there  in  1783. 

Ludici  (Ludge),  Geronimo  Pietro.  An 
amateur  maker,  working  in  Conegliano 
in  1709.  Label:  "  Hieronymus  Petrus 
de  Ludice  anima  causa  faciebat  Cone- 
gliani,  a.d.  1709." 

Lugloni,  Giuseppe.  A  maker  in  Venice 
in  1777. 

Lupo,  Pietro,  of  Antwerp.  In  1559  he 
is  said  to  have  sold  to  a  musician  sent 
by  the  town  of  Utrecht,  "  five  violins 
enclosed  in  their  case,"  for  the  sum 
of  ;^72.  The  services  of  a  pro- 
fessional player  were  called  in,  so  that 
the  quality  of  tone  of  the  instruments 
might  be  fairly  judged,  before  the  sale 
was  concluded,  and  for  this  and  for  the 
wine  drunk  on  the  occasion  £^  more 
were  paid. 

Lupot,  Fran9ois,  son  of  Laurent  Lupot ; 
b.  1736,  Plombieres  ;  d.  1804,  Paris. 
First  worked  with  his  father  at  Lune 
ville  (1751-56)  was  appointed  Court 
maker  by  the  Duke  of  Wiirtemberg, 
and  for  ten  years  (1758-68)  lived  and 
worked  at  Stuttgart.  A  document  is 
still  extant,  signed  by  Jomelli,  Director 
of  Music  to  the  Duke,  attesting  to 
Fran9ois  having  satisfactorily  fulfilled 
his  duties  for  ten  consecutive  years  up 
to  the  date  at  which  he  was  leaving — 
June  16,  1768.  He  then  moved  to 
Orleans,  rue  Sainte-Catherine,  probably 
to  join  his  father  ;  but  in  1794  went  to 
Paris  with  his  son  Nicolas  and  remained 
there  till  his  death.  His  work  shows 
great  ability  and  is  superior  to  that  of 
Laurent  and  Jean  Lupot  ;  he  was 
certainly  one  of  the  best  French  makers 
of  his  time,  and  is  said  to  have  been  a 
pupil  of  Giuseppe  Guarneri.  ■  He  made 



a  number  of  instruments  on  rather  a 
broad  pattern,  with  dark-brown  varnish 
of  poor  quahty .  In  the  Paris  Conserva- 
toire Collection  is  a  splendid  violin 
made  at  Orleans  in  1772.  Labels:  a 
curiously-spelt  one,  "Francois  Lupot, 
luttier  de  la  coure  de  Wirtenbergt  a 
Stoutgard,  1765,"  and  "Francisco 
Lupot  fecit  in  Orleans,  anno  177 — ." 
He  married  in  1754,  at  the  age  of  i8, 
and  his  two  sons,  Nicolas  and  Francois, 
were  both  makers. 

Lupot,  Fran9ois,  son  of  Fran9ois  Lupot 
(1736-1804);  b.  1774, Orleans;  d.Feb.  4, 
1837,  Paris.  From  1815  until  his  death 
he  worked  in  Paris  at  18,  rue  d'Angi- 
villiers  at  making  bows  only.  He  in- 
vented the  "  coulisse,"  or  metal  groove 
attached  to  the  nut,  and  carefully 
fitted  to  the  stick  on  which  it  works, 
a  very  useful  contrivance,  which  has 
been  in  use  ever  since.  He  made 
beautiful  bows,  closely  copied  from 
the  Tourte  bow ;  they  are  still  much 

Lupot,  Jean.  A  maker  at  Mirecourt,  b. 
about  1674;  d.  March  i,  1749.  His 
violins  are  not  particularly  good.  His 
son,  Laurent,  was  also  a  maker. 

Lupot,  Laurent,  son  of  Jean  Lupot  and 
his  wife,  Laure  ;  b.  1696,  Mirecourt.  In 
1747  he  was  acting  as  a  schoolmaster 
at  Plombieres,  but  in  1751  established 
himself  as  a  violin  maker  at  Luneville, 
where  he  remained  till  1756.  Later  he 
moved  to  Orleans,  and  was  working 
there,  1762.  His  instruments  are  only 
interesting  as  showing  the  sort  of  work 
that  preceded  that  of  Nicolas  Lupot. 
His  son,  Fran9ois  (1736-1804),  was  also 
a  maker. 

Lupot,  Nicolas,  son  of  Fran9ois  Lupot 
{1736-1804);  b.  1758,  Stuttgart;  d.  Aug. 
13,  1824,  Paris.  He  was  the  most 
distinguished  member  of  this  family, 
and  exercised  a  great  influence  on  the 
French  School  of  violin  making  ;  he 
carefully  studied  the  work  of  the  Italian 
makers,  especially  of  Antonio  Stradi- 
vari, and  finally  combining  theory  and 
practice .  in  an  extraordinary  degree, 
made  instruments  far  above  anything 
produced  up. to  that  time  by  French 
makers.  In  1768  he  went  with  his 
father  to  Orleans,  and  there  learnt  his 
trade;  in  1792,  while  still  living  there, 
Pique,  the  Parisian  maker,  who  was 
already  well  known  for  his  violins,  made 
an  arrangement  with  him,  by  which 
he  was  to  supply  a  certain  number  of 
violins ' '  in  the  white"  (r^. , unvarnished), 
at  the  rate  of  30  francs  each,  to  Pique, 
who  had  not  the  time  to  make  them 

himself.     This  was  good  pay,  for  later 
J.  B.  Vuillaume   only  gave    15  or  20 
francs  (12s.  to  i6s.)  for  violins  in  this 
state,  and  now  the  price  is  about  40  to 
50   francs  {£1    12s.   to   £2).      Nicolas 
went  to  Paris  in  1794,  but  did  not  start 
his  business  in  rue  de  Grammont  till 
1798;  in  1806  he  moved  to  rue  Croix- 
des-petits-Champs,  where  he  remained 
till  his   death ;    it  was  there   that   he 
produced  his  famous  copies  of  Italian 
instruments.      He  did  not  attempt  to 
be  original,  but  worked  until  he  could 
produce  exact  imitations  of  the  great 
Stradivari    violins  ;    a   few  copies   of 
Guarneri  and  Amati  are  known  ;  they 
are  very  beautiful,  but  it  was  the  Stradi- 
vari pattern  that  he  was  most  success- 
ful  with.       The    result    of    his    large 
experience  of  the   methods  employed 
by  Italian  makers  was  incorporated  in 
the  Abbe  Sibire's  work,  entitled  "  La 
Chelonomieou  le  parfait  luthier,"  pub- 
lished in  Paris,  1806.     He  made  many 
violins,  altos,  and  violoncellos,  which 
now  fetch  high  prices ;  his  earlier  violins, 
those  dated  Orleans,  and  the  first  part 
of  his  time  in  Paris,  are  worth  ;^2o  or 
more  ;    those  made  between  1804  and 
1824,  from  £50  to  ;^6o  or  more;   his 
violoncellos  are  rarer,  and  a  fine  speci- 
men is  worth  about  ;^8o.   Some  quintets 
of  instruments  (2  violins,  2  altos,  and  i 
violoncello),  which  he  endeavoured  to 
make  similar  in  appearance  and  tone, 
are   now   very   rare,   and   fetch  fancy 
prices.    It  is  said  that  every  instrument 
that   left   his    workshop   was   entirely 
made  by  his  own  hands  ;  he  was  a  real 
artist,    and    every    small    detail    was 
beautifully  finished.     He  used  different 
varnishes,    the    usual    one    with   time 
becomes  cracked   and   lumpy-looking, 
which  though  a  defect  does  not  affect 
the  tone.      It  is  of  good  quality,  free 
from  hardness,  but  often  too  thick  and 
heavy,  especially  on  the  violoncellos. 
The  colour  varies  from  yellow  to  dark 
red ;    the  tone    is    always    very    fine 
Spohr  used  to  play  on  one  of  Nicolas' 
violins  during  his  concert  tours ;    this 
instrument  passed  into  the  possession 
of   Matthai  of   Leipzig,  and  when  he 
died  into  that  of  Ulrich.    Nicolas  was 
also  famed  for  the   skilful  manner  in 
which  he  repaired  old  Italian  instru- 
ments.    He  had  several  distinguished 
pupils — Aug  Seb.  P.  Bernardel,  Nicolas 
Eugene   Gand,  and  Charles  Francois 
Gand,    his   son-in-law   and   successor. 
In  1815  he  was  appointed  maker  to  the 
King,  and  in  1816  maker  to  the  Paris 
Conservatoire ;  this  latter  post  involved 



making  the  violins  and  violoncellos 
given  as  prizes  to  the  Conservatoire 
pupils.  In  1820  he  undertook  to 
entirely  replace  the  instruments  of  the 
royal  orchestra  with  new  ones  of  his 
own  ;  but  his  death  cut  short  the  work, 
which  was  completed  by  Ch.  Fr.  Gand. 
Labels  :  "  Nicolas  Lupot,  filius  fecit  in 
Aurelianensis,  anno  1776";  "N.  Lupot 

Fils  luthier,  rue  d'llliers,  a  Orleans,  I'an 
1791  "  ;  "Nicolas  Lupot  luthier  rue 
de  Grammont  a  Paris,  an  1801  "  ; 
"  Nicolas  Lupot  luthier,  rue  Croix-des- 
petits-Champs  a  Paris,  I'an  1812 "  ; 
"  N.  Lupot,  luthier  de  la  musique  du 
Roi  et  de  I'ecole  royale  de  Musique, 
Paris,  1817."  Many  instruments  were 
signed  with  his  autograph. 


MacGeorge  A  maker  in  Edinburgh 
about  1800-20. 

Macintosh.  A  maker  in  Dublin  about 
1830-40.     Pupil  of  Thomas  Perry. 

Maffeotto,  Giuseppe.  Was  working  in 
Rome  in  the  i8th  century. 

Maggini  (Magino  or  Maglino),  Gio: 
Paolo,  son  of  Zovan  or  Giovanni  Mag- 
gini  and  his  wife  Giulia ;  grandson  of 
Ser  Bertolino  or  Bartolommeo  de 
Maggini  of  Botticino,  a  little  village  on 
the  hills  not  far  from  Brescia ;  b.  1580  ; 
d.  before  or  in  1632,  as  in  a  schedule 
presented  in  that  year  by  his  son  Carlo 
he  uses  the  words  "filius  quondam 
Johannis  Pauli."  It  is  possible  that 
he  died  of  the  plague  that  in  1632  raged 
in  Brescia.  His  parents  left  Botticino 
and  settled  in  Brescia.  Gio:  Paolo 
-was  apprenticed  to  Gasparo  da  Salo, 
according  to  a  legal  document,  dated 
1602,  signed  by  both  Gasparo  and 
Maggini,  the  latter  calling  himself 
"garzone"  In  the  first  period  of 
Maggini's  work  one  finds  much  that  is 
characteristic  of  the  work  of  Gasparo  ; 
there  is  the  same  heavy  model,  short 
blunted  corners,  and  purfling  carelessly 
inlaid.  The  head,  although  showing 
a  great  deal  of  character,  is  also 
carelessly  worked,  one  side  often 
differing  from  the  other,  and  the  face 
very  deeply  and  unevenly  cut,  while 
the' fluting  of  the  back  of  the  head  is 
also  irregular  The  wood  is  generally 
maple,  and  is  frequently  cut  on  the 
slab ;  the  wood  ot  the  bellies  being 
also  cut  on  the  slab  forms  an  interesting 
link  between  the  viol  and  the  violin  ; 
afterwards  he  adopted  the  method  of 
cutting  the  \v(;od  with  the  straight 
way  oi  the  grain.  In  the  s(>und-holes 
he  undercut  (jr  be\ tiled  their  inside 
edges  like  those  of  a  viol  occasionally 
he  ornamented  his  violins  similarly  to 
viols,  with  inluid  purflin-,  or  the 
"clover-leaf"  device  at  top  and  bottom 
of    the   back,   or    with    an    ielaborate 

design  on  the  centre  of  the  back  ;  the 
two  latter  ornamentations  are  never  to 
be  found  on  the  same  instrument, 
unless  it  is  a  forgery.  In  the  second 
period  of  his  work  the  influence  of 
Gasparo  is  not  so  marked ;  there  is  a 
great  improvement  in  the  construction 
and  work  of  the  instrument  ;  the 
arching  is  slightly  higher  than  in  his 
earlier  or  later  work,  and  is  usually 
associated  with  a  pronounced  raised 
border  ;  the  purfling  is  done  with  more 
precision  ;  the  sound-holes,  though  still 
original  in  character,  have  more  grace- 
ful curves,  and  are  better  cut ;  so  is 
the  head,  which  is  more  symmetrical. 
The  wood,  of  very  fine  quality,  is 
seldom  cut  on  the  slab ;  and  is  never 
so  cut  for  the  bellies;  the  "Dumas" 
viola  and  violins  are  very  fine  specimens 
of  this  period.  The  beautiful  instru- 
ments turned  out  by  Antonio  and 
Girolamo  Amati  may  possibly  have 
influenced  the  third  period  of  his  work, 
which  shows  much  greater  accuracy 
and  a  more  beautiful  form.  The  purfl- 
ing is  distinct  and  finely  done ;  the 
sound-holes  are  well  cut  and  carefully 
finished  ;  the  arching  is  not  so  great, 
and  the  edges  are  lighter,  which  gives 
the  instruments  a  more  graceful 
appearance.  The  curves  of  the  scroll 
are  quite  symmetrical,  while  the  fluting 
at  the  back  of  the  head  is  not  so 
hollowed  and  is  beautifully  done. 
Stronger  corner-blocks  and.linings  are 
also  used  for  the  interior,  and  the 
thicknesses  are  more  accurately  cal- 
culated. The  varnish  is  always  of 
remarkably  fine  quality,  but  varies  in 
colour ;  he  usually  used  varnish  of  a 
clear  brown  colour,  similar  to  that  on 
Gasparo's  work  ;  but  by  degrees  it 
became  more  brilliant,  of  a  trans- 
parent golden  colour.  Nearly  all  his 
instruments  are  double-purfled,  but 
three  violins  and  one  viola  are  known 
with  only  one   line   of  purfling ;    and 



also  a  very  fine  violin,  which  though 
double-purfled  on  the  belly,  has  only 
imitated  purfling  on  the  back,  the 
double  line  being  drawn  in  with  pencil 
or  ink.  The  large  size  of  his  violins 
makes  the  sides  appear  low,  but  at  the 
neck-end  their  height  is  almost  identical 
with  that  of  Amati  violins  and  some  of 
Stradivari,  though  at  the  tail-pin  end 
they  are  about  one-sixteenth  of  an  inch 
lower.  The  great  length  and  breadth 
necessitated  relatively  low  sides,  and 
Maggini  obtained  exactly  the  right 
proportions  for  producing  that  great 
volume  of  tone,  so  full  and  mellow,  for 
which  his  violins  are  famed  ;  their  size 
prevented  their  general  use,  but  De 
Beriot,  the  great  violinist,  played  con- 
stantly on  a  magnificent  specimen, 
which  eventually  was  sold  for  ;^6oo, 
and  is  now  in  the  Collection  of  Prince 
de  Caraman-Chimay,  as  well  as  a  viola 
and  a  violoncello  made  by  Maggini. 
As  a  rule  Maggini  violins  are  worth 
about  ;^ioo.  His  violas  are  of  very 
hij^h  model,  the  arching  rises  from  the 
inner  line  of  purfling,  for  the  latter  is, 
as  usual,"  double ;  the  border  is  high, 
and  the  sides  are  set  close  to  the  edges 
of  the  back  and  belly,  leaving  but  little 
margin;  the  corners  are  short ;  the  sound- 
holes,  placed  higher  than  in  the  violins, 
are  short,  wide,  very  upright,  and  under- 
cut on  the  inner  edge.  The  wood  is 
most  excellent,  the  varnish  of  very  fine 
quality  and  a  rich  golden-brown  colour ; 
the  tone  is  very  fine.  His  violoncellos 
are  made  on  exactly  the  same  pattern, 
the  sound-holes  placed  rather  high,  the 
sides  made  rather  low.  Stradivari 
learnt  much  from  him,  both  in 
the  making  of  violins  and  of  violon- 
cellos ;  the  latter  have  almost  the 
same  proportions.  Giuseppe  Guarneri 
was  another  maker  on  whom  his 
work  exercised  a  strong  influence. 
The  amount  -of  work  done  by 
Maggini  was  comparatively  small, 
probably  about  fifty  of  his  instru- 
ments are  now  existing;  only  seven 
or  eight  violas,  two  violoncellos, 
and  one  double-bass  are  known, 
the  latter  of  very  small  size  and  of 
poor  workmanship.  He  probably 
made  some  viols  as  well.  In  England 
only  twelve  violins,  six  or  seven  violas, 
and  one  violoncello  are  known.  The 
label  used  is;  "  Gio  :  Paolo  Maggini  in 
Brescia."  It  is  never  dated,  a  fact 
which  often  helps  to  expose  a  forgery. 
Maggini  married  Maddalena  Anna 
Foresto  on  Tan  20,  1615,  and  lived  in 
the  Contrada  del  Palazzo  Vecchio  del 

Podesta ;  by  1626  he  had  also  a  house 
and  shop  in  Contrada  delle  Bombasarie. 
His  only  surviving  son  .Carlo  Francesco, 
became  a  silk  merchant,  and  his  son 
Pietro  died  in  his  infancy,  so  that 
there  seems  to  be  absolutely  no  ground 
for  the  statement  that  his  son,  Pietro, 
or  Pietro  Santo,  was  also  a  violin 
maker,  especially  as  no  violin,  viola, 
or  violoncello  is  known  made  by  any 
other  Maggini  than  the  great  Gio : 

Maire,  Nicolas.  A  violin  bow  maker  in 
Paris;  b.  Dec.  28,  i8oo,  in  Mirecourt ; 
d.  July  17, 1878.  Paris.  Was  apprenticed 
to  Jacques  Lafleur  in  Paris,  and  con- 
tinued to  work  there  in  rue  Mont- 
martre.     He  made  excellent  bows. 

Maldonner  (Moldonner).  A  maker 
in  Fiissen,  Bavaria,  about  1760. 

Maler  (Mailer),  Laux.  A  maker  of 
lutes  in  Bologna  about  1415,  mentioned 
by  Mace  in  "  Musick's  Monument" 
(London,  1676).  He  says,  "There  are 
diversities  of  Men's  Names  in  lutes ; 
but  the  Chief  Name  we  most  esteem 
is  Laux  Mailer,  ever  written  with 
Text  Letters  :  Two  of  which  Lutes  I 
have  seen  (pittifull  Old,  Batter'd, 
Crack'd  Things)  valued  at  ;^ioo  a  piece. 
Mr.  Gootiere.  the  famous  Lutenist  in 
His  Time,  shewed  me  One  of  Them, 
which  the  King  paid  ;^ioo  for.  And 
Mr.  Edw.  Jones  (on-e  of  Mr.  Gootiere's 
scholars)  had  the  other,  which  He  so 
valued  ;  and  made  a  Bargain  with  a 
Merchant,  who  desired  to  have  it  with 
him  in  His  Travels,  (for  his  Experience) ; 
And  if  he  lik'd  It  when  he  returned 
was  to  give  Mr.  Jones  ;^ioo  for  it ;  but 
if  he  Refus'd  it  at  the  Price  set,  he 
was  to  return  the  Lute  safe,  and  to 
pay  ;£'20  for  His  Experience  and  Use 
of  It,  for  that  Journey.  I  have  often 
seen  Lutes  of  three  or  four  pounds,  far 
more  Illustrious  and  Taking  to  a 
common    Eye  observe    the 

Colour  ;  which  is  the  Dark-black- 
reddish-colour  ;  though  I  believe  it 
contributes  nothing  at  all  to  the  sound ; 
only  the  Best  Authors  did  use  to  lay 
on  That  Colour,  especially  Laux 

Maler,  Sigismond.  A  maker  of  lutes  in 
Venice  in  1526. 

Mann,  Hans.  A  maker  in  Naples 
about  1720-50.  His  instruments  are 
rare.  He  followed  the  Stradivari  and 
Guarneri  patterns 

Mansiedl.     See  "  Maussiell." 

Mantegazza  (or  Montegatia),  Pietro  and 
Giovanni.  Two  brothers  working  in 
Milan    about    1750    to     180c.      They 



made  many  good  altos;  the  varnish,  of 
fine  quahty,  varies  in  colour,  some- 
times is  almost  black,  the  wood  is 
rather  too  hard.  Labels  :  "  Petrus 
Joes.  Fratresq.  Mantegatia  Mediolani  in 
Via  S.  Margaritae,  anno  1757"  ;  similar 
labels  are  dated  1760,  1763,  and  1780  ; 
^'Pietro,  Gio.  e  fratelli  Mantegazza 
nella  contrada  di  Santa  Margharita  in 
Milano  al  segno  dell'  Angelo,  1756"  ;  a 
similar  label  is  dated  1 770 ;  and  ' '  Petrus 
Joannes  Mantegatia  fecit  Mediolani  in 
Via  S.  Margarita,  1790." 

Mantovani.  Was  working  in  Parma  in 
the  i8th  century. 

Maratti,  Giambattista.  A  maker  in 
Verona  about  1690-1700.  His  violins 
are  of  fair  workmanship  and  have  a 
good  tone. 

Marcelli,  Giovanni.  A  maker  in  Cre- 
mona in  1696.  Label  :  "  Joannes 
Marcelh  fecit  Cremonae,  MDCXCVI." 

Marchal  (Marechal).  A  maker  in  Paris 
about  1790,  A  viola  d'amore  and  a 
lyre-guitar  of  his  are  known.  In  a 
theorbo  was  found  the  inscription : 
"  Marchal  a  Paris." 

Marchetti,  Enrico.  A  maker  of  good 
instruments  in  Turin  in  the  19th 

March! ,  Giovanni  Antonio.  A  maker  in 
Bologna  about  1740-95.  His  violon- 
cellos and  violins  are  good  instruments ; 
the  latter  are  of  high  model,  with  very 
beautiful  maple-wood  used  for  the 
back  and  sides,  and  varnish  of  a  golden- 
yellow  colour.  Label  :  "  Joannes 
Antonius  Marchi  fecit  Bononiae,  anno 
1774"  ;  similar  labels  are  dated  1760 
and  1792. 

Marco,  Antonio.  A  maker  in  Venice  in 

Marconcini,  Giuseppe,  son  of  Luigi 
Marconcini.  Was  a  pupil  of  Storioni  ; 
then  settled  in  Ferrara,  where  he  died 
at  a  great  age  on  Jan.  17,  1841,  His 
violins  varied  in  workmanship,  some 
equalled  those  of  his  master  ;  they 
are  well  made,  slightly  arched,  with 
brilliant  red  varnish. 

Marconcini,  Luigi.  A  pupil  of  Omobono 
Stradivari,  who  worked  both  in  Ferrara 
and  Bologna.  His  instruments  are  of 
good  workmanship,  with  pale  red 
varnish.  Labels:  "Luigi  Marconcini 
f.  Bologna,"  and  "  Luigi  Marconcini 
in  Ferrara,  1767." 

Maria,  Giuseppe  de.  A  maker  of  man- 
dolines at  Naples,  1779.  Label  : 
"  Joseph  di  Maria  di  Napoli  in  Strada 
S.  Pietro  a  Majella  f.  Nin  apoli,  a.d. 

^779-"  ,       .     _ 

Mariani,  Antonio.     A  maker  in  Pesaro 

about  1640  to  1700.  His  instruments 
are  not  of  much  value ;  the  work 
suggests  Maggini,  but  is  very  rough  ; 
the  purfling  is  generally  double. 
Labels:  "Antonio  Mariani  Pesaro, 
1646,"  found  in  an  alto,  and  "  Antonio 
Mariani  fecit,  anno  1694." 

Marino,  Bernardino.  A  maker  in  Rome 
who  worked  up  to  1805. 

Marins.  A  small  pocket  violin  of  ivory 
and  coloured  woods  was  inscribed 
"  Marins,"  and  was  probably  made 
about  1610. 

Marquis  de  Lair.  A  maker  in  Mire- 
court  about  1800.  He  made  violins 
and  violoncellos,  and  followed  the 
Stradivari  pattern ;  but  his  work  is 
very  poor,  the  wood  is  not  good,  and 
the  varnish,  an  ugly  yellow-brown 
colour,  lacks  transparency  ;  the  tone  is 
of  bad  quality.  He  branded  his  in- 
struments on  the  back,  "  Marquis  de 
Lair  d'Oiseau." 

Marshall,  John.  A  maker  in  London 
about  1750-60.  A  mandoline  of  his 
was  dated  1758.  He  followed  the 
Stainer  pattern,  and  his  work  was 
good.  Labels:  "Johannes  Marshall 
Londini.  Fecit  1750";  "Johannes 
Marshall  (in  vico  novo  juxta  Coventam 
hortum)  Londini,  fecit  1757";  and 
"Marshall:  London,  1759." 

Martin.  A  family  of  makers  in  Paris, 
who  chiefly  dealt  in  and  repaired  old 
instruments.  Guillaume  Martin  suc- 
ceeded to  the  business  of  Lejeune  in 
1822,  and  was  in  his  turn  succeeded  by 
a  nephew,  Charles  Martin.  Alexandre 
Martin,  son  of  Charles,  took  the 
business  in  1890. 

Martin,  Jules.  A  maker  in  Germigny, 
Vosges,  in  the  19th  century. 

Martin.  A  maker  in  London  in  1790-95, 
who  lived  at  Hermitage  Bridge, 

Mast,  Jean  Laurent.  A  maker  in  Paris 
about  1750.  His  instruments  are  very 
well  made,  the  spirit  varnish  is  thick, 
a  dark  brown  colour,  which  has  be- 
come almost  black.  He  branded  his 
violins  with  "J.  L.  Mast,  Paris,"  both 
inside  and  outside. 

Mast,  Joseph  Laurent,  son  of  Jean 
Laurent  Mast.  Was  born  at  Mire- 
court  and  was  still  there  in  1820.  He 
was  apprenticed  to  Nicolas  there  at 
the  sign  of  "A  la  ville  de  Cremone," 
and  then  settled  in  Toulouse.  Several 
of  his  violins  are  known,  and  are  said 
to  be  of  better  workmanship  than 
those  of  his  father.  They  are  arched, 
the  sound-holes  are  not  well  cut,  and 
he   used   two    varnishes,   one   yellow- 



brown  and  the  other  reddish  colour. 
He  branded  his  instruments  with 
"  Mast  fils  Toulouse,  1825."  There  is 
a  violin  in  the  Paris  Conservatoire 
Collection  which  has  the  label  : 
"  Josephus  Laurentius  Mast  fecit 
Apollini  Deo  Harmonise  1816,  repare 
chez  Schubert  Epinal,  1831." 

Maucotel,  Charles,  biother  of  Charles 
Adolphe  Maucotel;  b.  Nov.  i,  1807, 
Mirecourt.  Was  first  apprenticed  to 
Bloise  Mast ;  in  1834  went  to  Paris 
and  worked  under  Gand ;  in  Dec,  1844, 
moved  to  London,  where  at  first  he 
was  employed  by  W.  Davis,  of  34, 
Coventry  Street,  but  then  started  his 
own  business  in  8,  Rupert  Street, 
Hay  market  ;  1851-58,  Georges  Chanot 
worked  with  him.  He  retired  from 
business  in  Aug.,  i860,  and  returned 
to  France.  He  made  some  excellent 
instruments,  the  work,  varnish  and 
tone  were  all  good.  Label :  "  Carolus 
Maucotelus  fecit  Londini,  185 — , 
C.  +  M." 

Maucotel,  Charles  Adolphe,  brother  of 
Charles  ;  b.  1820  at  Mirecourt ;  d.  Feb. 
6,  1858,  at  Paris.  Apprenticed  in 
Mirecourt ;  then  went  to  Paris  and 
worked  for  five  years  (1839-44)  under 
J.  B.  Vuillaume.  In  1844  he  started 
his  business  in  Galerie  Vivienne,  but 
later  moved  first  to  rueCroix-des-petits- 
Champs  and  then  to  rue  Princesse  ;  it 
was  there  he  committed  suicide  in 
1858,  by  cutting  his  throat  during  an 
attack  of  brain-fever.  He  made  excel- 
lent copies  of  the  works  of  Stradivari 
and  Giuseppe  Guarneri,  and  his 
numerous  violins,  altos,  and  violon- 
cellos show  good  work  and  have  a 
fine  tone.  In  1844  he  was  awarded  a 
bronze  medal  for  an  alto  placed  in  the 
2nd  class,  and  in  1855  a  medal  of  the 
and  class. 

Maussiell  (or  Mansiedl),  Leonhardt.  A 
maker  in  Nuremberg,  1720-50.  He 
copied  the  Stainer  pattern,  and  made 
good  instruments,  carefully  finished, 
with  yellow  or  brown  varnish. 

Mayr  (Maier),  Andreas  Ferdinand.  A 
maker  in  Salzburg  about  1740-80.  Is 
said  to  have  made  the  small  violin  on 
which  Mozart  learnt  to  play.  In  a 
lute  was  the  label :  ' '  Andreas  Ferdinand 
Mayr  Hof  Lauten  und  Geigenmacher 
in  Salzburg,  1741  "  ;  a  similar  label, 
printed  in  German  characters,  was 
dated  1777. 

May  son,  Walter  H.  A  maker  in  Man- 
chester 1875,  who  began  as  an  amateur, 
but  adopted  violin  making  as  a  pro- 
fession.   His  instruments  are  excellent, 

and     the     workmanship     beautifully 

Meares,  Richard.  A  maker  of  lutes 
and  viols  in  London  in  1677.  In  1872 
was  exhibited  in  London  a  viola  da 
gamba  with  the  label :  "  Richard 
Meares,  without  Bishopsgate,  near  to 
Sir  Paul  Finders,  London.  Fecit 
1677."  His  son,  Richard,  also  learnt 
the  trade  but  soon  abandoned  it  for 
other  work. 

Medard,  Antoine,  b.  1621  (baptised 
Oct.  28,  1621),  son  of  Henri  Medard 
and  his  wife,  Anne.  A  maker  at  Nancy. 
A  little  pocket  violin  is  known,  very 
carefully  made,  \vith  the  carved  head 
of  a  woman  instead  of  a  scroll,  and 
red -brown  varnish  of  fine  quality. 
Inside  is  the  label :  "  Anto'.n^.  Medard 
a  Nancy,  1666." 

Medard,  Frangois,  son  of  Claude 
Medard.  A  maker  in  Paris  about 
1690  to  17 15.  Is  said  to  have  been  a 
pupil  of  Stradivari  at  Cremona.  His 
instruments  are  on  rather  a  small 
pattern,  slightly  arched,  the  sound- 
holes  are  well  cut.  the  pretty  rose- 
coloured  varnish  is  very  transparent, 
and  the  work  is  carefully  finished. 
He  was  commanded  to  make  the  instru- 
ments for  the  orchestra  of  Louis  XIV. 
Label  :  "  Franciscus  Medard  fecit 
Parisiis,  16 — "  :  a  similar  label  is 
dated  1710. 

Medard,  Henri,  son  of  Claude  Medard, 
also  a  maker.  A  maker  at  Nancy  and 
Paris  about  1620-30,  there  •  being  a 
record  of  his  marriage  to  Anne  Pier- 
esson,  of  Poiresson,  on  Oct.  2'3,  1620. 
Was  generally  considered  to  be  a  pupil 
of  Nicola  Amati.  His  work  was 
extremely  good.  In  a  violoncello  was 
the  label:  "Henry  Medart  a  Nancy, 

Medard,  Jean,  son  of  Claude  Medard 
Worked  at  Nancy. 

Medard,  Nicolas,  son  of  Claude  Medard ; 
b.  about  1598,  was  living  in  Nancy  in 
1658.  He  followed  the  Amati  pattern, 
his  instruments  are  small,  and  the 
tone,  though  soft  and  silvery,  lacks 
power ;  the  varnish  is  very  beautiful. 
Labels  are  known  dated  1615,  1655 
and  1660. 

Medard,  Sebastien,  b.  about  1576;  d. 
1636  ;  probably  another  son  of  Claude 
Medard.  A  maker,  first  at  Nancy 
then  at  Paris,  about  1600-36. 

Meiberi,  Francesco.  A  maker  at  Leghorn 
about  1745-50. 

Melling.  A  maker  in  Paris,  in  the  rue 
Fromonteau,  place  du  Louvre,  in  1753. 
at  the  sign  of  "  A  la  belle  Vielleuse  "  ; 



but  in  1771  was  in  rue  des  Orties,  aux 
galeries  du  Louvre. 

Mellini,  Giovanni.  Was  working  in 
Guastalla,  Itajy,  in  1768. 

Meloni,  Antonio.  A  maker  in  Milan 
about  1670-95.  Followed  the  Amati 
pattern ;  his  instruments  are  small, 
with  well  cut  sound-holes  and  yellow 
varnish ;  they  have  a  good  tone.  Label : 
"  Antonius  Meloni  Mediolani  fecit 
A.D.  1690." 

Mennegand,  Charles,  b.  June  19,  1822, 
at  Nancy;  d.  Jan.  9,  1885,  at  Villers- 
Cotterets.  Was  apprenticed  at  Mire- 
court  ;  in  1840  went  to  Paris  and 
worked  with  Rambaux  for  five  years 
and  there  gained  the  experience  which 
rendered  him  such  a  clever  repairer 
of  old  instruments.  1851-52  worked 
with  Maucotel,  and  in  1852  left  France 
for  Amsterdam.  Returned  to  Paris 
1857  ^^^  settled  at  26,  rue  de  Trevise. 
He  made  a  large  number  of  good 
violins,  altos,  and  violoncellos  in 
Amsterdam ;  but  after  his  return  to 
Paris  principally  made  violoncellos, 
which  rank  among  the  best  work  of 
the  time.  He  was  awarded  a  medal  of 
the  2nd  class,  Paris,  1855,  and  bronze 
medals  in  1867  and  1878.  Labels  : 
"  Mennegand,  luthier,  26  rue  de 
Trevise,  Paris,  1867,"  and  "C.  Menne- 
gand, luthier,  26  rue  de  Trevise, 
Paris,  1877.  (Signed)  C.  Mennegand." 
Some  of  his  labels  .have  "  eleve  de 
Rambaux  "  on  them. 

Mennesson,  Emile,  b.  March  15,  1842, 
Rheims.  Lives  there  at  10,  rue 
Carnot.  Worked  with  Mennegand 
and  Deroux.  Had  large  workshop 
at  Mirecourt,  1876-81.  Has  made 
2,380  violins,  following  the  pattern 
of  Stradivari's  "Messiah"  violin; 
varnish,  first  red,  later  yellow-red  with 
amber  ground.  Exhibited  at  Paris 
(1875-78-94),  Philadelphia  (1876), 
Rheims  (1876-89-95),  Rome  (1884), 
Epernay  (1884  ,  Charleville  (1894), 
and  was  awarded  gold  and  silver 
medals  and  numerous  "  diplomes 

Merighi,  Pietro.  A  maker  of  mando- 
lines in  P'arm§.  in  1770.  Label  : 
"  Petrus  Merighi  fecit  Parmae,  anno 

Meriotte,  Charles.  A  maker  at  Lyons 
about  1730-60.  Several  of  his  violins 
are  known,  made  on  the  Stradivari 
pattern,  with  yellow-brown  varnish, 
and  of  good  workmanship.  Label : 
"  Meriotte,  luthier,  sur  le  pont,  pres  le 
change,  a  Lyon,  1755."  A  later  label 
was  printed  in  Latin. 

Merlin,  Joseph.  A  maker  in  London, 
Princes  Street,  Hanover  Square,  in 
1770-80.  His  violins  and  his  mechani- 
cal pegs  for  violins  and  violoncellos 
were  at  one  time  very  fashionable. 
He  followed  the  high  Stainer  model, 
his  instruments  were  well  made,  but  the 
tone  was  not  good.  Label:  "  Josephus 
Merlin  Cremonae  emulus.  No  104. 
Londini,  1779.  Improved.  66,  Queen 
Ann  Street  East,  Portland  Chapel." 

Messeguer.  A  Spanish  maker  working 
about  1646. 

Mettal.  A  maker  in  Freiberg.  In  a 
lyre-guitar  of  six  strings  was  the 
label:  "Mettal,  Instrumentenmacher 
in  Freyberg." 

Mette,  Fran9ois.  A  maker  in  the  South 
of  France,  who  sent  instruments  to  the 
Paris  Exhibition  in  1855. 

Meusidler  (Hans  Neusiedler),  Johann. 
A  maker  of  viols  of  all  sorts  in  Nurem- 
berg about  1540-50". 

Mezadri  (Mezzadie),Alessandro.  A  maker 
in  Ferrara,  1690- 1720.  He  followed  the 
principles  of  the  Amati  school,  but  the 
pattern  of  his  instruments  is  not 
graceful,  the  sound-holes  are  placed 
too  close,  and  the  workmanship  is 
poor.  Label  :  "  Alessandro  Mezadri 
fece  in  Ferrara,  anno  1713." 

M  ezadri  (Mezzadie) ,  Francesco.  A  maker 
at  Milan  about  1700-20.  In  an  alto  of 
small  pattern,  with  pinkish  -  yellow 
varnish,  very  light  and  transparent, 
the  back  made  of  poplar- wood,  is  the 
label :  "  Franciscus  Mezadri,  Milano, 
anno  1712." 

Mezin.     See  "  CoUin-Mezin." 

Mialfi,  Joannes.  A  Spanish  maker 
about  1769.  His  instruments  are  of 
average  merit. 

Michaud.  A  maker  in  Paris  about  1788, 
rue  Guerin  Boisseau  au  coin  de  la  rue 

Michelis,  Pelegrino  (or  Peregrino)  di 
Zanetto,  son  of  Zanetto  de  Michelis ; 
b.  1520.  A  maker  of  viols  and  lutes 
and  other  instruments  in  Brescia.  A 
tenor  of  his  was  exhibited  in  London, 
in  1885,  which  is  described  as  "essen- 
tially modern  in  model  and  detail, 
though  with  remaining  touches  of 
archaism."  A  splendid  six-stringed 
bass-viol  is  in  the  Paris  Conservatoire 
Collection,  dated  Brescia,  1547 

Michelis,  Zanetto  de,  b.  1495.  Probably 
a  native  of  Montechiaro,  a  village  near 
Brescia.     Was  a  maker  of  cithers. 

Michelot,  Jacques  Pierre.  A  maker  in 
Paris  about  1780-95,  at  the  sign  of 
"A  la  Melodie,"  255,  rue  St.-Honore. 
In  the  Paris  Conservatoire  Collection 



is  a  little  guitar  dated  1781.  He  also 
made  five-stringed  viols,  and  violins. 
Label :  "  J .  P.  Michelot,  rue  St.-Honore, 
'  a  la  Melodie,'  179c." 

Mier.     A  maker  in  London  in  1786. 

Migge,  Otto,  b.  June  16,  1857,  Coblenz. 
Has  made  about  80  violins  and  14 
violoncellos  of  good  tone. 

Milani,  Francesco.  A  maker  in  Milan 
about  1740-60.  Said  to  have  been 
a  pupil  of  Lorenzo  Guadagnini,  he 
followed  a  similar  pattern  in  his  work. 

Milhet.  Was  working  in  Bayonne  about 
1820.  His  instruments  were  of  ordinary 
workmanship.  He  used  yellow-brown 

Mille.  A  maker  at  Aix-la-Chapelle.  A 
small  pocket  violin  is  known  that  had 
been  repaired  by  Remy. 

Miller.  A  maker  in  London  about  1750. 
He  worked  at  the  sign  of  the  "  Citern," 
London  Bridge. 

Miller,  A.  A  maker  in  St.  Andrew's, 
Scotland,  in  the  19th  century. 

Minozzi,  Matteo.  Was  working  in 
Bologna  in  the  i8th  century. 

Miraucourt,  Ludovic  (or  Joseph).  A 
maker  of  viols  at  Verdun  about  1740- 
50.     A  six-stringed  viol  is  dated  1743. 

Miremont,  Claude  Augustin,  son  of 
Sebastien  Miremont ;  b.  1827,  Mire- 
court  ;  d.  1887,  Pontorson  (Manche). 
Was  first  a  pupil  of  his  father,  then  for 
three  years  of  Collin-Mezin.  In  1844 
he  went  to  Paris,  and  worked  first  with 
Lafieur,    then    with    Bernardel    until 

-  1852,  when  he  left  France  for  America, 
and  settled  in  New  York.  In  1861  he 
returned  to  Paris  and  established 
himself  in  rue  Faubourg-Poissonniere. 
He  retired  from  business  on  July  15, 
1884,  and  went  to  live  first  in  Belleville, 
then  at  Pontorson,  where  he  died. 
He  made  a  great  many  instruments, 
chiefly  violoncellos  ;  they  were  all 
made  with  extreme  accuracy  by  him- 
self alone,  no  workman  assisting  ;  they 
show  good  work  and  have  excellent 
quality  of  tone.  He  made  some  excel- 
lent copies  of  Stradivari  and  Guarneri, 
and  also  several  instruments  of  excellent 
tone  on  the  Klotz  pattern.  Awards  at 
Exhibitions  :  medal  of  first  class,  New 
York,  1853,  and  Paris,  1855;  prize  medal, 
London,  1862  ;  and  silver  medal  in 
1867  and  1878.  Labels  :  "  Expositions 
universelles  de  1853-55-62-67,  quatre 
premiers  prix.  C.  A.  Miremont, 
Brevete  S.G.D.G.  Paris,  an  1875. 
(Signed)  A.  Miremont,"  and  "  C.  A. 
Miremont  fecit  Parisiis,  anno  Dni. 

Miremont,    Sebastien.      A     maker     at 

Mirecourt,    b.    about    1810;    father  of 
Claude  Augustin  Miremont. 

Modessier  (Moitessier).  A  maker  in 
Paris  in  1810.  His  instruments  were 
made  on  a  large  pattern,  the  wood 
was  generally  excellent. 

Moers,  Jean  Henri.  A  maker  in  Paris 
about  1 77 1. 

Mohr,  Philipp.  Was  working  in  Ham- 
burg about  1650. 

Moinel,  Charles,  nephew  of  N.  E. 
Cherpitel.  A  maker  in  Paris.  On  the 
death  of  Cherpitel,  in  1893,  he  assisted 
the  widow  to  continue  the  business. 

Moitessier,  Louis.  A  maker  at  Mire- 
court about  1780  to  1825.  He  made  a 
large  number  of  instruments,  mostly 
violins,  of  ordinary  workmanship  with 
brown  varnish.  One  violin,  fairly 
well  made,  was  peculiar  in  having  the 
belly  as  well  as  the  back  and  sides  of 
maple- wood  ;  the  tone  was  good.  In 
it  was  the  label :  "  Ludovicus  Moitessier 
fecit,  anno  Domini  1781."  Rambaux 
was  a  pupil  of  his  for  four  years. 

Moldonner  (Maldonner).  A  maker  in 
Fiissen,  Bavaria,  about  1756-98. 

Molinari,  Antonio.  A  maker  in  Venice, 

Molinari,  Josefo.  A  maker  of  man- 
dolines and  theorbos  in  Venice  about 
1735-65.  In  the  Paris  Conservatoire 
Collection  are  two  mandolines  dated 
1762  and  1763  respectively.  Label : 
"Joseph  Molinari,  Venetus,  anno  1737." 

Montade  (Montani  or  Montaldi),  Gre- 
gorio.  A  maker  in  Cremona  about  1690- 
1735-  Was  either  a'pupil  or  merely  an 
imitator  of  Omobono  Stradivari.  His 
work  is  fairly  good. 

Montagnana,  Domenico.  A  celebrated 
maker  in  Venice  about  1720-50.  One 
of  the  most  able  pupils  of  Antonio 
Stradivari  at  Cremona ;  it  is  said  that 
he  worked  with  him  for  twenty  years, 
then  went  to  Venice  and  settled  there, 
at  the  sign  of  "  Cremona."  Labels 
dated  Venice,  1725,  are  known.  His 
work  is  admirable,  and  shows  great 
knowledge  of  the  qualities  of  wood  and 
of  the  necessary  thicknesses  to  be 
obtained  ;  he  made  on  a  large  pattern, 
rather  arched,  with  the  corners  promi- 
nent, the  sound-holes  gracefully  cut, 
rather  like  those  of  Guarneri ;  the  scroll 
showing  a  great  deal  of  character,  and 
both  purfling  and  corners  carefully 
finished  ;  he  used  most  carefully  chosen 
wood,  beautifully  figured,  and  very 
transparent  varnish  of  a  rich  golden-red 
colour,  which  recalls  that  of  Carlo  Ber- 
gonzi ;  the  tone  is  admirable.  Although 
the  influence  of  Stradivari  is  noticeable 



in  every  detail,  Montagnana's  strong 
individuality  also  asserts  itself,  and  his 
work  rivals  that  of  Guarneri  or  Ber- 
gonzi.  His  violoncellos  are  especially 
liked,  they  are  most  excellent  for  solo 
playing ;  they  are  nearly  all  to  be  found 
in  England  or  Germany,  only  three  or 
four  are  in  France.  He  made  few 
instruments  ;  about  twelve  violins  and 
five  or  six  violas  are  known — the  latter 
are  mentioned  as  having  a  peculiarly 
solemn  and  penetrating  tone.  In  1875 
a  double-bass  of  his  was  sold  for  /82. 
It  is  said  that  spurious  labels  of  "  Guar- 
nerius  filius  Andrese  "  and  of  "  Carlo 
Bergonzi "  are  often  placed  in  his 
instruments.  His  labels  are :  "Domini- 
cus  Montagnana  sub  signum  Cremonae 
Venetiis,  1729,"  a  similar  one  dated 
1747,  and  "  Domenicus  Montagnana 
sub  signo  in  ab  prope  CEnipontum  fecit, 
anno  1730." 

Montechiari,  Giovanni.  A  maker  of 
viols  and  lutes  in  Brescia  before  1533. 

Montegatia.     See  "  Mantegazza." 

Montron.  A  maker  in  Paris,  rue  du 
Grand  Hurleur,  about  1780-90. 

Morella,  Morglato.  A  maker  of  lutes, 
rebecs,  and  viols  about  1510-50,  who 
worked  first  in  Mantua,  then  in  Venice. 
Very  few  of  his  instruments  remain 
intact,  as  his  viols  were  often  utilised 
for  making  up  altos  or  violoncellos  of 
small  size.  Labels :  ' '  Morglato  Morella 
Mantuae,  15 15,"  and  "  Morglato  Morella 
fece  in  Venezia,  1550." 

Morona,  Antonio.  A  maker  in  Istria 
(Istrien)  in  1731.  Label  in  beautiful 
handwriting  :  "  Presbyter  Antonius 
Morona  Insulanus  ex  Istria  fecit,  1731." 

Morrison,  John,  b.  about  1760;  d.  be- 
tween 1820  and  1830.  A  maker  in 
London,  first  lived  in  Princes  Street, 
Soho,  then,  in  1819,  in  Shadwell,  and 
finally  at  Little  Turnstile,  Holborn, 
where  he  died.  Most  of  his  instruments 
were  made  for  the  dealers  and  were  of 
poor  workmanship. 

Mottenhaver,  Edward.  A  maker  in 
New  York,  U.S.A.,  who  has  taken  out 
a  great  many  patents  for  inventions. 

Mougenot.  Was  working  in  Rouen  in 
1763,  at  the  sign  of  "  Sainte-Cecile." 

Mougenot,  Georges,  b.  June  23,  1843, 
Mirecourt  (Vosges) .  Was  apprenticed 
there  to  Deroux  (pere),  then  worked 
under  N.  Darche  at  Aix-la-Chapelle ; 
was  his  head  workman,  18C4-67.  He 
established  himself  in  Liege,  in  the  rue 
Pont  d'lle  ;  but  1875  succeeded  to  the 
business  of  N.  F.  Vuillaume,  for  whom 
he  had  long  been  working,  in  Brussels, 
at  23,  rue  Montague  de  la  Cour.  He 
employs  two  workmen  to  make  new 
violins  and  violoncellos,  he  himself 
always  finishing  them,  determining  the 
thicknesses,  doing  the  varnishing.  &c. 
He  follows  the  Stradivari  and  Guar- 
neri patterns,  using  brown-red  varnish 
for  the  former  and  golden-red  for  the 
latter ;  the  tone  is  good.  Was  awarded 
silver  medal,  Paris,  1878;  gold  medal, 
Amsterdam,  1883 ;  gold  medal,  Ant- 
werp, 1885  ;  diploma  of  honour, 
Antwerp,  1894. 

Mougnet.  A  maker  in  Lyons,  who  in- 
vented a  lyre-guitar  in  181 1. 

Muelevoets,  Jan.  A  maker  of  cithers 
in  Antwerp,  1584. 


Nadotti,  Giuseppe.  A  maker  in  Pia- 
cenza  about  1760-70.  A  violin  of  his, 
exhibited  in  Milan,  was  dated  1767. 

Namy,  Jean  Theodore.  Worked  in  Paris 
about  1755-1807,  Was  especially 
known  for  the  clever  way  in  which  he 
restored  old  instruments,  showing  rare 
skill  even  in  the  smallest  details. 
First  worJjed  in  the  business  carried 
on  by  the  widow  of  Salomon,  for  in 
one  of  his  violins  is  the  label :  "  Fait 
par  Namy,  luthier  chez  Madame 
Salomon  a  Paris,  1772."  He  lived  in 
the  place  du  Louvre,  1783-89. 

Naylor,  Isaac.  A  pupil  of  Richard 
Duke.  He  worked  at  Headingly,  near 
Leeds,  about  1778-92, 

Nella.     5V*  "  Raffaele." 

Nermel,  J.  M.  A  maker  in  Paris,  living 
in  rue  St.-Germain-l'Auxerrois  in  1777, 
rue  du  Pot-de-Fer  in  1783,  and  rue  du 
Vieux  Colombier,  1788-89. 

Neuner,  Ludwig,  b.  Aug.  21,  1840, 
Mitten wald  (Bavaria).  Grandson  of 
Mathias  Neuner,  also  a  clever  maker 
of  violins,  who  worked  for  some  time 
in  London.  First  learnt  in  his  father's 
workshop  at  Mittenwald,  afterwards 
with  Andreas  Engleder  in  Munich 
and  Gabriel  Lembock  in  Vienna  ; 
then  worked  for  five  years  under 
J.  B.  Vuillaume  in  Paris  Left  Paris 
for  BerHn,  1867,  and  there  established 
a  business  at  6,  Kurstrasse,  working 
there  assisted  by  two  workmen  till 
1883.     In  February  that  year,  through 



Neusiedler,  Hans 
Newton,    Isaac. 

about  1775-1825. 

instruments,  but 

the  death  of  his  brother,  became 
partner  in  the  firm  of  Neuner  und 
Hornsteiner,  Mittenwald.  He  had  200 
workmen  there,  and  from  15,000  to 
20,000  instruments  were  yearly  sent  out 
to  all  parts  of  the  world  ;  these  all  show 
excellent  work,  considering  their  extra- 
ordinarily low  price.  He  himself 
made  instruments  for  solo-playing, 
closely  copied  from  Italian  models ; 
was  awarded  a  silver  medal  in  Berlin, 
1879 ;  and  the  large  medal  for  Indus- 
tries, founded  by  Friedrich  Wilhelm 
IV.  His  work  was  commended  at  the 
Bologna  Exhibition,  1888.  He  died 

See  "  Meusidler." 
Worked  in  London 
He  made  fairly  good 
used  a  dingy  yellow 
varnish.  Sometimes  made  violins  and 
violoncellos  for  Betts,  but  these  were 
always  varnished  by  the  latter. 

Nezot.  A  maker  in  Paris  about  1730-60. 
He  principally  made  viols,  but  also 
a  few  violins.  A  beautiful  viol  of  his, 
undated,  is  in  the  Paris  Conservatoire 

Nicolas,  Didier,  I'aine  (known  as 
"  deaf  Nicolas"),  b.  1757,  Mirecourt ; 
d.  there,  1833.  His  business  was 
carried  on  at  the  sign  of  "  A  la  ville  de 
Cremone."  He  was  a  clever  work- 
man, and  made  large  quantities  of 
instruments,  fairly  good,  although  de- 
ficient in  some  respects.  They  are 
generally  on  a  large  pattern,  slightly 
arched,  the  varnish  either  red-brown 
tinged  with  yellow  or  bright  red 
colour;  the  sound-holes  rather  peculiar 
in  cut,  very  widely  opened  in  the 
middle ;  the  tone  is  large,  and  the 
instruments  are  suitable  for  use  in 
orchestras,  those  with  red  varnish 
being  generally  superior  in  work. 
They  are  branded,  just  where  the 
label  is  usually  placed,  with  the  in- 
scription: "A  la  ville  de  Cremone, 
D.  Nicolas,  aine."  He  first  exhibited 
in  1802,  being  the  first  maker  of  Mire- 
court to  do  so ;  he  received  no  award 
then,  but  in  1806  was  awarded  a  silver 
medal  at  the  Paris  Exhibition.  At 
the  time  of  his  death  about  600  work- 
men were  employed  in  his  workshops. 

Nicolas,  Fran9ois  Nicolas  Fourrier 
(was  known  simply  as  "Nicolas"),  b. 
Oct.  5,  1758,  Mirecourt ;  d.  1816, 
Paris.  Began  to  work  under  Saunier 
in  Paris  in  1770,  was  appointed  maker 
to  the  Royal  School  of  Music  in  1784, 
and  maker  to  the  Emperor  in  1804, 
and  made  all   the  string  instruments 

used  in  the  private  orchestra  of 
Napoleon  I.  He  is  especially  to  be 
commended  for  the  careful  choice 
of  wood  and  the  good  proportions  of 
his  instruments ;  the  latter  he  had 
closely  copied  from  beautiful  specimens 
of  Cremona  work  His  instruments, 
though  much  used  at  one  time,  dropped 
out  of  fashion,  but  good  violins  of  his 
are  still  to  be  had.  A  MS.  label  found 
in  a  violin:  "  Repare  par  Fourrier 
Nicolas,  luthier  de  la  chapelle  de  S.M. 
I'Empereur,  pour  son  ami  Julien,  chef 
d'orchestre  des  bals  de  la  Cour, 

Nicolas,  Joseph,  son  of  Didier  Nicolas  ; 
b.  1796,  Mirecourt ;  d.  1864.  Pupil 
and  successor  of  his  father.  His- 
instruments  are  branded  "J.  Nicolas 
fils."  He  was  awarded  a  bronze  medal 
in  1834 ;  in  1855  he  constructed  a 
violin  which  could  be  played  on  both 
back  and  front,  being  provided  with 
two  finger-boards,  two  bridges,  &c.— 
the  utility  of  this  instrument  is  not 
obvious.  After  his  death  his  widow 
sold  all  the  stock-in-trade  to  the  maker 
Derazey,  of  Mirecourt ;  the  two  stamps 
with  which  Joseph  and  his  father 
had  branded  their  instruments  were 
included ;  these  were  apparently  made 
use  of  along  with  the  other  material  by 
Derazey,  consequently  new  instruments 
have  since  appeared  not  made  by  a 
Nicolas,  although  stamped  with  the 

Nicolas,  Mathieu.  Is  mentioned  as  a 
maker  in  Mirecourt.  His  instruments 
were  of  ordinary  workmanship,  some- 
times with  yellow,  sometimes  with  red 

Nicolas.  In  a  five-stringed  viol  was  the 
inscription  "  a  Verdun  par  Nicolas  des 
Rousseaux,  1755." 

Niggell,  Simpertus.  A  maker  of  viols 
and  violins  in  Fiissen  near  Hohen- 
schwangau  about  1743-66.  His  instru- 
ments are  well  made,  on  a  flat  pattern, 
with  brown  varnish,  and  are  branded 
on  the  interior  with  the  letters  "  S.  N." 
In  a  viola  d'amore,  with  a  carved  head 
and  red-brown  varnish,  was  the  label  : 
"  Sympertus  Niggell  Lauten  und  Geigen 
Macher  in  Fussen,  1744  "  ;  a  similar 
label  was  dated  1765. 

N  orborn ,  John.  Was  working  in  London 
about  1723. 

Norman,  Barak,  b.  1688;  d.  1740.  A 
maker  in  London,  lived  first  in  Bishops- 
gate  and  then  in  St.  Paul's  Churchyard. 
He  was  probably  a  pupil  of  Thomas 
Urquhart,  his  earlier  work  having 
much  the  same  appearance  as  that  o£ 



the  latter  ;  but  later  he  copied  G.  P. 
Maggini  to  some  extent,  using  double 
purfling  and  ornamental  devices,  such 
as  the  "  clover-leaf  "  design  on  his 
violoncellos.  He  is  supposed  to  have 
been  the  first  English  maker  of  violon- 
cellos. They  are  of  large  size,  the 
wood  being  of  good  quality,  the 
thicknesses  correctly  proportioned  and 
the  work  carefully  done  ;  the  varnish 
is  dark,  the  tone  is  very  good  ;  one 
made  in  1718,  was  valued  at  15  guineas 
in  1790,  but  now  the  price  is  higher. 
He  also  made  beautiful  tenors,  probably 
at  an  earlier  date  than  the  violoncellos ; 
they  are  of  a  different  pattern,  being 
very  much  arched.  They  are  generally 
large  size,  with  very  dark  varnish  and 
of  fine  tone.  No  violins  of  his  remain, 
but  he  was  well  known  as  a  maker  of 
viols.  He  marked  his  instruments 
with  his  name  enclosed  in  a  design  of 
purfling  or  with  the  monogram  "N.  B." 
in  purfling,  under  the  wide  part  of  the 
finger-board,  or  sometimes  in  the  centre 
of  the  back.  He  entered  into  partner- 
ship with  Nathaniel  Cross  about  1715  ; 
they  worked  at  the  sign  of  the  "  Bass- 
Viol."      In    a  viola    da    gamba    was 

found  a  label  in  the  handwriting  of 
Cross,  "Nathaniel  Cross  wrought  my 
back  and  belly  "  ;  the  sides  and  scroll 
were  the  work  of  Norman.  Their 
label  was  :  '*  Barak  Norman  and  Nath- 
aniel Cross  at  the  Bass- Viol  in  Saint 
Paul's  Church  yard,  London,  fecit 
172 — ."  Three  bass-viols  were  ex- 
hibited at  South  Kensington  Museum 
in  1872 ;  in  one  of  them,  which  had 
been  converted  into  a  violoncello,  was 
the  label :  "  Barak  Norman,  at  the 
Bass- Viol  in  Saint  Paul's  alley, 
London,  fecit  1690." 

Norris,  John,  b.  1739,  London ;  d. 
March  10,  1818.  A  maker  in  London. 
Was  a  pupil  of  Thomas  Smith,  and 
did  very  similar  work.  Went  into 
partnership  with  Robert  Barnes  in 
1765.     S^^"  Barnes." 

Novello,  Pietro  Valentino,  brother  oi 
Marco  Antonio  Novello.  A  maker  in 
Venice  in  the  i8th  century. 

Novello,  Marco  Antonio  a  brother  of 
Pietro  Valentino  Novello,  who  worked 
in  Venice  at  the  same  time.  Their 
instruments  show  good  work. 

Noversi,  Cosimo.  A  maker  in  Florence 
in  the  17th  century. 


Obbo,  Marco.  Was  working  in  Naples 
in  171 2,  according  to  a  MS.  label  found 
in  a  violin  of  ordinary  make :  ' '  Marcus 
Obbo,  Napoli,  1712." 

Obici  (Obue),  13artolommeo.  A  maker 
in  Verona  in  1684.  Label:  "  Borto- 
lamio  Obici  in  Verona,  1684." 

Odani,  Giuseppe  Morello.  Was  working 
in  Naples  in  1738.  In  a  violin  fairly 
well  made  with  very  dark  varnish  was 
the  label :  "  Giuseppe  Morello  Odani 
in  Napoh,  1738." 

Odoardi.  Giuseppe.  Was  working  until 
1675  in  Ascoli,  Italy,  according  to  one 
authority  ;  according  to  another  was 
born  about  1740.  He  was  a  peasant, 
and,  though  without  any  teaching  in 
the  art  of  violin  making,  showed  great 
ability  in  the  instruments  he  made. 
He  died  when  28  years  old,  but  left 
about  200  violins,  which  are  much 
sought  after  in  Italy. 

Ohberg,  Johann.  A  maker  in  Stockholm 
in  1773.  His  instruments  were  fairly 
good ;  he  generally  used  a  yellow 

Oneda,  Gio.  Battista,  b.  1529.  A  maker 
of  cithers  and  violins  in  Brescia  about 

Ongaro,  Ignazio.     A  maker  in  Venice  in 

Orlandelli,    Paolo.       Was    working    in 

Codogno,  Italy,  in  the  i8th  century. 
Ortega.     About  1840  was  a  maker  and 

repairer  of  instruments  in  Madrid. 
Ostler,   Andreas.     A  maker  in  Breslau 

in  1730.     A  viola  d'amore  of  ordinary 

workmanship  with  yellow  varnish  was 

exhibited  in  Paris  in  1878. 
Ott,  Johann.    One  of  the  earliest  makers 

of  lutes  in  Nuremberg  ;    he  was  born 

there   early  in   the  15th  century,  and 

was  still  living  there  in  1463. 
Otto,  Carl  August,  fourth  son  of  J.  A. 

Otto;    b.    Sept.    26,     1801,   Jena;    d. 

May   II,   1883,   Ludwigslust.      Settled 

in  Ludwigslust  ( Mecklenberg)  in  1832. 

Was  appointed  maker  to  the  Mecklen- 

berg-Schwerin  Court. 
Otto,    Carl    Christian,    second    son    of 

|.   A.    Otto:    b.   1792;  d.  about  1853. 

Established  himself  at  Halle,  and  gave 

up  his  time  to  repairing  old  instruments. 
Otto,  C.  W.  F.  Louis,  fifth  son  of  J.  A. 

Otto;  b.  1805,  Jena;  d.  Feb.  3,  1884, 

Stockholm.     A  maker  in  Stockholm. 
Otto,    Georg    August    Gottfried,    eldest 

son  of  J.  A.  Otto;   b.  1789,  Weimar; 



d.  July  2,  1857,  Jena.  From  1818 
worked  in  Jena,  succeeding  to  his 
father's  business  there.  He  made 
good  instruments. 

Otto,  Heinrich  Wilhelm,  third  son 
of  J.  A.  Otto;  b.  1796;  d.  1858. 
Worked  first  in  Amsterdam  and  later 
in  Berlin. 

Otto,  Hermann,  son  of  Ludwig  Otto  ; 
b.  March  9,  1859,  Cologne;  d.  Sept.  20, 
1884,  St.  Petersburg.  Worked  with 
his  father  in  St.  Petersburg. 

Otto,  Jacob  August,  b.  1764,  Gotha ;  d. 
1830,  Jena.  Pupil  of  Franz  Anton  Ernst 
at  Gotha,  later  settled  in  Weimar, 
and  was  appointed  maker  to  the 
Court.  Worked  also  in  Halle,  Leipzig, 
Magdeburg,  Berlin,  and  finally  in  Jena. 
Was  especially  skilful  in  repairing  old 
instruments,  and  made  very  good 
violins  and  violoncellos ;  six  violins, 
one  alto,  and  one  violoncello  were 
made  by  him  for  the  Royal  Orchestra 
of  Copenhagen.  He  published  two 
books  on  violin  making:  "  Ueber  den 
Bau  und  die  Erhaltung  der  Geige  und 
aller  Bogeninstrumente  "  (Halle,  1817); 
and  "  Ueber  den  Bau  der  Bogen- 
instrumente und  iiber  die  Arbeiten  der 
vorziiglichsten  Instrumentenmacher  " 
(Jena,  1828)  ;  the  latter  was  translated 
into  English  by  John  Bishop  in 
1848.  His  five  sons  all  became  violin 

Otto,  Ludwig,  son  of  Georg  August 
Gottfried  Otto;  b.  Sept.  16,  1821,  Jena; 
d.  Feb.  9,  1887,  St.  Petersburg.  First 
worked  in  Cologne,  but  after  1871 
settled   in  Petersburg.     He  exhibited 

three  violins,  a  viola,  violoncello 
and  double-bass  in  London,  1862. 
They  were  all  well  made  and  were 
moderately  priced. 

Otto,  Louis,  son  of  Carl  August  Otto  ; 
b.  July  15,  1844,  Ludwigslust.  Pupil 
of  his  father  in  Ludwigslust,  1860-65  ; 
worked  with  his  cousin,  Ludwig  Otto,, 
in  Cologne,  1865-66,  then  went  to 
Hanover,  where  he  worked  with  Aug. 
Riechers  till  1872.  In  the  same  year 
started  his  own  business  in  Diisseldorf, 
at  16,  Schiitzenstrasse,  where  he  still 
works,  assisted  by  two  workmen.  He 
is  very  skilful  at  repairs,  and  has 
repaired  about  850  fine  old  instruments. 
For  his  new  instruments  he  uses 
beautiful  wood,  not  less  than  twenty 
years  old,  and  follows  the  Stradivari 
model,  large  pattern,  using  good  oil 
varnish,  orange  colour,  of  his  own 
invention ;  the  tone  is  of  fine,  full 
quality.  He  himself  accurately  deter- 
mines the  thicknesses  of  back  and  front, 
cuts  the  sound-holes,  places  the  sound- 
posts,  carves  the  scroll,  and  does  the 
varnishing.  About  238  violins,  13 
violas,  and  33  violoncellos  have  been 
made.  He  gained  first  prizes  at  the 
Exhibitions  in  Diisseldorf,  1880  ;  Mel- 
bourne, 1888;  and  Chicago,  1893.  His 
son  now  works  under  him. 

Ouvrard,  Jean.  A  maker  in  Paris  about 
1725-46.  Pupil  of  Claude  Pierray.  A 
violoncello  is  known,  beautifully  made,, 
with  very  fine  golden-coloured  varnish ; 
also  a  small  six-stringed  viol  dated 
1726,  and  a  five-stringed  viol  labelled 
"  place  de  I'Ecole,  a  Paris,  1745." 


Pacherele,  Michel.  A  maker  in  Paris 
in  1779.  He  followed  the  pattern  of 
Guersan.  His  instruments  were  fairly 
well  made,  slightly  arched,  with  yellow 
varnish.  His  name  is  branded  on  the 
top  of  the  back,  and  he  used  a  MS. 
label :  "  Michel  Pacherele,  luthier  rue 
d'Argenteuil  a  Paris,  1779." 

Pacherele,  Pierre,  b.  1803,  Mirecourt  ; 
d.  Dec.  31,  1871,  Nice.  Was  a  fellow- 
apprentice  of  J.  B.  Vuillaume  at  Mire- 
court. After  1830  he  moved  about, 
working  first  at  Nice,  then  at  Genoa, 
then  at  Turin  with  Pressenda  the 
violin  maker,  finally  returning,  in  1839, 
to  Nice.  He  made  a  great  many 
violins,  altos,  and  violoncellos,  all 
of  good  workmanship,  but  the 
varnish    was    thick    and    heavy ;    he 

often  took  Stradivari  for  his  model. 
He  was  also  a  clever  repairer  of 

Pacquet.  A  maker  from  Aix  who  was 
working  in  Marseilles  in  1785,  according 
to  a  label :  "Pacquet  d'Aix,  luthier  a 
Marseille,  1785." 

Padewet,  Johann.  A  skilful  maker  of 
violins;  d.  about  1874.  He  started  a 
business  in  liasle,  1844,  t>ut  moved  to 
Carlsruhe  (Baden)  in  1846.  Was 
appointed  Court  instrument  maker  by 
the  Grand  Duke  of  Baden.  Awards : 
at  Munich  Exhibition,  1854  ;  Paris, 
1855  ;  Carlsruhe,  1861  ;  London,  1862  ; 
Paris,  1867  ;  and  Freiburg,  187 1. 

Padewet,  Johann,  son  of  Johann 
Padewet  ;  b  Aug.  23,  1851,  Carlsruhe. 
First  a  pupil  of  his  father,  then  v/orkcd- 



in  Hanover  and  Berlin  under  Aug. 
Riechers  till  1874  Succeeded  to  his 
father's  business,  at  132,  Kaiserstrasse, 
Carlsruhe.  Assisted  by  two  workmen,  he 
made  forty  to  fifty  instruments  (violins, 
violas  and  violoncellos)  a  year,  on  the 
Stradivari  pattern,  using  oil  varnish, 
of  reddish-yellow  or  golden-brown 
colour.  He  was  especially  skilful  in 
repairing  old  instruments,  of  which  a 
great  number  were  sent  to  him  from  all 
parts  of  the  world.  Awards  :  gold 
medal  and  diploma,  Carlsruhe,  1877  ; 
silver  medal  and  diploma,  Mannheim, 
1880  ;  gold  medal  and  diploma  of 
honour,  Strassburg,  1895.  He  died  1902. 

Pagani,  Gian  Battista.  A  maker  in 
Cremona  in  1747.  ^  violin  is  known, 
well  made. 

Paganoni,  Antonio.  Was  working  in 
Venice  in  the  middle  of  the  i8th  cent. 

Pageot  (Pajeot),  son  of  Louis  Simon 
Pageot ;  b.  Jan.  25,  1791,  Mirecourt ;  d. 
there  Aug.  24, 1849.  A  maker  of  bows, 
he  obtained  a  "Mention  honorable" 
in  1834  for  the  finish  of  his  work.  In 
his  workshops  about  8,000  dozens  of 
bows  were  turned  out  at  prices  varying 
from  6d.  to  14s. 

Palate.  A  maker  in  Liege  about  1710. 
He  followed  the  Italian  pattern,  and 
left  some  excellent  instruments. 

Palma,  Paolo.  Worked  in  Lucca  about 

Pamphilon,  Edward.  A  maker  in 
London,  on  London  Bridge,  about 
1680-90.  His  instruments  were  of 
small  pattern,  very  much  arched,  and 
generally  of  stiff,  inelegant  outhne ; 
the  work  carefully  and  delicately 
finished;  the  sound-holes  small,  some- 
times finished  with  a  drawn-out  curl 
like  the  volute  of  a  scroll,  the  bottom 
curve  running  out  almost  at  right- 
angles  to  the  axis  of  the  violin ;  the 
heads  too  small,  an  ordinary  failing  of 
the  early  English  makers,  but  artisti- 
cally shaped  and  often  deeply  scooped 
in  the  volute.  The  purfling  is  often 
double,  and  he  used  a  very  fine  yellow 
varnish  which  looks  extremely  well ; 
the  tone  is  clear,  pure,  and  penetrating. 
He  also  made  tenors  of  small  pattern 
but  of  good  tone ;  no  violoncellos  of  his 
are  known,  for  at  that  time  the  bass- 
viol  with  the  flat  back  was  still  in  use. 
His  instruments  are  much  liked  ;  their 
similarity  to  those  made  in  Brescia 
led  to  labels  of  "Gasparo  da  Salo" 
being  placed  in  them,  a  deception  all 
the  more  easily  carried  out  as  few  Pam- 
philon labels  exist.  Label:  "Edward 
Pamphilon,  April  the  3rd,  1685." 

Pandolfi,  Antonio.  A  maker  in  Venice 
about  1700-20.  His  work  is  good  and 
he  used  a  yellow-brown  varnish ;  a 
violin  dated  1719  was  exhibited  at 
Milan  in  1881 

Panormo,  Edward,  d.  1891.  Was  a 
grandson  of  Vincenzo  Panormo  ;  he 
worked  both  in  London  and  in  Ireland. 

Panormo,  George.  A  maker  in  London, 
probably  a  grandson  of  Vincenzo 

Panormo,  George  Lewis,  second  son  of 
Vincenzo  Panormo.  He  was  a  cele- 
brated bow  maker  in  London,  and 
lived  first  in  Oxford  Street,  then  in 
High  Street,  Saint  Giles-in-the-Fields. 
He  made  very  fine  guitars  (one  was 
dated  1833)  and  some  good  violins  on 
the  Stradivari  pattern. 

Panormo,  Joseph,  eldest  son  of  Vin- 
cenzo Panormo.  Was  born  in  London, 
lived  first  in  New  Compton  Street  and 
then  in  King  Street,  Soho ;  he  died 
in  great  poverty.  He  was  a  very 
good  workman,  and  his  violoncellos 
especially  were  excellent: 

Panormo,  Vincenzo  (known  as  "old 
Panormo"),  b.  Nov.  30,  1734,  Mon- 
reale,  a  village  near  Palermo,  Sicily  ; 
d.  1813,  London.  When  only  sixteen 
he  began,  without  aid,  to  make  various 
kinds  of  musical  instruments.  He 
went  to  Cremona  for  a  short  time  and 
probably  worked  there  under  Bergonzi. 
About  1753  went  to  Paris;  in  1772 
made  a  short  visit  to  England ;  1783-89, 
was  again  living  at  70,  rue  de  Chartres, 
Paris,  but  soon  after  removed  to 
London.  He  also  worked  in  Ireland 
for  a  short  time,  and  there  converted  a 
maple-wood  billiard  table  into  some 
very  beautiful  instruments.  He  was  a 
remarkably  good  workman,  especially 
in  his  fine  copies  of  the  Stradivari 
pattern ;  his  instruments  were  rather 
small,  the  sound-holes  and  scrolls  well 
cut,  the  varnish  a  clear  yellow  colour, 
sometimes  rose  ;  the  tone  is  very  fine. 
A  few  violoncellos  made  on  the  Stradi- 
vari pattern  are  generally  of  handsome 
maple-wood  for  the  back  and  ribs,  and 
have  an  extremely  rich  and  powerful 
tone.  His  violins,  violoncellos,  and 
double-basses  are  all  much  liked  for 
the  pure  and  good  quality  of  their 
tone ;  his  guitars  have  a  high  reputa- 
tion. Some  of  his  work  is  poor,  but 
he  made  a  good  many  instruments  for 
the  trade,  using  the  wood  (often  of  bad 
quality)  supplied  by  his  employers,  and 
generally  had  to  finish  these  instru- 
ments within  a  given  time.  Labels  : 
"Vincent  Panormo,  rue  de  I'Arbre-sec 



a  Paris,  1730  "  ;  a  similar  label  is  dated 
1780  ;    "  Vincenzo  Triusano  Panormo 
fecit  Parisiis,  anno  17 — "  ;  "Vincenzo 
Panormo  di  Palermo  fecit,  anno  17 — "  ; 
"  Vincenzo  Panormo,  me  fece  Marsiglia 
1760,  Sicily";    "Vincenzo   Panormo, 
London,  179 1." 
Panzani    (Pansani),   Antonio.      A   cele- 
brated maker  in  Rome  about  1735-85. 
Paquotte  Freres.    Henri  Felix,  b.  March 
II,  1857,  ^^^  Placide,  b.  1864  ;  d.  1900. 
Sons    of    J.    B.    Paquotte,    to   whose 
business  they  succeeded  in  July,  1888, 
at  99,  faubourg  Saint-Germain,  Paris. 
They  were  awarded  a  bronze  medal  at 
the  1889  Exhibition  for  the  beautiful 
tone  of  their  violins,  but  they  chiefly 
worked  at  repairing  old  instruments. 
Henri   was  also  a  violin   player,   and 
was  in   Sauzay's  class   at   the    Paris 
Conservatoire,  1873-78. 
Paquotte,  Jean  Baptiste.      Nephew   of 
Sebastien  Paquotte,  under  whom  he 
worked  for  eight  years ;  he  then  worked 
under  Lafleur  for  fourteen  years.     By 
the  time  he  succeeded  to  his  uncle's 
business    he    had     gained    great    ex- 
perience  in    his    trade,    and   may   be 
ranked  among  the  best  Parisian  makers 
of  his  time.      In    1877  he   settled  at 
99,   faubourg   Saint-Germain,  but    re- 
tired from  business  in  1888,  and  was 
succeeded   by   his   sons,    Henri    Felix 
and  Placide.     He  died  1900. 
Paquotte,    Sebastien,    b.     1800,    Mire- 
court  ;    d.    1863,    Paris.      In    1830   he 
founded  the  business  in  Paris,  at  51, 
rue  de  la  Harpe,  afterwards  moving  to 
20,  rue  de  I'Ecole  de  Medicine.     His 
son,  Sebastien,  b.  Sept.  13,  1843,  was 
not  a  violin  maker,  but  studied  violin 
playing  at  the  Paris  Conservatoire. 
Paraldic.     The  only  instrument  known 

of  his  is  a  violoncello  made  in  1722. 
Pardi.      A  maker  in  Paris  in  1788,   at 

412,  rue  St.-Honore. 
Pardini,  Bastiano.  Worked  in  Florence 
about  1700.  Label :  "Bastiano  Pardini 
in  Firenze." 
Paris,  Claude.  A  maker  at  Paris,  in  the 
rue  du  Roulle- St.-Honore,  1775-91. 
In  1816  was  joined  by  his  nephew.  In 
a  violin,  on  which  the  purfling  was  a 
2ig-za^  pattern,  both  back  and  front, 
with  spirit  varnish,  a  red-yellow  colour, 
was  the  label :  "  Claude  Paris,  luthier, 
rue  du  Roulle  a  Paris,  1780." 
Parker,  Daniel.  A  maker  in  London 
about  1714-85.  He  was  a  very  clever 
workman,  possibly  a  pupil  of  Urquhart 
or  Pamphilon,  but  made  a  step  in 
advance,  improving  the  pattern  of  his 
instruments,  making  them  more  similar 

to  those  of  Amati.  He  used  red 
varnish,  a  disagreeable  colour,  rather 
thickly  laid  on  ;  the  wood  was  excellent, 
often  handsomely  figured  ;  the  varnish 
rather  transparent  and  soft ;  the  tone 
clear  and  powerful.  He  made  largely 
for  the  trade,  consequently  his  instru- 
ments are  often  sold  under  other 
names  ;  no  viola  or  violoncello  of  his 
has  ever  been  seen,  only  violins  are 
known.  About  1793  they  were  valued 
at  five  guineas  each  ;  about  1805  they 
realised  as  much  as  fifteen  guineas  each. 
Parth   (or  Perth),  Andreas  Nicolas.     A 

maker  in  Vienna  about  1750. 
Pasenali,  Giacomo.     A  maker  of  man- 
dolines in  the  i8th  century. 
Pasta,  Domenico  and  Gaetano.     Makers 
in  Brescia  about  1700-30.     They  are 
said  to  have  followed  the  Amati  instead 
of  the  Maggini  pattern,  traditional  in 
Brescia.      They  were  probably  pupils 
of  G.  B.  Rogeri.      Their  instruments 
have  not  a  good  tone,  the  varnish  is 
brown  colour. 
Patzelt,  Johann   Ferdinand.     A   maker 

in  Vienna  about  1850-66. 
Pauli,  Antonius.     Worked  in  Tachau  in 
1723.    A  viola  d'amore  of  large  pattern, 
with   flat    back,    twelve    strings,    pale 
yellow  varnish,  and  without  any  trace 
of  repairs  or  alterations,  had  the  label : 
"  Ant.  Pauli  Musicus  instrumentalis  in 
Tachau,  1723." 
Pazzini,    Gian   Gaetano.      A   maker  in 
Florence  about  1630-70.  Little  is  known 
about  him,  but  according  to  his  label 
he  was  a  pupil  of  Maggini.    His  instru- 
ments are  very  rare.   Labels :  ' '  Giovan : 
Gaettano  Pazzini,  allievo  dell*  Maggini 
di  Brixiae.  Fecit  Firenze,  anno  1640." 
Pearce,  George,  b.  Nov.  16,  1820,  War- 
minster;    d.    July    3,    1856,    London. 
His  parents  moved  to  London  in  1824, 
and  in  July,  1834,  ^^  ^^^  placed  in  the 
workshop  of  S.  A.  Forster  as  errand 
boy,  but   showing  talent   was   taught 
violin  making  and  became  an  excellent 
Pearce,    James    and    Thomas.       Two 
brothers  working  in  London,  in  Peter 
Street,  Saffron  Hill,  about  1780- 1800. 
Their  work  was  poor. 
Pearce,  WilUam  Robert,  b.  1833 ;  d.  1897. 
A  maker  and  repairer  in  London.   Used 
a  brilliant  amber-coloured  oil  varnish. 
Awarded  medals  1884  and  1885. 
Peccate,  Charles.     A  maker  of  bows  in 
Paris.    Obtained  a  silver  medal  at  the 
1889  Exhibition. 
Peccate,  Dominique,  b.  July  15,   1810, 
Mirecourt ;  d.  there,  Jan.  13,  1874.    In 
1826  was  apprenticed  to  J .  B.  Vuillaume 



at  Paris,  and  worked  with  him  until 
1837 ;  then  Fran9ois  Lupot  died,  and 
Dominique  succeeded  to  his  business 
at  i8,  rue  d'AngivilUers.  He  remained 
there  till  1847,  then  returned  to  Mire- 
court,  and  continued  working  there. 
He  ranks  next  to  Francois  Tourte  as  a 
bow  maker,  even  rivalling  him  in  some 
of  his  bows,  which  were  finished  with 
especial  care.  He  sometimes  marked 
them  with  his  name  ;  they  were  at  first 
sold  for  i6s.,  but  now  their  price  is 
almost  quadrupled. 

Peccate,  jeune.  A  brother  of  Dominique, 
who  also  made  bows,  and  was  for  some 
time  working  in  J.  B.  Vuillaume's 
shop.  His  work  is  inferior  to  that  of 
his  brother.  He  died  in  Paris  about 

Peccenini,  Alessandro  di  Leonardo 
Maria  (known  as  "del  lento").  A 
maker  of  lutes  and  viols  in  Bologna  in 


Pedrazzi,  Fra  Pietro.  A  Dominican 
friar,  working  in  Bologna  in  1784. 

Pemberton,  Edward.  A  maker  in 
London  in  1660.  His  instruments  are 
ugly,  but  the  tone  is  good  and  the 
varnish  of  quality.  It  has  been 
suggested  that  a  Pemberton  was  the 
maker  of  the  instrument  presented  to 
the  Earl  of  Leicester  by  Queen  Eliza- 
beth, which  has  "J.  }^  P."  engraved  on 
the  tail-pin — supposed  to  be  the  initials 
of  the  maker  and  the  date  of  the  year 
(1578)  in  which  it  was  made — if  so,  he 
was  the  earliest  English  maker  to 
make  the  violin  of  four  strings. 

Perault.  A  maker  in  Paris,  1775-77,  in 
the  rue  du  Petit-Muse. 

Peregrine,  Giannetto.  See  "  Michelis 
Pelegrino  di  Zanetto." 

Peron  (or  Perou),  Nicolas.  A  maker  in 
Paris,  living  in  rue  de  I'Arbre-sec, 
1775-79;  rue  Mauconseil,  1783;  place 
de  la  Comedie  fran^aise,  1785  ;  and  rue 
Richelieu  pres  la  Comedie  fran9aise, 
1787-89.  He  was  appointed  maker  to 
the  Duchess  of  Orleans.  His  instru- 
ments are  fairly  well  made,  with  yellow- 
brown  varnish.  In  one  of  his  violins 
made  on  the  Gagliano  pattern,  was 
the  label:  "Peron,  luthier  de  S.A.R. 
madame  la  Duchesse  d'Orleans  rue 
Richelieu  pros  la  Comedie  fran9aise, 
1790,  Paris."  He  was  also  the  maker 
of  the  "  Spanish  lyre  "  invented  by  the 
Abbe  de  Morlane. 

Perry,  Thomas.  A  maker  in  Dublin 
about  17 '>7  to  1827.  A  large  cither  is 
known,  and  a  cither-viol  labelled  : 
*'  ^lade  bv  Thonias  Perry,  Dublin, 
1767  He  was  in  partnership  with 

William  Wilkinson,  and  they  turned 
out  very  well  made  violins  of  good  tone. 
Their  label  was :  "  Made  by  Thos.  Perry 
and  Wm.  Wilkinson,  musical  instru- 
ment makers,  No.  4,  Anglesea  Street, 
Dubhn,  182—." 

Persoit.  A  maker  of  bows  in  Paris;  a 
very  clever  workman.  He  made  for 
J.  B.  Vuillaume,  1823-41  ;  but  then 
started  a  business  of  his  own.  He 
marked  his  bows  with  the  letters 
"P.  R.  S.  • 

Peters,  Michael.  Was  working  in  Wey- 
berg  in  1801,  judging  from  two  labels 
in  a  bass-viol  of  seven  strings  ;  the  first 
runs  :  "  dieses  Instrument  ist  gemacht, 
anno  1627,"  the  second  is  "arranschirt 
von  Michael  Peters  in  Weyberg,  anno 

Petz.  A  maker  in  Fiissen,  Bavaria,  in 

Pezzardi.  A  maker  in  Brescia  about 
1580-1610.  His  instruments  are  some- 
what similar  to  those  of  Maggini,  his 
contemporary ;  there  is  the  same 
pattern,  the  same  double  purfiing,  but 
the  varnish  is  clearer  and  the  sound- 
holes  are  different.  His  instruments 
are  often  sold  as  being  those  of 

Pfab.     A  maker  in  Hamburg,  1852-1902. 

Pfretzschner,  Carl  Friedrich,  son  of 
Johann  Gottlob  Pfretzschner.  Was 
presumably  a  German,  but  worked  in 
Cremona.  His  instruments  are  of  no 
special  merit. 

Pfretzschner,  Johann  Gottlob.  A  maker 
in  Cremona.  A  label  in  one  of  his 
instruments  is  dated  1794.  His  work 
is  not  good. 

Pfretzschner.      Makers  in  Neukirchen. 

Pichol.     A  maker  in  Paris. 

Picino.  A  maker  in  Padua  in  1712  ; 
his  instruments  are  very  arched  and 
have  dark  varnish. 

Picte,  Noel.     See  "  Piete. " 

Pierrard,  Louis.  A  maker  of  excellent 
violins,  with  red-brown  varnish,  and  of 
good  tone,  in  Brussels,  at  23,  rue  Le 
beau.  He  was  a  pupil  of  Mougenot, 
but  started  his  own  business  in  1883. 
Exhibited  instruments  in  Brussels 
(1888),  Paris  (1889),  and  Antwerp,  and 
was  awarded  bronze,  silver,  and  gold 
medals.  He  published  "  Traite  de 
lutherie  "  (Brussels,  1890). 

Pierray  (or  Pierret),  Claude.  A  con- 
temporary of  l^oquay,  he  worked  in 
Paris  about  1700-30.  He  made  a  great 
many  violins  and  violoncellos,  the 
former  on  a  large  pattern.  He  some- 
times copied  the  work  of  Ciirolamo 
Amati  rather  closelv      He  ust-d  good 



wood,  though  not  very  beautiful  to  look 
at,  and  red  varnish.  The  proportions 
of  his  thicknesses  varied  too  much ;  the 
tone  is  excellent  but  not  powerful ;  the 
work  is  carefully  finished  In  Thomas 
Britton's  Collection  of  instruments  was 
a  violin  by  "Claude  Pieray,  of  Pans, 
as  good  as  a  Cremona."  Some  of  his 
pupils  became  good  makers,  such  as 
Jean  Ouvrard,  Paul  Grosset,  and  Louis 
Guersan.  Labels:  "Claude  Pierray, 
rue  des  Fosses-Saint-Germain-des-Pres 
a  Paris,  1710";  a  similar  label,  dated 
1714,  "  Claude  Pieray  a  Paris,  1715  "  ; 
"  Claude  Pierray  proche  la  Comedie  a 
Paris,  1725."  There  is  a  bass-viol, 
dated  171 2,  in  the  Paris  Conservatoire 

Piete  (Picte),  Noel,  b.  about  1760. 
Worked  in  Paris  till  about  1810.  Was 
a  pupil  of  Saunier.  Made  violins  and 
violoncellos  of  beautifully  finished 

Pilet.     See  "  Pitet.  ' 

Pillement,  F.  A  maker  in  Paris  about 
1790-1820.  His  instruments  vary  very 
much,  as  he  often  changed  his  pattern ; 
he  used  dark  varnish.  He  branded 
his  violins  n-side  with  "Pillement, 
Paris  " 

Pilosio,  Francesco  Was  working  in 
Gorizia  in  1748 

Pique,  Fran9ois  Louis  ;  b  1758,  at 
Rorei,  near  Mirecourt  ;  d.  1822,  Cha- 
renton-St. -Maurice  Was  a  pupil  of 
Saunier.  He  went  to  Pans  in  1777  or 
1778  living  first  in  "  rue  Coquilliere 
au  coin  de  la  r  le  de  Bouloy  according 
to  a  label  in  a  theorbo  dated  1779 , 
then,  1787-9  in  the  "  rue  Platriere 
vis-a-vis  de  I  Hotel  de  Bullion,"  ac- 
cording to  a  label  in  a  s'\teen-stringed 
mandore  dated  1787;  and  finally  at 
36,  rue  de  Grenelle-St  -Honore,  where 
he  remained  till  he  retired  from 
business  in  1S16.  He  made  some 
beautiful  copies  of  Stradivari,  the 
workmanship  being  ol  a  >'ery  high 
order  the  scrolls  and  sound  holes  are 
well  cut  and  the  wood  is  of  excellent 
quality.  Some  instruments  have  the 
backs  cut  in  one  piece,  and  the  pro- 
portions of  the  thicknesses  are  some- 
times exaggerated  ;  he  used  a  dark  red 
oil  varnish,  rather  opaque.  In  1792 
he  applied  to  \  Lupot,  then  still 
It  AIiic  Uit.  for  a  certain  number  of 
un\arnishcd  violins  which  he  then 
varn.-lud  hinisr'lf  and  sold  with  his 
label.  His  instruments  \ary  from  a 
moderate  price  to  as  much  as  £50. 
His  violins  are  mentioned  by  Spohr 
(Methode  de  ^'ic)lon)  as  being  some  of 

the  best  of  the  period  Label:  "Pique, 
rue  de  Grenelle-St. -Honore,  au  coin  de 
celle  des  deux  Ecus,  a  Paris,  1790  "  ;  a 
similar  label  is  dated  1809. 

Pirot,  Claude.  A  maker  in  Paris  about 
1800-20  He  nade  good  violins  on  the 
Italian  pattern  ;  the  bellies  are  slightly 
arched,  the  backs  hardly  at  all ;  the 
sound-holes  are  well  cut ;  the  varnish 
IS  very  thick,  sometimes  red-brown) 
sometimes  pale  yellow  colour.  Label : 
"  Cde.  Pirot  fecit  Parisiis,  anno  1803." 
Similar  labels  have  been  found  in 
violins  dated  1808,  1810,  1813. 

Pitet  (or  Pilet).  A  maker  in  Paris  in  the 
latter  part  of  the  17th  century.  His 
instruments  are  more  curiosities  for 
collectors  than  of  any  great  value. 
His  name,  encircled  by  a  Latin  motto, 
IS  often  found  written  on  the  sides  of 
his  instruments,  most  frequently  on  the 

Pizzurmus  (Pozzurnus),  David.  Work- 
ing in  Genoa  about  1760. 

Placht  (Plack),  Francis.  A  maker  in 
Schoenbach,  Bohemia,  about  1740-80. 
He  is  best  known  for  the  good  violins 
that  he  made. 

Plane,  W.  Working  in  Glasgow  about 
1850  60. 

Plani,  Agostino  de.  A  maker  in  Genoa 
in  1778,  according  o  this  label : 
"  Augustinus  de  Planis  fecit  Genuae, 
1778."     His  work  was  commonplace 

Plainer,  Michele  Probably  a  Swiss. 
Was  working  in  Rome  in  1747.  His 
instruments  show  very  fair  workman- 
ship ,  they  are  rather  arched,  the  scroll 
is  veil  cut,  the  varnish  is  a  golden-red 
colour  Label  •  '  Mchael  Platner 
fecit  Romae,  anno  1747.  ' 

Plumerel  Was  working  in  Paris  in 
1740,  for  this  date  was  found  in  a 
violoncello  of  rather  poor  work,  with 
yellow  varnish  ;  his  name  was  branded 

Plumerel,  Charles  Was  working  in 
Angers,  France,  in  1822 

Poiros,  Louis  A  violin  of  his  is  known, 
he  was  a  French  maker. 

Poirson,  Eloph  Worked  in  Paris.  At 
first  took  up  violin  making  as  an 
amateur  but  in  1878,  having  received 
a  ver>  flattering  verdict  from  Marsick 
on  one  of  his  v  iolins,  he  decided  to  give 
his  whole  time  to  it.  In  1889  he  ex- 
hibited some  of  his  instruments  and 
was  awarded  a  bronze  medal,  a  violin 
bein.<  spec;allv  remarked  as  of  very 
good  qualitN  and  of  beautifully  finished 

Polis,  Luca  de.  A  maker  in  Cremona 
in  1751 



Pollusca(Pollusha),  Antonio.  Was  one  of 
the  principal  makers  in  Rome  in  1751. 

Pons.  A  maker  of  guitars  in  Paris.  His 
instruments  were  rather  shorter  than 
the  ordinary  pattern,  but  of  a  large  size. 
He  branded  them  inside  with  "  Pons  a 

Pons,  Cesar.  A  maker  in  Grenoble 
about  1780-1820.  His  violins  were  of 
large  size,  very  arched,  the  work  not 
very  good. 

Porion,  Charles.  A  French  maker  about 
1707.  A  cither  of  his  is  known  with 
eleven  strings. 

Porion,  Peeter.  A  double-bass  used  in 
the  Cathedral  of  Antwerp  is  labelled  : 
"  Peeter  Porion  tot  Antwerpen  f.  1647." 
It  is  said  to  be  still  played  there.  In 
1847,  its  2ooth  anniversary  was  com- 
memorated by  the  following  inscription 
on  its  back  :  "  Antwerpiae  in  Sanctae 
Mariae  Verginis  uno  alteroque  aevo 
JehovaeLaudesCanui."  See  "Borlon." 

Possen,  Laux.  A  maker  of  viols  and 
lutes  in  Schoengau,  Bavaria,  about 
1550-70.  In  1564  he  was  appointed 
maker  and  repairer  of  the  instruments 
of  the  Munich  orchestra,  with  a  salary 
of  405  florins. 

Postacchini,  Andrea,  b.  in  Firmo,  and 
was  working  there  in  1824.  He  was 
excellent  both  as  a  maker  and  as  a 
repairer  of  instruments.  Label  : 
"  Andreas  Postacchini  Amici  filius  fecit 
Firmi  anno  1824,  opus  214." 

Postigflione,  Vmcenzo,  b.  July  14,  1835, 
at  Naples.  In  1847  was  apprenticed 
to  Vincenzo  Jorio  for  five  years.  He 
then  devoted  much  time  to  studying 
old  instruments  ;  some  important  work 
in  the  way  of  repairing  and  restoring 
some  instruments  belonging  to  a  certain 
Signor  Fummo  also  added  to  his  ex- 
perience He  became  a  good  maker 
and  made  a  great  many  instruments, 
which  v/ill  gain  every  year  in  value. 

Powell,  Royal  and  Thomas.  Two 
brothers  who  worked  in  London  about 
1770-1800.  They  were  employed  about 
1785-7  by  "W^illiam  Forster  (1739-1808), 
and  his  son,  William  Forster.  Their 
work  was  always  neat  and  good.  In 
1800  they  were  living  in  St.  John's 
Square,   St.   Luke's.      Label:    "Made 

by  Thomas  Powell,  18,  Clemens  Lane, 
Clare  Market,  1793." 

Pozzurnus.     S^^  "  Pizzurmus." 

Presbler,  Giuseppe.  Was  working  in 
Milan  at  the  sign  of  the  "Sun"  in 
1801.  In  a  mandoline  was  the  label : 
"  Giuseppe  Presbler  in  Milano  nella 
contrada  della  dogana  all'  insegno  del 
sole,  1801." 

Pressenda,  Giovanni  Francesco,  b.  1777 
Turin  ;  d.  there,  1854.  Was  the  son  of 
a  strolling  fiddler,  Raffaele  Pressenda, 
who  generally  lived  in  Lequio-Berria, 
a  village  near  Alba,  Piedmont.  Gio- 
vanni also  learnt  to  play  the  fiddle,  but 
finding  his  way  to  Cremona  there 
studied  violin  making  under  Lorenzo 
Storioni,  and  probably  learnt  there  to 
make  the  varnish  for  which  his  violins 
were  afterwards  noted.  In  18 14  he  was 
working  in  Alba,  combining  cabinet 
making  with  violin  making ;  then  went 
to  Carmagnole  for  a  short  time,  and 
finally,  in  1820,  settled  in  Turin,  where 
his  ability  was  soon  recognised.  He 
was  especially  patronised  by  the  cele- 
brated violinist,  PoUedro,  who  was 
appointed  Musical  Director  to  the 
Royal  Orchestra  at  Turin  in  1824.  His 
violins  are  generally  made  on  the 
Stradivari  pattern,  not  much  arched, 
the  sound-holes  well  cut,  the  propor- 
tions of  the  thicknesses  correct,  the 
wood  good,  but  the  scrolls  rather 
roughly  finished ;  the  red-brown  var- 
nish was  of  excellent  quality.  Label  : 
"  Joannes  Franciscus  Pressenda  f. 
Raphael  fecit  Taurini,  anno  Domini 

Preston.  A  maker  in  London  about 
1724.  In  a  guitar  of  small  size  was  the 
label :  "  Preston,  maker,  London." 

Preston,  John.  A  maker  in  York  about 
1785-95.  Labels:  "Preston,  Pavement, 
York,  1789,"  and  "John  Preston,  York» 
1791,  Fecit." 

Prevot  (or  Prevost),  P.  Charles.  A 
maker  in  Paris,  working  at  102,  rue  de 
la  Verrerie,  at  the  sign  of  "  Au  Dieu 
Apollon,"  from  1775  to  1789. 

Prieur,  Claude  Ldme  Jean.  Was 
working  in  Paris,  in  rue  de  la  Pelleterie, 
1775-77,  and  in  rue  de  la  Calandre, 


Quinot,  Jacques.  A  maker  in  Paris 
about  1660  80,  who  was  mentioned  in 
1680  as  being  "  one  of  the  most  clever 
of  the  honorable   luthiers  of  Paris." 

In  a  little  pocket  violin,  with  carved 
head,  inlaid  purfling,  and  yellow  var- 
nish, was  the  MS.  label-  "Jacques 
Quinot  a  Paris,  1G70." 




Racceris.  A  maker  in  Mantua  in  1670. 
His  instruments  were  very  similar  to 
those  of  the  Gaghano  family,  with  one 
of  whom  he  is  said  to  have  been  in 

Raffaele,  Nella  (or  Delia).  Was  working 
in  Brescia  in  the  i8th  century.  He 
followed  the  pattern  of  Maggini,  his 
instruments  generally  have  the  sides 
ornamented  with  inscriptions,  and  have 
brown  varnish  ;  they  are  not  of  great 

Railich,  Giovanni  Worked  in  Padua 
about  1690.  Label :  "  Giovanni  Railich 
lautaro  in  Padova." 

Rambaux,  Claude  Victor,  b.  Feb.  25, 
1806,  at  Darney  in  the  Vosges;  d.  June 
25,  187 1,  at  Mirecourt  In  1820  was 
apprenticed  to  L.  Moitessier  in  Mire- 
court, and  remained  with  him  till  July 
12,  1824.  Then  went  to  Caen  and 
worked  under  Thibout,  1824-27,  and 
then  to  Paris,  where,  from  Aug.  22, 
1827,  till  June  7,  1838,  he  worked  with 
Gand.  In  1838  he  started  his  own 
business  at  18,  faubourg  Poissonniere. 
The  new  instruments  that  he  made 
show  great  ability,  but  he  chiefly 
devoted  himself,  with  infinite  patience 
and  care,  to  repairing  old  instruments  ; 
he  was  especially  skilful  in  "cutting 
down "  the  old  Italian  violoncellos, 
which  vary  much  in  pattern,  and 
generally  have  to  be  reduced  in  size  to 
that  of  the  Stradivari  model,  so  as  to 
meet  modern  requirements.  After  nine- 
teen years'  work  in  Paris,  he  retired  to 
Mirecourt  in  June,  1857,  having  gained 
silver  medals  at  the  1844  and  1849 
Exhibitions,  and  the  first  class  medal 
at  the  1835  Paris  Exhibition.  Label : 
"  Claude  Victor  Rambaux  Brevete  a 
Paris,  1846,  C.V.R."  He  had  two 
sons,  but  neither  of  them  became 
violin  makers. 

Rambouts.     vS>^  "  Rombouts." 

Ramftler,  Franz,  b.  May  23,  1834, 
Munich.  Pupil  of  Andreas  Engleder 
in  Munich  ;  started  his  own  business 
there  in  i860  Principally  repairs  and 
deals  in  old  Italian  instruments,  but 
has  lately  made  some  very  good  new 
violins  on  the  Stradivari  pattern,  using 
a  varnish  of  his  own  invention.  Was 
appointed  Court  violin  maker. 

Ranee,  Thomas.  A  maker  in  Brussels 
about  1680-85.      A.  violin  of  ordinary 

workmanship    had    a    flat    back,    the 

sound-holes  rather  wide,  and  purfling 

well  executed. 
Ranta,  Pietro.     A  maker  in  Brescia  in 

1733,  who  followed  the  Amati  pattern. 
Raphael.     S^^  "  Raffaele. 
Rasura,  Vincenzo.     Worked  at  Lugo  in 


Rau,  J  F.  A  maker  in  Nuremberg. 
Exhibited  at  Munich,  in  1854,  a  violin 
of  good  though  rather  coarse  tone, 
which  would  improve  with  time 

Rauch,  of  Breslau,  and  Ranch,  of  Wiirz- 
burg,  were  two  brothers  working  about 
1730-60.  They  made  good  violins  on 
a  model  peculiar  to  themselves,  using 
varnish  of  a  red-brown  colour ;  the 
tone  was  full  and  powerful. 

Rauch,  Jacob.  A  maker  in  Mannheim 
about  1720-50.  He  produced  some 
very  good  work,  the  quality  of  tone  of 
his  violins  is  said  to  be  very  similar  to 
that  of  Stainer  violins ;  he  also  made 
excellent  altos,  violoncellos,  and  double- 
basses.  In  an  arch-lute  of  Laux  Maler, 
which  had  been  restored  by  Rauch, 
was  found  the  label:  "Jacob  Rauch 
Hof-Lauten  und  Geigenmacher  in 
Mannheim,  anno  1740.  Zugericht." 
Another  label  was  dated  1747. 

Rauch,  Sebastian.  Is  said  to  have 
worked  in  Hamburg  about  1725,  and 
in  Leitmeritz,  in  Bohemia,  1742-63. 
His  instruments  were  much  arched, 
and  the  work  was  not  carefully  finished. 

Raut,  Jean.  A  native  of  Bretagne,  who 
worked  in  Rennes  till  about  1790.  A 
few  violins  of  his  are  known,  made  on 
the  pattern  of  Guarneri,  with  red 

Rautmann.    Makers  in  Brunswick,  1870. 

Rawlins.  Was  working  in  London  in 
1779.  Label  found  in  a  viola  : 
"  Henricus  Rawlins,  Londini,  1779." 
Another  label :  "  Restauratus  Henricus 
Rawlins  auspicio  Giardini  Londini, 
1 78 1."  (Giardini  was  at  that  time 
leader  of  the  orchestra  at  the  Italian 

Rayman,  Jacob,  b.  in  the  Tyrol,  but 
settled  in  London  about  1620,  living 
first  at  Blackman  Street,  then  at  Bell 
Yard,  Southwark.  He  worked  till 
about  1650  He  seems  to  have  been 
one  of  the  earliest  makers  of  violins  in 
England  ;  they  are  of  small  size,  of 
rather   an   ugly   pattern,   not   arched. 



with  small  sound-holes  ;  the  scroll  also 
small  but  well  cut ;  the  varnish  very 
fine,  its  colour  a  yellow-brown  tinged 
with  red ;  the  tone,  clear  and  pene- 
trating. He  also  made  some  fine 
tenors,  the  workmanship  good,  although 
the  purfling  is  sometimes  defective. 
His  instruments  show  ability  and 
talent,  and  are  greatly  valued  ;  they 
have  many  of  the  characteristics  of 
German  work,  and  differ  greatly  from 
the  work  of  the  old  English  viol  makers. 
In  Thomas  Britton's  collection  of 
instruments  was  an  "  extraordinary 
Ray  man  "  and  also  "  three  others 
ditto."  Labels  :  "  Jacob  Rayman 
dwelling  in  Blackman  Street,  Long- 
Southwark,  1641,"  and  "Jacob  Ray- 
man,  at  ye  Bell  Yard  in  Southwarke, 
London,  1648." 

Razenzo,  Carole.  A  maker  in  Barcelona 
about  1690. 

Realli,  Cosmo  Battista.  A  maker  in 
Parma  in  1667.  In  a  little  pocket 
violin  of  very  narrow  pattern,  with 
brown  varnish,  was  the  label  ;  "  Cosmo 
Battista  Realli  in  Parma,  1667." 

Rechiardini,  Giovanni  (called  "  Zuano  "). 
Was  working  in  Venice  in  the  17th 

Regnaut  (Renault),  Jacques.  A  maker 
in  Paris,  1665-85.  A  little  pocket  violin, 
with  silver  purfling,  was  dated  1682;  in 
another  little  pocket  violin  was  the 
label :  "Jacques  Regnaut  a  Paris,  1666." 
He  succeeded  Nicolas  Renault  as 
maker  to  the  King. 

Reichel,  Johann  Conrad,  brother  of 
Johann  Gottfried.  Was  working  in 
Neukircheii  in  1779. 

Reichel,  Johann  Gottfried,  brother  of 
Johann  Conrad.  Worked  in  Neu- 
kirchen.  He  was  a  pupil  of  Stainer 
and  copied  his  pattern,  but  his 
work  is  rough,  and  he  used  red-brown 
varnish  of  poor  quality.  Label  : 
"  Johann  Gottfried  Reichel  .  .  . 
arfunden  von  Jacob  Stainer  in 

Remy.  A  French  maker  who  left  Paris 
to  settle  in  London  about  1840.  He 
made  on  the  Italian  pattern;  but  his 
violins  have  not,  it  is  said,  gained  in 
quality  of  tone  with  age,  possibly  owing 
to  his  method  of  artificially  maturing 
his  wood  before  using  it. 

Remy,  Hippolyte,  eldest  son  of  Jean 
Mathurin  Remy.  Was  working  about 
1835-70  in  Paris.  He  made  some 
violins  of  no  great  merit. 

Remy,  Jean  Mathurin,  son  of  Mathurin 
Francois  Remy;  b.  1770,  Paris;  d. 
1854.      His   work   was  of    much    the 

same  merit  and  type  as  his  father's. 
He  used  oil  varnish.  He  removed 
from  rue  Tiquetonne  to  30,  rue  de 
Grenelle  -  Saint  Honore,  about  1817, 
and  remained  there  for  thirty-seven 
years.  His  two  sons  were  both  violin 

Remy,  Jules  Hippolyte,  second  son  of 
Jean  Mathurin  Remy;  b.  1813,  Paris; 
d.  1876.  He  carried  on  a  business  at 
60,  faubourg  St. -Denis 

Remy,  Mathurin  Francois.  A  maker  in 
Paris,  first  in  the  rue  Sainte-Marguerite- 
Saint-Antoine  about  1760,  and  then  in 
rue  Tiquetonne,  1775-91  He  made 
instruments  similar  to  those  of 
Guersan  and  Gavinies,  with  yellow- 
brown  varnish. 

Renaudin,  Leopold,  b.  1749,  at  Mire- 
court  ;  guillotined  May  7,  1795.  He 
settled  in  Paris,  living  in  the  rue  St  - 
Honore  from  1776  till  his  death,  at  the 
s'gn  of  "  Aux  arnateurs."  He  made 
fairly  good  instruments,  but  they  are 
too  much  arched,  the  scroll  is  badly 
cut,  and  the  varnish  is  ugly,  almost 
black  in  colour ;  he  made  excellent 
double-basses,  several  of  these,  how- 
ever, were  destroyed  by  the  fire  at  the 
Opera  House  in  1873.  A  violoncello  is 
known  made  from  a  bass-viol.  In  an 
alto  was  the  label .  "  '  Aux  amateurs.' 
Renaudin,  luthier,  fait  toutes  sortes 
d'instruments,  rue  Saint-Honore  pres 
rOpera,  1783";  in  another  alto  was 
the  label:  "Leopold  Renaudin  (the 
address  illegible),  annee  1789." 

Renault,  Jacques.     See  "  Regnaut." 

Renault,  Nicolas  A  French  maker 
about  the  end  of  the  i6th  century.  Is 
said  to  have  been  a  pupil  of  Tywersus 
(a  maker  in  Nancy),  and  afterwards  to 
have  worked  in  Paris. 

Renault,  Sebastien.  A  maker  in  Paris 
about  1775  to  1805,  living  in  the  rue 
de  Braque.  Cithers  of  his  are  known 
dated  1779,  1786,  and  1804  ;  a  violin 
is  described  as  made  on  a  good  pattern, 
with  yellow  varnish  of  fair  quality. 
He  was  in  partnership  with  F. 
Chatelain  for  some  time,  he  then  used 
the  labels  :  "  Renault  et  Chatelain  rue 
de  Braque  au  coin  de  la  rue  St-Avoye 
a  Paris,  1797,"  and  "A  la  renommee, 
rue  de  Braque,  au  marais,  Renault  et 
Chatelain,  luthiers,  font  et  vendent 
louent,  achetent  et  raccommodent 
toutes  sortes  d'instruments  de  musique, 
etc.,  a  Paris." 

Renisto.  A  maker  in  Cremona  about 
1735-40.  Pupil  of  Carlo  Bergonzi, 
whose  work  he  copied  rather  closely  ; 
but  his  instruments  are  more  arched, 



and  the  details  are  not  so  care- 
fully finished  Label  :  "  Renisto, 
Cremonae  alumnus  Carlo  Bergonzi, 
fecit  17 —  " 

Resle,  Andrea.  Was  working  in  Fiesso 
in  1740.  In  an  excellent  violin,  made 
of  beautiful  wood,  with  dark  varnish, 
was  the  label .  "  Andreas  Resle  fecit 
Fiessae,  1740  " 

Reynaud.  Andre  A  maker  at  Tarascon, 
1754-66  In  a  violoncello,  slightly 
arched,  of  a  very  graceful  pattern 
with  beautiful  yellow  varnish,  was 
the  label:  "Andreas  Reynaud  ohm 
canonicus  fecit  a  Tarascon  en  Provence, 
1754";  another  label  was  "Andreas 
Reynaud,  olim  canonicus  Tarascone  in 
gallo  provincia,  1766" 

Richards,  Edwin.     A  maker  m  London. 

Richelme,  A.  Marius.  A  maker  in  Mar- 
seilles, who  greatly  modified  the  curves 
of  the  upper  and  lower  bouts  of  his 
instruments,  almost  returning  to  the 
ancient  viol-shape  He  published  in 
Marseilles,  1868  :  "  Etudes  et  observa- 
tions sur  la  lutherie  ancienne  et 

Ricolazzi,  Lodovico.  A  maker  in  Cre- 
mona m  1729. 

Riechel.     S^:*^  "  Reichel." 

Riechers,  August,  b.  March  8,  1836, 
Hanover  ;  d.  1893,  Berlin.  Was  first 
a  pupil  of  L.  Bausch  at  Leipzig,  then 
travelled  from  city  to  city  gaining 
experience,  returning  to  Hanover  in 
1862.  He  moved  to  Berlin  in  1872, 
at  the  special  request  of  the  great 
violinist,  Joseph  Joachim,  who  recog- 
nised his  talent  and  ability.  He 
made  excellent  instruments  on  the 
Stradivari  and  Guarneri  patterns 
and  was  especially  successful  in  le- 
pairing  old  instruments  About  1,000 
violins  and  over  200  violoncellos 
were  made  in  his  workshop.  He 
published  a  book  on  the  construction 
of  violms. 

Riess.  A  maker  in  Bamberg  about 
1740-60.  He  made  fairly  good  instru- 
ments on  the  Stainer  pattern,  with  a 
nice  quality  of  tone. 

Rimbouts.     S^^   '  Rombouts." 

Rinaldi,  Benedetto  Gioffredo.  Was  a 
pupil  and  fellow-worker  of  Pressenda. 
He  was  still  working  in  Turin  in  1886, 
but  died  about  five  years  later.  He 
published :  "  Classica  fabbricazione  di 
violini  in  Piemonte "  (Turin,  1873), 
which  is  practically  a  short  biography 
of  Pressenda. 

Rivolta  Giacomo  A  maker  in  Milan 
about  1822.  His  instruments  show 
good  work      A  viola  was  dated  18  0. 

Rocca,  Giuseppe  Antonio.  A  maker  in 
Turin  about  1830-55.  Worked  at  one 
time  for  Pressenda.  His  violins  are 
generally  made  on  the  Stradivari 
pattern  ;  the  work  is  carefully  finished, 
the  scroll  well  cut,  but  the  varnish  is 
of  poor  quality.  Label:  "Joseph 
Antonio  Rocca  fecit  Taurini,  anno 
Domini  1841."  Other  violins  are 
known  dated  1839,  1851,  and  1855. 

Rodiani,  Giovita  See  "  Budiani,  Gia- 
vetta  " 

Roscher,  C.  H.  W.  Was  working  in 
Bremen  about  1871. 

Roger,  G.  Was  working  in  Montpellier 
in  1820. 

Rogeri,  Gian  Battista,  b.  in  Bologna 
about  1650.  He  went  to  Cremona  to 
work  under  Nicola  Amati ,  Stradivari 
was  a  fellow  pupil  of  his  He  then 
settled  in  Brescia  and  worked  there 
about  1670  to  1725.  He  made  adniir- 
able  instruments,  generally  following 
the  Amati  or  the  Stradivari  pattern  , 
the  wood  was  chosen  with  the  greatest 
care ;  the  varnish  is  very  beautiful,  of 
a  golden-red  colour  ,  the  sound  holes 
resemble  those  of  Amati  .  the  purfiing 
is  accurate,  the  corners  elegant  ;  some 
of  his  violins  are  so  excellently  made 
and  have  such  a  fine  tone,  they  have 
been  sold  as  the  work  of  Stradivari, 
Especially  penetrating  and  robust  is 
the  tone  of  his  violoncellos ;  he  some- 
times used  poplar-wood  for  the  backs — 
perhaps  it  was  then  thought  that  this 
rendered  the  instrument  more  sonorous , 
or  possibly  he  received  but  low  prices  for 
his  work,  and  was  obliged  to  use  the  less 
expensive  wood — but  whether  of  poplar 
or  maple  the  violoncellos  are  always 
beautifully  made  and  are  now  much 
valued.  Label:  "Jo.  Bap.  Rogerius 
Bon.  Nicolai  Amati  de  Cremona  alum- 
nus Brixiae  fecit,  anno  Domini  1671." 
(The  word  Bon.  simply  means  Bononi- 
ensis.  of  or  from  Bologna.)  He  always 
used  the  same  label,  it  is  sometimes  in 
red,  sometimes  in  black  letters  ;  other 
labels  seen  were  dated  1705  and  1725. 

Rogeri,  Pietro  Giacomo,  son  of  Gian 
Battista  Rogeri ;  b.  about  1675  in 
Brescia ;  worked  till  about  1735.  He 
made  on  a  similar  pattern  to  his  father, 
but  not  quite  so  broad,  and  used  fine 
varnish.  His  violins  are  not  equal  to 
those  of  his  father,  but  his  violoncellos 
are  splendid  instruments ;  a  magnificent 
one  was  in  the  Collection  of  Count 
Cozio  di  Salabue.  He  also  made  many 
fine  violas  and  double-basses  Label ' 
"  Petrus  Jacobus  Rogeri  fecit  Brixijc, 



Roismann,  Johann.  Was  working  in 
Breslau  in  1680.  A  violin  of  his  is  in 
the  Paris  Conservatoire  Collection. 

Rol.  A  maker  in  Paris  in  1753.  In  a 
large  pocket  violin  in  the  Paris 
Conservatoire  Collection  is  the  label : 
"  i753,CourSaint-DenisdelaChartre." 

Romano,  Pietro.  Worked  in  Pavia  in  the 
i8th  century.  Label:  "17 —  Pietro 
Romano  in  Borgo  di  Pavia." 

Romarini,  Antonio  Working  in  Cre- 
mona in  the  iSth  century.  Label  . 
"  Antonio  Romarini  fecit  Cremonae, 
anno  17 — ."  The  date  is  effaced,  but  is 
probably  1705. 

Rombouts,  Pieter.  A  maker  in  Amster- 
dam about  1705-35  He  made  violins, 
violas,  and  violoncellos,  much  arched, 
with  a  brilliant  but  rather  thick 
varnish.  In  a  six-stringed  bass  viol, 
of  which  the  work  shows  neat  finish, 
was  the  label  :  "  Pieter  Rombouts, 
Amsterdam,  1708. '•' 

Rook,  Joseph.  A  maker  in  London 
about  1777  to  1830.  His  instruments 
show  good  work  and  follow  the  pattern 
of  Forster. 

Ropiquet.  An  amateur  maker  in  Paris 
about  1810-30.  He  was  an  orchestra 
player  by  profession,  but  made  some 
violins  of  no  great  value ;  he  signed 
them  with  his  name. 

Rosiero,  Rocco.  Worked  in  Cremona 
in  the  early  part  of  the  i8th  century. 

Ro^io,  Paolo  A  maker  in  Verblanuova, 
who  exhibited  an  excellent  double-bass 
in  Brescia  in  1857. 

Ross  (Rose),  John.  A  maker  of  viols  and 
lutes  in  London  about  1560  to  1600.  In 
a  collection  of  airs  called  "  Tripla  Con- 
cordia," published  m  London,  1667, 
by  John  Carr,  is  the  following  adver- 
tisement:  "There  is  two  chests  of 
viols  to  be  sold,  one  made  by  Mr. 
John  Ross,  who  formerly  lived  in 
Bridewell,  containing  2  trebles,  3  tenors 
and  one  basse :  The  chest  was  made 
in  the  year  1598."  In  the  instrument 
known  as  Queen  Elizabeth's  lute,  in 
reality  a  species  of  guitar  known  as 
cither,  with  ten  strings  to  be  tuned  in 
five  pairs  of  unisons,  is  the  inscription  : 
"Johannes  Rosa,  Londini  fecit,  in 
Bridwell,  the  27th  of  July,  1580." 

Rota,  Giovanni.  A  maker  in  Cremona 
about  1800-10.  His  instruments  show 
rather  rough  work,  the  purfling  is  care- 
less, the  wood  not  particularly  hand- 
some, the  varnish  is  a  yellow  colour. 
Label :  "Joannes  Rota  fecit  Cremonae, 
anno  1808." 

Rota,  Giuseppe  Antonio  A  maker  in 
Turin  about  1825.     His  work  is  very 

similar  to  that  of  Pressenda,  perhaps 
not  so  carefully  finished,  the  varnish 
is     red-brown     in     colour.        Label : 
"Joseph  Antonio  Rota  fecit  Taurini 
anno  Domini  18 — ." 

Roth,  Johann  and  Christian.  Are  both 
mentioned  as  working  about  1675,  the 
former  at  Darmstadt  and  the  latter  at 

Rottenbrouck.  A  maker  in  Brussels 
about  1700-25.  He  followed  the  pattern 
of  Amati  and  used  fine  red-brown 

Rovetta,  Antonio.  A  maker  in  Bergamo 
about  1840-70  He  exhibited  a  good 
violin  at  Brescia,  1864. 

Roze.  A  maker  at  Orleans  about 
1755-65  His  instruments  show  fairly 
good  workmanship,  the  sound-holes 
well  cut,  wide  in  the  centre,  the  scroll 
rather  heavy,  and  the  varnish  a  yellow 
colour.  Label  :  "  Roze,  rue  Sainte- 
Catherine,  a  Orleans  pres  le  Martroy, 

Rudiman.     Was  working  in   Aberdeen 

in  1769.  A  cither,  with  inlaid  wood 
ornamentation,  had  the  inscription : 
"Rudiman,  A.  B.  Dn,  D.  G." 
Ruggeri  (Rugieri),  Francesco.  Was  the 
first  of  a  family  of  makers  in  Cremona, 
very  often  confused  with  Rogeri  of 
Brescia  He  worked  in  Cremona  at  7, 
Contrada  Coltellai,  from  about  1645  to 
1700.  He  was  one  of  the  celebrated 
pupils  of  Nicola  Amati,  whose  pattern 
he  copied,  slightly  enlarging  it,  and 
arching  it  more.  The  outline  is  very 
graceful,  the  sound-holes  beautifully 
cut,  rather  short  and  open  ;  the  purfling 
broad  ;  the  varnish  varies  from  a  deep 
orange  to  a  brilliant  yellow-orange 
colour,  it  is  very  light  and  transparent ; 
the  wood  is  generally  maple,  of  tine 
quality,  often  beautifully  figured  ;  he 
sometimes  used  poplar  for  the  backs  of 
his  violoncellos,  but  always  obtained  a 
sonorous  and  penetrating  tone.  The 
violoncellos  are  often  made  on  too 
large  a  pattern  ;  he  made  a  com- 
paratively small  number  of  violins  and 
violas,  but  some  are  exceptionally 
good,  the  work  beautifully  finished,  the 
wood  and  varnish  leaving  nothing  to 
be  desired  ;  they  greatly  resemble  the 
work  of  Amati  and  are  often  sold  as 
such.  His  instruments  deservedly 
fetch  very  high  prices.  Labels :  ' '  Fran- 
cesco Rugier  (or  Ruger)  detto  il  Per  in 
Cremona,  1686  "  ;  similar  ones  are 
dated  1645,  1665,  and  1O97.  Rugier  or 
Ruger  is  the  Cremona  patois  rendering 
of  Ruggeri ;  the  word  "  Per"  is  similarly 
the  equivalent  of ' '  Pero. ' '    ' '  Francesco 



Ruggeri  detto  il  Per  Cremona,  167 1." 
Three  violins  are  known  dated  1684. 

Ruggeri  (Rugieri),  Giacinto  Giovanni 
Battista,  son  of  Francesco  Ruggeri ; 
b.  in  Cremona.  His  work  is  s'milar  to 
that  of  his  father,  but  has  not  the  same 
value  he  made  several  v  oloncellos  of 
large  pattern  rather  arched,  generally 
of  plain  wood  and  with  dark  brown 
varnish  of  good  quality  ,  both  the 
sound  holes  and  the  scroll  were  cut 
wider  than  in  Amati  work  Label, '  'Gia- 
cmto  filio  di  Francesco  Ruggeri  detto  il 
Per  1696  '  ;  another  was  dated  1692. 

Ruggeri  (Rugieri),  Guido.  Worked  in 
Cremona  about  1720 

Ruggeri,  Pietro  Giacomo.  See  "  Rog- 
eri."  Violin  exhibited  1885  with  label : 
"  Petrus  Jacobus  Ruggerius  fecit 
Brixiae,  1735  " 

Ruggeri  (Rugieri),  Vincenzo,  son  of 
Francesco  Ruggeri.     Was  working  in 

Cremona  about  1700-50,  is  also  said  to 
have  worked  in  Brescia.  He  made 
many  altos  and  violoncellos,  the  work 
is  somewhat  rough  and  careless 
He  was  the  last  member  of  this 
family  to  make  violins.  He  also  used 
"  il  Per  "  on  his  labels,  for  the  same 
reason  probably — viz.,  to  distinguish 
his  work  from  that  of  the  Ro^'eri  of 
Brescia.  Labels  'Vincenzo  Rugier 
(or  Ruger)  detto  il  Per  m  Cremona, 
1714  "  ;  a  similar  label  is  dated  1720. 
Ruppert,  Johann  Heinrich.  A  maker 
in  Erfurt  about  1720.  His  violins, 
altos,  and  violoncellos  were  of  a  very 
flat  model,  without  linings,  corner 
blocks,  or  purfling,  had  a  powerful 
tone,  and  dark  bro'vn-amber  varnish. 
Label:  "Johann  Heinrich  Ruppert, 
anno  1719  in  Erfurt,"  in  a  viola  da 
gamba,  with  neck  ending  in  a  beauti- 
fully carved  female  head. 


Sacchini,  Sabattino  A  maker  in  Pesaro 
in  1 686  Label:  "  Sabattino  Sacchini 
da  Pesaro,  1686  " 

Sacquin.  A  maker  in  Paris  about 
1830-60.  His  instruments  are  well 
made,  especially  the  double-basses  ;  the 
oil  varnish  is  of  good  quality  ;  he  gener- 
ally followed  the  Stradivari  pattern. 
His  name  is  branded  on  the  back  in 
the  interior  Label ;  "  Sacquin,  luthier, 
rue  Beauregard,  14,  a  Paris,  185 — ." 

Sainpra,  Jaques  A  maker  in  Berlin  in 
the  17th  century.  A  viola  di  bordone, 
or  baryton,  was  exhibited  in  the  South 
Kensington  Museum,  1872. 

Saint-Paul,  Antoine.  A  maker  in  Paris 
about  1765-90.  He  was  son-in-law  and 
successor  of  Louis  Guersan,  and  worked 
at  the  sign  of  "  Au  luth  royal "  in  the 
near  the  Comedie  Frangaise,  where,  as 
his  advertisement  says,  *'  il  fait  et  vend 
toutes  sortes  d'instruments  de  musique, 
S9avoir ;  violons  de  Cremone,  violons 
de  sa  fa^on  et  de  toutes  sortes  d'auteurs ; 
alto-violas,  basses  et  contrebasses," 
&c.  In  a  five-stringed  viol,  with  a 
carved  neck  and  yellow  varnish,  is  the 
label:  "  Antonius  Saint-Paul,  prope 
Comoediam  Gallicam,  Lutetiae,  anno 

Saint-Paul,  Pierre.  A  maker  in  Paris 
about  1740.  A  violin  of  that  date  is 
known,  also  a  six-stringed  viol  dated 
from  the  rue  St.-Andre-des-Artsin  1742. 

In  a  violoncello,  with  yellow-greyish 
vainish,  and  of  rather  poor  workman- 
ship, is  the  label :  "  Pierre  Saint-Paul, 
rue  de  la  Comedie  fran^oise,  Paris, 
1741    • 

Sajot.  Was  working  in  Paris,  1730-35. 
He  made  his  instruments  with  flat 
backs,  using  varnish  of  a  yellpw-brown 
colour ;  the  workmanship  was  poor. 
Label  :  "  Sajot,  a  Paris,  1734." 

Saline,  J.  B.  A  maker  in  Rome  in  1760. 
His  instruments  were  very  arched,  with 
varnish  of  bad  quality,  brown  shading 
into  black  in  colour  ;  the  work  not  well 
finished.  Label:  "J.  B.  Salino  fecit 
Roma,  anno  1760." 

Salle,  le  Pere.  A  maker  in  Paris  about 
i^'^'^o-SS-  He  made  a  few  violins,  which 
are  very  beautiful  copies  of  Guarneri ; 
but  he  was  chiefly  noted  for  his  clever- 
ness in  repairing  old  instruments,  and 
his  extraordinary  knowledge  of  the 
work  of  old  Italian  makers. 

Sal6.     Sec  "  Gasparo  da  Salo." 

Salomon,  Jean  Baptiste  Deshayes. 
Worked  in  Rheims  till  about  1747,  and 
then  in  Paris  at  the  place  de  I'Ecole ; 
later  he  settled  in  the  rue  de  I'Arbre-sec 
(about  1769).  He  died  before  1772,  for 
in  that  year  Namy  is  mentioned  as 
working  for  the  widowed  Madame 
Salomon.  He  made  few  violins,  but 
they  show  good  work,  and  are  on  a 
similar  pattern  to  those  of  Louis 
Guersan,  his  contemporary ;  they  have 



yellow-brown  varnish.  A  viola  d'amore 
of  his  IS  in  the  Paris  Conservatoire 
Collection;  he  also  made  good  bass 
viols.  A  few  of  his  violoncellos  are 
of  excellent  wood  and  have  a  fine 
tone,  but  in  others  the  varnish  is 
hard  and  the  tone  poor.  Labels : 
"  Salomon,  luthier,  a  Ste  Cecile,  place 
del'Ecole.aPans,  1751,  '  and"Parisiis 
apud  Salomonem  ad  insigne  Sta  Cae- 
cilia  Scolie  Palatio,  1752."  He  also 
sometimes  branded  his  instruments 
with  "  Salomon  a  Paris."  His  widow 
continued  the  business  for  some  time 
after  his  death,  moving  about  1788  to 
quai  de  la  Megisserie 

Salsedo,  Luigi.  An  Italian  maker.  A 
beautiful  mandoline  of  his  was  made  of 
rosewood,  with  fluted  back,  and  inlaid 
with  mother-of-pearl. 

Salzard,  F.     A  maker  in  Paris,  1830. 

Sanoni,  Giovanni  Battista.  A  maker  in 
Verona  about  1740.  His  instruments 
are  much  arched,  with  rose  coloured 
varnish ;  they  are  of  good  workmanship. 

Santagiuliana,  Giacinto  A  maker  in 
Venice  about  1830,  according  to  a  label 
in  a  violin  .  "  Jacintus  Santagiuliana 
fecit  Venetia,  anno  1830  ' 

Sante.     A  maker  in  Pesaro  about  1670. 

Santc,  Giuseppe.  Was  working  in  Rome 
in  1778. 

Santo,  Giovanni.  A  maker  in  Naples, 
1700-30.  He  generally  copied  Amati  ; 
his  violins  are  of  a  small  pattern,  fairly 
well  made,  with  varnish  of  poor  quality 

Santo  Serafino,  b.  at  Udine.  Worked 
in  Venice  about  1710-48.  Some  of 
his  instruments  show  German  charac- 
teristics, the  sound-holes  and  scroll 
being  similar  to  those  of  Stainer ;  but 
he  generally  followed  the  Amati  pattern. 
His  work  shows  great  ability  ;  the 
model  is  much  arched,  the  wood  very 
handsome,  of  small  figure  ;  the  varnish 
brilliant,  of  very  fine  quality,  of  a  rich 
red  colour,  or  yellow  tinged  with  brown, 
but  dry  and  easily  cracked  ;  the  scroll 
is  well  cut,  and  the  workmanship 
almost  as  beautifully  finished  as  that 
of  Stradivari ;  the  tone  is  clear  and 
strong.  A  beautiful  violoncello  was 
exhibited  in  the  South  Kensington 
Museum  in  1872,  its  tone  was  very 
equal  and  sonorous ;  but  his  double- 
basses  are  especially  excellent  in  tone. 
All  his  instruments  are  branded  with 
his  name  above  the  tail-pin.  Label  ; 
"  Sanctus  Seraphin  Utinensis  fecit 
Venetiis,  anno  1730." 

Sanzo  Santino  (Santo  Sentino).  A 
maker  in  Milan  in  the  i8th  century. 
He  made  fairly  good  instruments  ;  his 

work  is  rather  similar  to  that  of 

Saraceni,  Domenico.  A  maker  in 
Florence  in  the  17th  century 

Saraillac,  Fran90is.  A  maker  in  Lyons 
about  1678-1712.  In  a  six  stringed 
bass-viol,  made  on  a  narrow  pattern, 
with  brown  varnish,  was  the  label ; 
'  Fran9ois  Saraillac  a  Lion,  1711  "  ;  a 
little  pocket  violin  was  dated  1679 

Sardi  A  maker  of  viols  in  Venice  in 

Saunier  Edmond.  Was  a  pupil  of 
Lambert,  of  Nancy,  the  "  Carpenter," 
but  did  superior  work.  Lived  in 
Bordeaux  1754-64,  according  to  his 
violin  labels,  but  by  1770  was  i  ;  Paris, 
living  first  in  the  rue  Tiqu  tonne,  and 
then  (1775-83)  in  the  rue  des  Prouvaires. 
He  IS  best  known  for  the  beautiful 
guitars  he  made,  but  his  lolins  are 
also  good  Piete,  the  maker,  was  a 
pupil  of  his.  In  1889  was  exhibited  in 
Pans  a  mandoline-alto  dated  1780. 
Label :  "  Saunier  a  Bordeaux,  1754  " 

Savani,  Giuseppe.  Was  working  in 
Carpi  in  1809. 

Sawitzki  (Sawicki),  Nicolaus,  b.  1792, 
Poland  ,  d.  1850.  He  settled  in  Vienna 
and  made  some  very  good  violins. 

Scarampella,  Angelo,  son  of  Paolo 
Scarampella;  b.  June  2,  1852,  Brescia. 
Was  a  carpenter  by  traJe,  but  also 
made  guitars  of  good  tone. 

Scarampella,  Giuseppe,  son  of  Paolo 
Scarampella;  b  Aug.  25,  1838,  Brescia. 
Pupil  of  Nicola  Bianchi  in  Paris;  1865, 
returned  to  Brescia  In  1866  went  to 
Florence  to  work  with  Luigi  Castellani, 
who  thought  highly  of  his  ability  and 
gave  him  much  important  work  to  do 
in  repairing  old  instruments  He  re- 
stored the  viola  and  the  famous 
violoncello  of  Stradivari,  kept  in  the 
Istituto  Musicale  of  Florence,  and  in 
1884  succeeded  Castellani  as  Keeper  of 
the  collection  of  instruments  there. 
He  also  makes  new  instruments,  follow- 
ing the  Stradivari  or  Guarneri  del 
Gesu  patterns,  which  will  increase  in 
value  with  time ;  their  tone  is  clear 
and  strong ;  the  work  is  accurately 
and  carefully  done  ;  he  uses  a  reddish- 
coloured  oil  varnish  Label'  "Giu- 
seppe Scarampella  fece  in  Firenze 
anno  188 —  " 

Scarampella,  Paolo,  b.  Sept  25,  1803, 
Brescia;  d.  April  7,  1870.  A  carpenter 
by  trade,  but  made  many  violins, 
violoncellos,  guitars,  and  mandolines. 

Scarampella,  Stefano.  son  of  Paolo 
Scarampella;  b.  March  17,  1843, 
Brescia.   Pupil  of  his  brother  Giuseppe. 



Settled  in  Mantua,  at  8,  via  Vescovado. 
He  has  made  many  good  violins. 
Schaendl,  Anton.     A  maker  in  Mitten- 
\  aid,  1753     Label:  "  Anton  Schaendl, 
Geigenmacher     in     Mittenwald,     an 

175.3-  ' 

Scheinlein,  Johann  Michael,  son  and 
pupil  of  Matthaus  Friedrich  Scheinlein ; 
b.  175 1,  Langenfeld.  He  followed  the 
large  Stainer  pattern  in  his  violins,  but 
avoided  the  exaggerated  arching ;  his 
instruments  are  neatly  and  carefully 
made  and  had  a  good  reputation  for 
their  full  and  pleasant  tone ;  but  they 
do  not  last  well,  the  wood  not  being 
thick  enough. 

Scheinlein,  Matthaus  Friedrich,  b.  1710, 
Langenfeld  in  Franken  (Franconia) ;  d. 
there,  1771.  He  was  a  violinist,  but 
taking  great  interest  in  violin  making, 
began  by  repairing  old  instruments  and 
finished  by  making  excellent  new  ones. 
They  are  much  arched,  with  dark 
brown  varnish,  the  work  carefully 

Schell,  Sebastian.  A  maker  of  lutes  in 
Nuremberg  in  1727  One  with  that 
date  is  in  the  Pans  Conservatoire 

Schelmayer,  Christian.  A  maker  in 
Cologne.  The  label :  "Christian  Schel- 
mayer Musik-Instrumentenmacher  in 
Koln  No.  602 "  ;  was  found  in  a 
little  pocket  violin. 

Schlick.     A  maker  in  Leipzig. 

Schmidt.  Was  working  in  Cassel  in 
1817.  His  instruments  are  made  on 
the  Stradivari  pattern,  but  the  edges 
are  larger  and  the  purfling  is  not 
placed  so  close  to  the  sides ;  he  used 
spirit  varnish  and  the  wood  is  of  bad 

Schmidt.  Was  working  in  Vienna  in 
the  19th  century. 

Schonfelder,  Johann  Adam.  Was  work- 
ing in  Neukirchen  in  1743.  Label  : 
"Johann  Adam  Schonfelder  Violin- 
macher  in  Neukirchen.     An.  1743." 

Schonger,  Franz.  A  maker  in  Erfurt 
in  the  i8th  century.  He  made  fairly 
good  instruments,  of  large  pattern, 
very  arched ;  but  the  wood  is  not  thick 
enough  and  the  tone  is  poor. 

Schonger,  Georg,  son  of  Franz 
Schonger ,  he  also  worked  at  Erfurt.  He 
was  a  better  maker  than  his  father, 
and  left  some  very  good  violins,  made 
on  the  Italian  pattern  ;  he  was  also 
considered  a  clever  repairer  of  old 

Schorn,  Johann  Paul.  Worked  first  in 
Innsbriick  about  1680-90,  then  in 
Salzburg  about  1696  to  1716,  according 

to  labels  so  dated  found  in  his  instru- 
ments. He  made  excellent  violins, 
much  arched,  and  used  a  fairly  good 
varnish.  In  the  Collection  of  the 
Gesellschaft  der  Musikfreunde  in 
Vienna  are  two  instruments,  a  Polish 
cither  dated  Salzburg,  1696,  and  a 
viola  d'amore  dated  Salzburg  1699. 
Label:  "  Joann  Paul  Schorn,  H.  F 
Musicus,  auch  Lauten  und  Geigen- 
macher in  Salzburg,  A.  1716. 
Schott,  Martin.      A  maker  of  lutes  at 

Prague  in  the  17th  century. 
Schunemann,  Otto,  b  1837    A  German 
maker,    appointed     Director     of    the 
School  of  Violin  Making  at  Schwerin 
Schulz,  Peter.      A  maker  in  Ratisbon. 
In  1854  he  exhibited  .at  Munich  three 
excellent  violins,  made  more   after  a 
German  than  Italian  pattern ,  one  was 
of  especially    beautiful  workmanship, 
but   its    tone   was    not    so   clear    and 
Schuster,   Gebruder.      These    brothers 
are  the  makers  of  extraordinarily  cheap 
violins   in    Markneukirchen,    Saxony ; 
they  are  priced  at  75s.  each  ,    though 
not  beautiful  to  look  at,  they  have  a 
fairly  good  tone.    Some  were  exhibited 
in  London  in  1862. 
Schuster,  Michael.    Was  also  connected 
with  a  violin  manufactory  in  Markneu- 
kirchen, Saxony. 
Schwartz,  Bernard.      A  French  maker 
who  settled  at  Strassburg  about  1785  ; 
he  died  in  1822.     His  two  sons  were 
both  makers. 
Schwartz,  Georges  Frederic,  b.  April  7, 
1785,    Strassburg ,    d.  there,  Dec.  29, 
1849;    and    Theophile   Guillaume,    b. 
Oct.   13,  1787,  Strassburg  ;  d.  July  29, 
1 86 1,     sons     of     Bernard     Schwartz. 
Pupils    of    their    father,    and    at    his 
death  succeeded  to  his  business,  which 
became    "  Freres    Schwartz."       They 
made  very  good    violins   and   violon- 
cellos ;    their    first   violin    was    dated 
1824  ;    between   then    and    1852   they 
turned   out   about   80   violins   and  30 
violoncellos.  Label:  " Freres  Schwartz 
a  Strasbourg  1833  No  15."    Theophile 
was  chiefly  concerned   in  the  instru- 
ment making,  Georges  gave  his  time  to 
making    bows,     he    gained     a     well 
merited    reputation       His    bows    are 
generally  marked  near  the   nut   with 
"  Schwartz,  Strasbourg." 
Schwartz,  Theophile  Guillaume,  son  of 
Theophile     Guillaume    Schwartz ;    b. 
Sept.  3,  1821.     In  1852  he  succeeded 
to  the  business  in  Strassburg  at  2,  place 
Saint-Thomas.     He  was  chiefly  occu- 
pied in  repairing  old  instruments,  but 



also  made  new  ones,  using  the  label : 
"  Schwartz  a  Strasbourg,  i8 — ." 
Schweizer,  Johann  Baptist.    A  maker  in 
Budapest;  b   1798,  d.  1875.      He  was 
a  pupil  of  Geisenhof  in  Vienna.      His 
violins   were    made   without   arching, 
the  workmanship  was  neatly  finished  ; 
he  also  made  some  tenors 
Segher     Girolamo,    b.     1646.      Was    a 
pupil    of     Nicola     Amati,     and     was 
working  under  him,  1680-82. 
Sellas,  Matteo.     Was  working  in  Venice 
1630-40  at  the  sign  of  "  Alia  Corona." 
In  the  Paris  Conservatoire  Collection 
are    two    of  his   arch-lutes  ;    and    at 
Bologna,  in   the    Liceo   Comunale   di 
Musica,  is  a  large  guitar  with  the  label  ■ 
"  Matteo  Sellas  alia  corona  in  Venetia, 
1639."     A  theorbo  was  dated  1639 
Seni,  Francesco      A  maker  in  Florence 

in  1634. 
Senta,    Fabrizio.      A   maker   in   Turin 
An  instrument  of  his  is  ment  oned  in 
the  catalogue  made  by  B    Cristofon 
(Sept     23,    1716)    of    the     nstruments 
belonging  to  the  Duke  of  Florence. 
Serasati,  Domenico.    A  maker  in  Naples 
about  1710-50.     His  instruments  had  a 
good  reputation  at  one  time. 
Shaw,     John.      A    maker    of    viols    in 
London  in  1656.     Label :  "  John  Shaw 
att  the  Goulden  harp  and  Hoboy  nere 
the  maypole  in  the  Strand,  1656." 
Siani,  Valentino.     Said  to  have  lived  in 

Florence  in  the  17th  century. 
Siciliano  (Ciciliano),  Antonio.  A  maker 
in  Venice  about  1600.  A  tenor  and  a 
bass  viola  da  gamba  are  in  the  Modena 
Museum,  Vienna. 
Siciliano,  Gioacchino,  son  of  Antonio 
Siciliano.  Was  working  in  Venice 
about  1680. 
Silva,  Joan  Vieira  da.  Was  working  in 
Lisbon  about  1700.  A  cither  is  known 
of  his,  inlaid  with  tortoiseshell  and 
ivory,  with  six  pairs  of  wire  strings. 
Silvestre,  Hippolyte,  b.  Dec.  14.  1808, 
Saint-Nicolas-du-Port  (Meurthe) ;  d. 
Dec.  3, 1879,  Sommerviller,  near  Nancy. 
Was  first  a  pupil  of  Blaise  at  Mire- 
court,  then  of  J.  B.  Vuillaume  at  Paris. 
In  183 1  he  joined  his  brother  Pierre  at 
Lyons,  and  worked  with  him  till  1848. 
On  the  death  of  Pierre  in  1859  he 
again  took  up  the  business,  and  con- 
tinued in  it  till  1865,  when  he  trans- 
ferred it  to  H.  Chretien,  his  sister's 
son,  and  retired  to  Sommerviller, 
where  he  died. 
Silvestre,  Pierre,  brother  of  Hippolyte  ; 
b.  Aug.  9,  1801,  at  Sommerviller,  near 
Nancy ;  d.  1859,  Lyons.  Was  also  a 
pupil  of  Blaise  at  Mirecourt,  then  went 

to  Paris,  first  working  under  Lupot 
and  then  under  Gand  In  1829  he 
founded  the  business  in  Lyons.  Hippo- 
lyte was  in  partnership  with  him, 
1831-48;  he  afterwards  continued  the 
business  alone  until  his  death  in  1859. 
He  copied  the  pattern  of  Stradivari 
with  great  ability  ,  his  instruments  are 
always  handsome,  owing  to  the  beautiful 
quality  of  the  wood  used,  and  their  tone 
is  often  remarkably  good ;  the  varnish 
is  very  fine  and  the  work  most  carefully 
finished,  consequently  they  are  in- 
creasing in  commercial  value.  It  is 
said  he  made  about  350  instruments 
bearing  his  label :  "Pierre  Silvestre  a 
Lyon,  185 —  "  When  working  with 
his  brother  the  label  used  was : 
Petrus  et  Hippolytus  Silvestre  fra  res 
fecerunt  Lugdun  183 — "    Bronze 

medals   were  obtained    at    the    Paris 
Exhibitions  in  1844  and  1855. 
Silvestre  nc  eu      Srr  "  Chretien." 
Simon       A   maker  of  viols   in   Lyons, 
in  rue  de  la  Pomme-Rouge,   1568-73. 
Only  his  Christian  name  is  known,  as 
in    all    the    documents    in    which    it 
appears,  a  blank  space  is  left  for  the 
surname,  which  has  never  been  filled  in. 
Simon.      Was  working  at    Salzburg  in 

Simon,  Claude.     A  maker  in  Paris,  rue 

de  Grenelle-Saint-Honore,  1783-88. 
Simon,  P.,  b.  1808,  at  Mirecourt. 
Went  to  Paris  in  1838,  where  he 
worked  for  some  months  under  D. 
Peccate  ;  then  went  to  thewoikshop  of 
J.  B.  Vuillaume  and  remained  there 
till,  in  1845,  he  started  his  own  business. 
On  Peccate's  retirement,  in  1847,  Simon 
succeeded  to  his  business  in  the  rue 
d'Angivilliers.  He  was  in  partnership 
with  Henry,  1848-51,  and  afterwards 
continued  his  work  alone,  moving  later 
to  rue  Saint-Denis,  passage  Lemoine. 
He  made  most  excellent  bows,  and 
generally  marked  them  with  "Simon, 
Paris,"  near  the  nut.  He  died  1882. 
Simonin,  Charles,  b.  at  Mirecourt. 
Was  apprenticed  to  J.  B  Vuillaume  at 
Paris,  and  became  one  of  his  most  able 
workmen.  He  then  married  and  re- 
turned for  a  short  time  to  Mirecourt. 
In  184 1  he  settled  in  Geneva,  remaining 
there  for  eight  years;  he  left,  Sept., 
1849,  to  establish  himself  in  Toulouse. 
He  sent  various  instruments  to  the 
Paris  Exhibition  in  1855,  amongst 
others  a  copy  of  Giuseppe  Guarneri 
of  remarkable  tone ;  he  obtained  a 
"  Mention  honorable."  Since  then  he 
has  obtained  various  awards  at  other 



Simoutre.  Nicolas,  b.  1788,  at  Mire- 
court  ;  d.  1870,  at  Metz.  He  began 
his  business  as  a  violin  maker  in  1820 , 
in  1844  settled  in  Metz  and  worked 
there  till  his  death.  His  son,  Nicolas 
Eugene,  was  also  a  maker. 

Simoutre,  Nicolas  Eugene,  son  of  Nicolas 
Simoutre  ;  b.  April  19,  1834,  at  Mire- 
court.  Was  first  a  pupil  of  his  father, 
then  of  Darche,  in  1852,  at  Paris;  then 
of  Ch.  Roth,  in  1856,  at  Strassburg. 
He  worked  in  Strassburg  for  four  years, 
and  in  i860  founded  workshops  both 
at  Mulhausen  and  at  Basle;  since  1890 
he  has  returned  to  Paris.  He  made 
various  suggestions  for  improving  the 
tone  of  violins  ,  in  1883  he  published 
on  this  subject,  "  Aux  amateurs  du 
vio-lon  histonque,  construction,  repara- 
tion et  conservation  de  cet  instrument '  , 
this  was  followed,  in  1886,  by  "  Un 
progres  en  lutherie  ' ;  and  in  1889  t>y 
a  "  Supplement  aux  amateurs  du  violon 
et  au  progres  en  lutherie."  He  was 
awarded  a  "  diplome  d'honneur "  at 
the  Basle  Exhibition  in  1877,  and  again 
at  Zurich,  1883  ;  but  at  the  Paris  Ex- 
hibition, 1889,  only  a  bronze  medal  was 
awarded,  which  he  refused  to  accept. 

Simpson,  James,  and  Son.  Were  musical 
instrument  makers  in  London  in  1794. 
Label:  "J.  and  J.  Simpson,  musical 
instrument  makers  at  the  Bass-Viol 
and  Flute  in  Sweeting's  Alley,  opposite 
the  East  door  of  the  Royal  Exchange, 
London. ' '  The  following  label  probably 
belongs  to  the  son:  "John  Simpson, 
musical  instrument  maker,  at  the  Bass 
Viol  and  Flute,  in  Sweeting's  Alley, 
opposite  the  East  door  of  the  Royal 
Exchange,  London." 

Sirjean.  Was  a  maker  of  bows  in  Paris, 
at  31,  rue  de  I'Ecole,  in  1818. 

Sitt.  A.  A  maker  in  Prague,  d.  1878. 
A  violin  exhibited  at  Munich,  in  1854, 
made  on  the  Stradivari  pattern,  showed 
fine  work ;  only  the  wood  was  rather 
thick  and  the  tone  slightly  rough  and 
dull,  but  both  these  defects  would 
naturally  wear  off  with  time. 

Slaghmeulen,  Jan  Baptist  van  der.  A 
maker  in  Antwerp  about  1672.  A 
violoncello  of  that  date  was  exhibited 
in  Paris  in  1878,  its  proportions  are 
good ,  the  sound-holes  much  opened, 
but  well  cut ;  the  varnish  a  pale  brown 
colour ;  the  scroll  is  pierced  and  re- 
presents a  carved  head  surmounted  by 
a  gilt  crown ;  within  the  purfling  on 
the  upper  plate  is  a  black  band  with 
a  design  in  gold.  Label:  "Joannes 
Baptista  van  der  Slaghmeulen  tot 
Antwerpen,  16 — ." 

Smith,  Henry.  A  maker  of  viols  in 
London  in  1633  In  a  collection  of 
airs  called  Tripla  Concordia,  published 
1667,  is  an  advertisement  of  a  chest  of 
viols  made  by  Mr.  Henry  Smith, 
who  formerly  lived  over  against 
Hatton  house,  in  Holbourn,  con- 
taining 2  trebles,  2  tenors,  2  basses. 
The  chest  was  made  in  the  year  1633." 

Smith,  Thomas.  A  maker  in  London 
about  1740-90.  Pupil  and  successor  of 
Peter  Wamsley.  He  had  a  great  re-^ 
putation  as  a  maker  of  violoncellos, 
his  instruments  are  much  liked  in 
England ;  they  are  made  on  the  Stainer 
model,  and  some  have  a  powerful 
tone,  though  not  of  very  good  quality  ; 
the  varnish  is  rather  poor,  of  a 
brownish-yellow  colour ;  in  1799  they 
sold  for  £^  5s.  up  to  /8 ;  more  recently 
two  realised  /30  and  ;^40  each.  It  is 
doubtful  if  he  ever  made  any  violins 
and  tenors.  John  Norris  was  a  pupil 
of  his.  Label :  "  Made  by  Thos.  Smith 
at  the  harp  and  hautboy  in  Pickadilly,. 
London,  1756  "  ;  similar  labels  were 
used  until  1766. 

Smith,  William.  A  maker  in  Hedon, 
Yorkshire,  in  1786.  Label:  "William 
Smith,  violin  maker,  Hedon,  1786." 

Sneider,  Giuseppe.  A  maker  in  Pavia 
about  1700-25.  A  pupil  of  Nicola 
Amati.  His  violins  are  slightly  arched, 
the  sound-holes  gracefully  cut,  the 
workmanship  carefully  finished  ;  the 
varnish  is  a  rich  yellow  colour.  Instru- 
ments made  by  Girolamo,  son  of  Nicola 
Amati,  have  often  been  attributed  to 
Sneider.  Labels:  "Joseph  Sneider 
Paviae,  alumnus  Nicola  Amati  Cre- 
monae  fecit ,  anno  1 703 , ' '  and  ' '  Giuseppe 
Sneider  in  Pavia  1718,  alumnus  Nicola 
Amati  Cremonae." 

Snoeck  (Schnoeck),  Egidius.  A  maker 
in  Brussels  in  1731.  Instruments  are 
known  of  his,  which  are  well  made  on 
the  Amati  pattern,  with  beautiful  red 
brown  varnish.  Label :  "  Egidius 
Snoeck  tot  Brussel,  1731" 

Snoeck,  Marc.  Worked  in  Brussels  after 
1744.  The  following  inscription  was 
found  written  in  a  violoncello,  which 
had  undergone  important  repairs : 
"  Cette  basse  par  Marc  Snoeck, 
reparee  pour  faire  voir  a  ces  envieux 
mon  adresse,  icy  pres  de  I'Eglise  de 
Saint-Gery  a  Bruxelles.ancien  luthier." 
There  is  no  date,  but  what  is  pre- 
sumably the  original  label  is  dated 
1744,  viz.:  "Jean  Christophe  Vetter,. 
Strasbourg,  1744." 

Socchi,  Vincenzo.  Was  working  in 
Bologna    in     i65i,   according    to    the 



inscription  in  a  little  pocket  violin  in 
the  Paris  Conservatoire  Collection. 

Socquct,  Louis.  A  maker  in  Paris 
about  1750-80;  he  worked  at  the  sign 
of  '  Au  Genie  de  rharmonie."  His 
instruments  are  not  well  made  A 
violin  and  a  five-stringed  viol  dated 
1755  are  known,  and  an  alto  of  1769 
Two  other  labels  are  dated  1765  and 
177 1  respectively  He  was  living  in 
the  place  du  Louvre   1775-79. 

Sohn,  Walter  Worked  in  Vienna.  In 
a  guitar  is  the  label  •  '  Walter  Sohn  in 

Soliani,  Angelo  A  maker  in  Modena, 
1752  1810. 

Somer,  Nicolas.  A  maker  in  Paris 
about  1725  50. 

Sorsano.     Sec  "  Sursano  " 

Speiler.  A  German  maker  in  the  iSth 

Spicer,  John.  It  has  been  inferred  that 
he  was  a  maker  of  lutes  and  viols  in 
London,  from  a  token  which  is 
inscribed  "  John  Spicer  In  Crown 
Court,  in  Russell  Street,  1667 — His 
Half-Peny,"  with  the  device  of  a 

Spilman,  Dorigo.  There  is  a  viol  of  his 
in  the  Modena  Museum  in  Vienna;  it 
looks  like  the  work  of  a  Venetian,  and 
probably  dates  back  to  the  i6th  century. 
The  sound-holes  are  similar  to  those 
of  V.  Linarolo,  the  scroll  looks  as  if  it 
had  been  added  at  a  later  date. 
"  Dorigo  Spilman  "  is  written  inside, 
but  no  date. 

Sprenger,  Anton  b.  1834,  Mittenwald. 
Was  there  a  pupil  of  Anton  Hornstei- 
ner,  later  worked  under  Tiefenbrunner 
of  Munich,  and  Kindl  and  also  Fischer 
in  Vienna.  In  1870  >^e  settled  at 
Stuttgart  at  23,  Hospitaistrasse.  He 
made  violins  and  violoncellos  on  the 
Stradivari  and  Guarneri  patterns,  using 
oil  varnish  of  good  quality     Died  1900. 

Stadelmann  (Statelmann),  Daniel  Acha- 
tius,  b.  1680:  d  Oct.  27,  1744.  A 
maker  in  Vienna,  who  showed  great 
ability  in  imitating  the  Stainer  pattern  ; 
he  used  thin  varnish  of  a  deep  amber 
colour ;  the  work  is  well  finished. 

Stadelmann  (Statelmann),  Johann  Jo- 
seph, son  of  Daniel  A.  Stadelmann. 
He  was  a  very  clever  maker,  who 
copied  the  Stainer  model  to  great 
perfection ;  he  worked  till  1764,  possibly 

Stadl,  Michael  Ignatius.  Was  working 
in  Vienna  in  1770  He  did  fairly  good 
work;  and  used  a  yellow  brown  var- 
nish; he  sometimes  substituted  a  lion's 
head  for  the  scroll. 

Stainer,  Andreas.  Was  working  in 
Absam  about  1660  He  made  few 
violins,  if  any  ;  he  is  supposed  to  have 
made  barytons 

Stainer,  Jacob,  son  of  Martin  Staint  rand 
Sabina  Grafinger:  b  July  14,  162 1,  at 
Absam  near  Hall  n  the  Tyrol'  d. 
there,  1683  Li.  tie  is  known  of  the  first 
part  of  his  life  but  there  seems  to  be 
absolutely  no  evidence  in  support  of 
the  statement  that  he  went  to  Cremona 
to  become  a  pupil  of  Nicola  Amati, 
married  the  daughter  of  the  latter,  and 
afterwards  passed  some  time  in  Venice. 
A  violin  with  the  inscription .  ' '  Jacobus 
Stiner  cremonia  fecite  1642,"  which 
was  in  the  Monastery  of  Stams,  is 
generally  thought  not  to  be  genuine 
Stainer  work.  He  would  no  doubt 
have  studied  the  Italian  instruments 
used  by  the  Italian  musicians,  who 
assembled  at  Innsbruck  at  the  Court  of 
the  Archduke  Ferdinand  Carl,  Count 
of  the  Tyrol,  and  this  would  account 
for  his  earlier  work  showing  traces  of 
Italian  influence ;  the  thicknesses  of 
the  wood  and  the  disposition  of  the 
blocks  and  linings  being  similar  to 
Cremonese  work.  The  old  German 
viol-makers,  as  is  known,  used  no 
linings  at  all,  and  did  their  dimensions 
and  thicknesses  by  guess  -  work. 
Stainer's  instruments  soon  showed 
those  distinctive  characteristics  known 
as  "  Tyrolese  "  ;  he  was  practically  the 
founder  of  the  Tyrolese  or  German 
school  of  violin  making ;  the  large 
number  and  great  excellence  of  his 
instruments,  all  made  on  the  same 
high  model,  and  the  reputation  he 
gained  in  his  lifetime,  causing  his 
work  to  be  copied  in  Germany, 
England,  and  even  in  Italy.  And  it 
was  a  long  time  before  makers  realised 
that  this  high  model  was  in  any  way 
defective  An  old  tradition  says  that 
instruments  dated  as  early  as  1639  are 
known  ;  if  so,  they  are  extremely  rare. 
In  1641  he  was  already  selling  his 
violins  at  the  large  market-fairs  of 
Hall.  On  Nov.  26,  1645,  he  married 
Margarethe  Holzhammer  (b.  March  10, 
1624;  d.  1693),  in  Absam,  the  witnesses 
being  Michael  Pamperger  and  Hans 
Grafinger,  the  latter  a  relation  of  his. 
He  had  nine  children,  eight  daughters, 
and  a  son  who  died  in  infancy.  In 
1648  he  travelled  in  Austria,  and 
remained  for  some  time  working 
in  Kirchdorf,  living  in  the  house  of 
Saloman  Hiibmer,  a  Jew.  He  unfor- 
tunately left  in  debt  for  a  small  amount ; 
but  though,  in  1667,  when  called  upon, 



he  paid  part  of  it,  the  debt  seemed  to 
grow  rather  than  diminish  for  in  1669 
it  had  reached  the  sum  of  24  gulden, 
and  in  1677  he  made  a  vain  appeal  to 
the  Emperor  for  its  remittance.  In 
spite  of  this  he  had  bought  (Nov.  12, 
1666)  a  house  and  garden  from  his 
brother-in  law,  Paul  Holzhammer  so 
at  that  time  his  affairs  were  going  on 
well.  Though  later  there  is  no  doubt 
that  money  worries  helped  to  throw 
him  into  the  state  of  profound  melan- 
choly from  which  he  suffered  for 
four  years  before  his  death,  and 
which  ended  in  his  losing  his  reason 
entirely  in  1681.  The  Archduke 
Ferdinand  Carl  had  sent  for  him  to 
Innsbruck,  and,  Oct.  29,  1658,  ap- 
pointed him  violin  maker  to  the  Court. 
Jan.  9,  1669,  he  was  appointed  violin 
maker  to  the  Emperor  Leopold  I.  ; 
the  same  year  he  was  imprisoned  on 
suspicion  of  being  implicated  in  the 
Lutheran  movement,  but  was  released 
in  1670  He  made  an  enormous 
number  of  stringed  instruments  of  all 
sorts ;  for  his  violins  he  used  a  par- 
ticular kind  of  wood  from  a  tree  called 
the  "  Haselfichte,"  of  which  there 
were  large  quantities  at  Gleirsch  ; 
he  used  to  wander  from  tree  to 
tree  tapping  with  a  hammer  until 
he  found  one  which  pleased  him, 
and  was  suitable  for  his  purpose 
His  instruments  are  small ;  the  belly 
rises  abruptly  from  the  edges  to 
the  foot  of  the  bridge,  and  then 
keeps  nearly  fiat ;  the  breadth  of 
this  flattened  part  is  about  the 
same  as  that  of  the  bridge  ,  this  high 
arching  necessarily  renders  the  tone 
thin,  in  spite  of  the  fact  that  the  wood 
is  left  very  thick.  The  sound-holes 
are  shorter  and  narrower  than  in 
Italian  instruments,  the  upper  and 
lower  turns  are  completely  circular  ; 
the  purfling  is  also  narrower  and 
placed  nearer  the  edge  ■  the  scroll  is 
smaller  and  is  particularly  round  and 
smooth,  it  is  sometimes  replaced  by  a 
lion's  head,  beautifully  carved ;  the 
sides  and  back  are  made  of  very  finely 
figured  maple  ;  the  outline  is  extremely 
elegant,  although  the  body  is  rather 
shorter  and  broader  than  in  Italian 
work  ;  the  work  is  always  beauti- 
fully finished  ;  the  varnish,  of  rich 
quality,  varies  in  colour  from  a  red 
mahogany,  embrowned  by  time,  to  a 
golden  red  equal  to  that  of  Cremona 
work  ;  the  tone  is  not  powerful,  but 
has  a  sweet  flute-like  sound ,  it  is  not 
generally    considered    suitable    for    a 

concert-room,  but  a  violin,  played 
by  Sivori,  is  said  to  have  had  a 
charmingly  sympathetic  and  unusually 
brilliant  tone.  His  violins  were  made 
in  three  different  sizes,  large,  medium, 
and  small  and  are  his  best  work  ;  his 
tenors  are  not  so  good,  although  one  is 
mentioned  as  being  perfection  both  in 
work  and  in  charm  of  tone  His 
double-basses  are  of  great  rarity,  one 
was  in  the  Collection  of  Prince  Moriz 
Lobkowitz  at  Castle  Eisenberg,  Bo- 
hemia. A  viola  di  bordone,  dated 
1660,  is  in  the  Collection  of  the 
Gesellschaft  der  Musikfreunde  at 
Vienna,  and  in  the  Paris  Conservatoire 
Collection  is  a  small  pocket  violin, 
inlaid  with  silver,  with  a  finely  carved 
head  of  a  faun.  There  is  record  of  his 
having  sold  a  viola  bastarda,  in  1643, 
to  the  Archbishop  of  Salzburg,  and  of 
his  being  again  in  Salzburg  in  1670, 
when  he  sold  some  violins  there.  A 
viola  da  gamba  was  dated  1667.  In 
1677  he  made  two  splendid  violins  for 
the  St.  Georgenberg  Monastery,  but 
they  were  unluckily  destroyed  when 
the    Monastery   was    burnt   down    on 

iune  21,  1868.  The  tradition  of  his 
aving  retired  to  finish  his  days  in  a 
Benedictine  Monastery  after  his  wife's 
death,  and  having  made  there  sixteen 
exquisite  violins,  of  which  he  presented 
twelve  to  the  twelve  Electors  and  four 
to  the  Emperor,  is  quite  untrue.  In 
the  Hall  Cathedral  a  violin  is  pre- 
served with  the  label  ' '  Jacobus  Stainer 
oenipontum  fecit  in  Absam,  1653," 
which  was  made  for  the  "  Damenstift  ' 
in  Hall,  which  was  suppressed  in  1783 
A  violin  that  belonged  to  Mozart  was 
dated  1656.  Stainer  had  many  pupils 
and  imitators,  among  them  Mathias 
Albani  of  Botzen,  Egidius  and  Mathias 
Klotz ;  these  makers  if  they  had  turned 
out  a  better  \iolin  than  usual,  would 
use  a  Stainer  label  for  it.  The  date  of 
Stainer's  death  not  being  generally 
known,  imitations  are  often  post-dated. 
One  is  known  dated  1684  and  one  1729. 
Though  at  first  Stainer's  written  labels 
were  carefully  imitated,  later  on  printed 
labels  were  used  with  the  date  16 — 
or  166 — ,  so  that  figures  could  be  added 
in  writing.  These  printed  labels  may 
always  be  taken  as  a  sure  sign  of  copies 
or  imitations ;  labels  are  rarely  found 
in  genuine  Stainer  instruments,  but 
when  there,  they  are  always  ifvitten,  not 
printed:  'Jacobus  Stainer  in  Absom 
propetEnipontum,  fecit  1647  "  Really 
genuine  instruments,  whether  violins 
or  violas,    though  at   one  time  much 



depreciated,  are  now  steadily  increas- 
ing in  value,  a  fine  viola  having 
realised  over  ;^ioo.  His  brother  Paul 
was  not  a  violin  maker. 

Stainer,  Marcus,  brother  and  pupil  of 
Jacob  Stainer ;  he  worked  in  Laufen, 
Austria.  He  was  a  maker  of  moderate 
ability,  who,  after  his  brother's  death, 
made  poor  imitations  of  his  work,  with 
labels  carefully  copied  from  those  of 
Jacob,  thusgiving  rise  to  the  impression 
that  Jacob  was  sometimes  very  careless 
in  his  work.  The  famous  Florentine 
violin  player,  Veracini,  had  two  violins 
that  he  much  valued,  they  were 
christened  "  St .  Peter ' '  and  "  St .  Paul ' ' , 
unluckily  Veracini  was  shipwrecked 
sailing  from  London  to  Leghorn  in 
1746,  and  both  the  violins  were  lost. 
His  instruments  are  rarely  met  with  ; 
they  are  made  of  fine  wood,  the 
pattern  of  large  size,  with  dark  varnish, 
the  tone  sweet  but  not  powerful ;  a 
violin  is  known  dated  1683,  and  a 
viola,  which  is  said  to  have  a  beautiful 
tone,  has  the  written  label  :  "  Marcus 
Stainer,  Burger  und  Geigenmacher  in 
Kiifstein,  anno  1659." 

Stainmist,  Jacob.  A  maker  in  Mayence 
in  1777.  In  a  viola  d'amore,  with 
fourteen  strings,  was  the  label  . 
"  Jacobus  Stainmist  Churfiirstl  Mayn- 
tzl  Hof  Lauten  und  Geigenmacher, 
1777.    No.  5." 

Stanza,  Giuseppe,  b.  1663,  in  Venice. 
In  1681  was  a  pupil  of  Nicola  Amati 
at  Cremona. 

Statelmann.     See  "  Stadelmann." 

Statlee,  Anderl.  Was  working  in  Genoa 
about  1714.  Was  a  pupil  of  Girolamo, 
son  of  Nicola  Amati. 

Staube.     See  "  Straube." 

Stauffer,  Johann  Anton.  A  maker  in 
Vienna  in  the  i8th  century.  In  a 
guitar  was  the  label  :  "  Joh.  Anton 
Stauffer,  Wien." 

Stautinger,  Matthaus  Winceslaus.  A 
maker  of  viols  and  lutes  in  Wiirzburg 
in  1617.  In  a  lute  was  the  label : 
"  Matthaus  Winceslaus  Stautinger  me 
fecit  Wirceberg,  161 7." 

Steffani,  Carlo.  A  maker  of  mandolines 
in  Mantua  about  1712.  Label:  "Carlo 
Steffani  fece  1  anno  17 12  in  Mantova   ' 

Stegher  (Stregner),  Magno.    A  maker  of 
lutes  at  Venice  in  the   17th   century 
In    the    Liceo   Comunale  di    Musica, 
Bologna  was  a  lute  with  the  inscrip- 
tion ■  "  Magno  Stegher  in  Venetia  " 

Steininger,  Francois  .V  maker  in  Paris 
in  1827.  He  made  excellent  instru- 
ments, the  work  finished  with  care, 
the  varnish  of  fine  quality.    In  1887,  at 

a  sale  in  Paris,  two  violoncellos  ot  his 
sold  for  ;^i6  and  ;^26  respectively. 
Label:  "  F.  Steininger,  Paris,  1827." 

Steininger,  Jacob.  A  maker  in  Frank- 
fort about  1775.  Nicholas  Diehl  was 
a  pupil  of  his.  He  married  the  daughter 
of  the  violin  maker  Dopfer. 

Stirbat  (Stirrat),  David.  Was  working 
in  Edinburgh  about  1810-15.  His 
instruments  were  considered  good. 
Label:  "  D.  Stirbat  fecit  Edinburgh, 

Storioni,  Lorenzo,  b.  1751,  Cremona; 
d.  there,  1799.  Worked  at  3,  Contrada 
Coltellai.  He  was  one  of  the  latest,  if 
not  the  last,  of  the  celebrated  makers 
of  Cremona,  and  his  instruments, 
though  of  great  merit,  show  signs  of 
decadence  in  the  art.  They  are  often 
taken  for  the  work  of  Guarneri  del 
Gesu,  whose  pattern  he  imitated  with 
great  ability.  His  violins  are  hand- 
some in  appearance,  slightly  arched, 
the  wood  of  the  belly  very  fine,  that 
of  the  back  rather  plain ;  the  varnish 
is  very  dry,  of  a  deep  yellow  colour, 
with  a  reddish  tinge ;  the  tone  is  full, 
rich,  and  silvery  ;  the  sound-holes  are 
very  seldom  cut  in  two  instruments 
alike ,  the  work  is  not  finished  with 
much  delicacy  ;  the  narrow  purfling  is 
roughly  done,  and  the  scroll  has  not 
much  finish.  His  violins  are  highly 
thought  of  in  Italy,  and  are  rising  in 
value ;  for  many  years  Vieuxtemps 
played  on  a  very  beautiful  one.  He 
did  not  begin  to  sign  them  till  1776, 
and  none  are  known  after  1795.  No 
tenors  are  known,  but  his  violoncellos, 
which  are  rare,  have  a  powerful  tone. 
Labels:  "  Laurentius  Storioni  fecit 
Cremonae,  1789,"  and  "Laurentius 
Storioni  restauravit  Cremona,  1780.' 

Stoss,  Bernard  and  Martin,  b.  in  Fiissen, 
Bavaria;  worked  in  Vienna  about  1824. 
Their  instruments  are  not  arched  and 
are  well  made,  but  have  poor  varnish. 

Stoss,  Franz.  A  maker  in  Fiissen,  Ba- 
varia, about  1750-98. 

Stradivari  (Stradiuarius),  Antonio,  son 
of  Alessandro  Stradivari  and  Anna 
Moroni.  There  is  no  definite  record  of 
his  birth,  but  in  a  violin  with  a  genuine 
label  as  follows  .  "  Antonms  btradi- 
varius  Cremonensis  faciebat  a  ino 
1732  "  was  added  in  Stradivari's  hand- 
writing below  "  de  anni  89  "  ;  this  was 
at  first  wrongly  read  as  "  de  anni  82  " 
Other  dated  instruments  are  now 
known  which  prove  that  Stradivari 
was  born  in  1644.  Fetis's  statement 
that  Stradivari  was  born  in  1644  was 
based   on   the  report  of  a  violin  said 



to  be  dated  1736,  and  to  be  inscribed 
"annoaetatisga,"  which  was  formerly 
in  the  possession  of  Count  Cozio  di 
Salabue.  Stradivari  died  Dec,  1737, 
and  was  buried  Dec.  19,  1737,  in  the 
Cathedral  of  San  Domenico,  Cremona, 
which  has  since  been  pulled  down. 
He  was  descended  from  a  very  ancient 
Cremona  family,  whose  name,  at  that 
time  spelt  "  Stradiverdi,"  appears  in 
records  as  far  back  as  12 13.  While 
still  very  young  he  became  a  pupil  of 
Nicola  Amati,  and  was  probably  with 
him  till  1667.  When  Amati  died,  all 
his  tools,  patterns,  and  models  passed 
into  Stradivari's  possession.  His  earlier 
instrumentsbearlabelsof  Nicola  Amati, 
and  may  be  recognised  by  the  beautiful 
scroll  or  by  the  characteristic  sound- 
holes.  About  1666  he  used  a  label 
■with  '*  Nicolai  Amati  alumnus"  on  it. 
Up  to  1690  the  violins  signed  with  his 
name  are  very  similar  in  pattern  to 
Amati's  ordinary  full-sized  instruments, 
and  are  of  high  model  compared  to 
those  he  made  later ;  the  wood  is 
generally  plain,  the  purfling  very 
narrow,  the  oil  varnish,  a  more  or  less 
pronounced  yellow  colour,  but  other- 
wise very  similar  to  that  used  by 
Amati,  is  of  soft  and  penetrating 
quality,  and  permeates  the  wood  to 
some  depth  beneath  the  surface  ;  these 
instruments  are  known  as ' '  Stradivarius 
amatise."  He  steadily  improved  in 
his  work ;  the  model  becomes  flatter, 
the  sound-holes  more  graceful,  the 
scroll  more  striking  and  original,  the 
purfling  slightly  wider  than  before  ;  the 
varnish  varies  in  colour  from  rich 
golden,  very  soft  and  transparent,  to  a 
light  red,  equally  fine.  This  thicker 
and  more  lustrous  red  varnish  was  what 
he  subsequently  used  exclusively.  In 
1690  he  began  to  make  the  violins  known 
as  ' '  long  Strads ' ' ;  they  are  quite  unlike 
N.  Amati's  work ;  measurements  by  ex- 
perts have  conclusively  proved  that 
these  instruments  are  quite  a  quarter 
of  an  inch  longer  than  his  usual 
pattern.  These  "long  Strads"  were 
inspired  by  Maggini ;  in  length  of  body 
and  length  of  stop  they  are  practically 
the  same  as  Maggini's  violins  in  his 
latest  and  finest  period.  The  modelling 
of  the  back  and  belly,  the  shorter 
corners,  the  bolder  and  more  open 
sound-holes  all  recall  Maggini's  work. 
The  tone  of  remarkable  power — has 
much  of  the  Maggini  quality.  Stradi- 
vari also  made  some  narrow  violins, 
dated  after  1690,  which,  though  not  so 
in  reality,  also  appear  to  be  of  extra 

lengcii,  owing  to  their  narrow  pattern  , 
this  narrowness  is  particularly  notice- 
able in  the  middle  of  the  instrument 
between  the  sound-holes.  The  work 
is  most  carefully  finished,  everything 
proportioned  to  the  modification  of 
form.  The  tone  is  brilliant  and 
powerful ;  the  varnish  is  sometimes  a 
beautiful  amber  colour,  sometimes  a 
transparent  pale  red.  These  instru- 
ments are  not  so  uncommon  as  the 
"long  Strads,"  which  he  ceased  making 
in  1700,  probably  because  of  their 
length  causing  them  to  be  difficult  to 
play.  The  period  of  his  finest  work 
began  in  1700,  which  culminated  in 
what  was  practically  perfection  in  1714; 
the  thicknesses  of  t  he  wood  and  the  lines 
of  the  pattern  are  all  determined  with 
scientific  accuracy  ;  the  varnish,  in 
brilliancy  of  colouring  and  in  delicacy 
and  transparency  of  quality,  has  never 
since  been  equalled;  the  tone  is  splen- 
did, invariably  bright,  sweet,  full, 
and  equal.  The  wool  is  chosen  with 
the  greatest  care,  and  is  sound  and 
sonorous,  the  pine  being  of  the  best 
quality  from  Switzerland  and  the 
Trentmo ;  the  willow  (of  which  the 
blocks  and  linings  are  made)  taken 
from  the  banks  of  the  Po,  near  Cre- 
mona. The  arching  rises  in  gentle 
and  gradual  curves,  the  purfling  is 
executed  with  wonderful  precision  ; 
the  sound-holes  show  a  master's 
hand  and  remain  a  model  for  all  ; 
the  scroll,  of  severe  character,  is 
exquisitely  carved  ;  the  whole  of  the 
work  (including  that  of  the  interior) 
shows  the  most  beautiful  finish  in  the 
smallest  details  A  splendid  specimen 
of  this  period  of  work  is  the  so-called 
"  Messiah"  violin,  dated  1716,  which 
was  bought  for  /i,ooo  by  Alard,  the 
distinguished  violinist,  and  on  his 
death  (1888)  was  sold  by  Messrs.  Hill 
on  bcihalf  of  the  heirs  for  ^2,000.  The 
workmanship  is  perfection  ;  the  arching 
of  the  back  and  bolly  exquisitely 
proportioned  ;  the  wood  of  the  back 
beautifully  and  regularly  figured  •  the 
tone  strong,  mellow,  ani  delicate ;  the 
glowing  ruddy  varnish  wonderfully 
beautiful,  both  in  colour  and  quality  • 
the  sound-holes  most  perfectly  cut ;  the 
neck  is  the  original  one,  but  has  been 
lengthened  by  a  piece  added  at  its 
junction  with  he  upper  block  of  the 
body  ;  the  scroll  is  very  graceful ;  the 
curves  and  outlines  extremely  beautiful. 
The  letters  "  P.  S."  are  very  distirct 
on  the  peg-box  end  of  the  neck  ;  they 
are     sometimes   found   on   the   violin 



which  still  have  the  original  neck ;  they 
were  the  initials  of  Paolo,  his  youngest 
son,  a  cloth  merchant  by  trade.  There 
is  a  violin,  also  made  in  17 16,  in  the 
Istituto  Musicale  of  Florence,  with 
the  label  :  "  Antonius  Stradivanus 
Crem'onensis  faciebat,  anno  1716."  A 
violin,  dated  1714,  called  the  "  Dol- 
phin," owing  to  the  extraordinary 
richness  and  variety  of  tints  in  the 
varnish,  is  made  of  splendid  wood, 
and  is  of  perfect  workmanship  It 
formerly  belonged  to  Alard,  later 
passing  into  the  hands  of  Adams  for 
/800.  The  prices  gi  -en  for  Stradivari 
violins  have  risen  in  a  most  extra- 
ordinary way  ;  Stradivari  himself  sold 
them  for  ;^4,  but  by  the  end  of  the 
18th  century  they  were  selling  for  ;^  15 
or  £16  ;  a  little  before  1824  Lupot  sold 
a  violin  for  ;^ioo,  which  was  considered 
a  large  sum;  in  1875  a  violin,  dated 
1714,  sold  for  /300,  and,  after  1881,  fine 
violins  were  sold  for  ^^  1,000  or  more — 
in  one  case  for  double  that  sum.  The 
violin,  known,  because  of  its  perfect 
state  of  preservation,  as  "The  Maiden" 
(La  Pucelle),  dated  1709,  fetched 
^885  at  a  sale  in  Paris,  teb.  14,  1878  ; 
it  was  of  beautiful  workmanship, 
the  sound-holes  exquisitely  cut,  and 
the  sci'oll  strong  in  character.  A 
most  perfect  specimen  of  the  earlier 
work  of  Stradivari  was  exhibited 
at  South  Kensington  in  1885;  it  was 
made  in  1679  and  was  bought  by 
Sir  Samuel  Hellier,  of  Womborne, 
Staffordshire,  for  /40  from  the  maker 
himself  about  1734  ,  it  is  of  large 
size,  and  is  one  of  the  inlaid 
violins,  of  which  there  are  only  about 
twelve  in  existence.  Another  inlaid 
violin  is  dated  1687  and  was  originally 
made  for  the  King  of  Spain.  Another 
violin  dated  1690,  which  was  originally 
sold  for  £2^,  next  changed  hands  for 
_;^240,  then  for  ;^i,ooo.  Violins  sold 
at  sales  do  not,  as  a  rule,  fetch  such 
high  prices  ;  one  was  sold  at  Christie's 
for  /290  ;  that  was  in  1872,  and  it  is 
now  valued  at  / 1,000  The  "  Ames  " 
Strad  ,  a  beauiiTul  violin,  in  excellent 
preservation,  was  sold  at  Puttick  and 
Simpson's  in  1893  for  /860  ;  but  this 
was  a  record  auction -room  price. 
Stradivari  only  made  a  few  violas,  they 
are  of  a  large  pattern,  and  the  quality 
of  their  tone  is  most  rich,  penetrating, 
antl  sympathetic.  A  very  fine  viola 
dated  1723  was  in  the  jan/e  Collection  ; 
one  of  the  most  beautiful  known— the 
Viola  Medicea  dated  169 1,  is  in  the 
Istituto  Musicale  of  Florence  ,  it  is  of 

large  size,  and  is  interesting  as  showing 
that,  at  the  time  he  made  it,  Stradivari 
was  not  yet  experienced  enough  to 
make  the  thickness  of  the  upper  plate 
sufficient  in  proportion  to  the  size  of 
the  instrument.  When  the  viola  was 
recently  taken  to  pieces  it  was  found 
that  Stradivari  himself  had  strength- 
ened (doubled  with  new  wood)  the 
parts  originally  too  much  thinned  ; 
that  only  Stradivari  himself  had 
touched  the  work  was  proved  by  his 
inscribing  it  with  the  words  "  Corretto 
da  me  Antonio  Stradivari.  '  One  viola 
is  mentioned  as  having  the  back  made 
of  poplar  ;  it  had  a  most  beautiful  tone 
and  showed  most  delicately  finished 
work.  Few  of  his  violoncellos  are  in 
existence ;  they  were  made  on  two 
patterns,  one  large  one  small  ;  the 
large  instruments  are  now  as  scarce  as 
the  large  violas  ,  they  have  an  enor- 
mously powerful  tone,  but  it  is  perhaps 
more  difficult  for  performers  to  play 
on  them  owing  to  their  size.  One  of 
these  large  violoncellos  was  in  the 
possession  of  Professor  Servais,  of  the 
Brussels  Conservatoire  ;  the  tone  was 
of  silvery  sweetness,  combined  with 
extraordinary  power  A  magnificent 
instrument  dated  1720,  which  belonged 
to  Signor  Piatti,  the  great  violoncellist, 
was  known  as  the  "  red  "  'cello, 
owing  to  the  very  rich  colour  of 
Its  varnish.  The  immense  superiority 
of  Stradivari's  violoncellos  to  all 
others  owing  to  the  excellent  choice 
of  wood,  the  correctness  of  the  thi  k 
nesses,  and  the  accurate  proportions 
of  the  whole  instrument,  which  results 
in  a  tone  unequalled  for  fulness, 
brilliancy,  and  power,  causes  them  to 
fetch  extraordinarily  high  prices,  if,  by 
any  chance,  one  comes  into  the 
market.  The  smaller  violoncellos  are 
too  narrow ;  in  proportion  to  the 
length,  violoncellos  require  a  greater 
height  in  the  sides  than  violins  do  ; 
Stradivari  omitted  to  take  this  into 
account,  and  thus  sometimes  made 
instruments  which  have  a  thin  quality 
of  tone,  which  is  only  to  be  improved 
by  increasing  the  height  of  the  sides. 
A  very  beautiful  specimen  of  this 
small  pattern  formerly  belonged  to 
Duport,  then  to  Franchomme,  who 
sold  it  for  /lGoo  One  of  the  finest 
known,  formerly  belonging  to  .Vlexandre 
Batta,  of  Pans,  who  paid  £^^0  for  it, 
was  made  in  1714,  and  is  in  excep 
tionally  good  preservation,  without  a 
crack,  and  with  no  trace  of  any  repairs  ' 
it  was  bought  by  Messrs.  Hill    in  i8j3 



for  /3.200 !  This  same  firm  of  violin 
makers  also  had  one  dated  171 1,  which 
they  priced  at  ;^2,8oo.  A  violoncello 
in  most  perfect  preservation,  dated 
1689,  was  bought  by  Professor  Delsart, 
of  the  Paris  Conservatoire,  on  Feb.  3, 
1887,  at  a  sale  for  /800  ;  it  is  especially 
remarkable  for  the  beauty  of  its  wood ; 
its  equal  is  perhaps  only  to  be  found 
in  the  violoncello,  dated  1691,  which 
is  in  the  Istituto  Musicale  of  Florence; 
it  is  of  very  large  size,  and  the  work- 
manship is  absolutely  perfect.  A  great 
many  of  the  violoncellos  dated  between 
1698  and  1709  have  the  backs  made  of 
poplar- wood.  A  very  beautiful  violon- 
cello which  was  in  Madrid,  dated 
1725,  was  more  arched  than  that  of 
Franchomme ;  the  wood  was  pine  of 
excellent  quality,  the  sides  of  finely 
figured  wood  ;  the  brilliant  red  varnish, 
on  an  amber  golden  ground,  was  very 
delicate  and  transparent ;  the  whole 
instrument  was  in  perfect  preservation. 
Stradivari's  double-basses  are  rare  ; 
Dragonetti  had  one  ;  Count  Ludovico 
Melzi  had  another,  a  very  fine  speci- 
men ;  it  was  on  a  broad  pattern,  very 
much  arched  ;  the  lower  corners  of  the 
middle  bouts  are  rounded  off,  apparen  tly 
to  avoid  injury.  Two  things  strike  one 
about  the  work  of  Stradivari — the  extra- 
ordinary number  of  instruments  that  he 
made  and  their  great  excellence ;  it 
is  said  that  there  are  no  less  than  a 
thousand  of  his  violins,  violas,  and 
violoncellos;  he  lived  to  a  great  age, 
and  worked  incessantly  all  his  life. 
In  his  time,  viols  were  still  being  used 
in  orchestras ;  he  made  many  with  six 
strings  and  with  seven  strings,  also 
five-stringed  viols  with  flat  back,  high 
sides,  and  arched  bellies.  Viols,  bass- 
viols,  violas  da  gamba  are  known  with 
the  backs  made  of  poplar-wood.  A 
viola  d'amore,  with  the  usual  six  gut 
strings  and  six  wire  strings,  is  dated 
1716.  A  mandoline,  dated  1700,  which 
formerly  belonged  to  J.  B.  Vuillaume, 
was  remarkable  for  the  finish  of  the 
workmanship  and  the  beauty  of  the 
varnish  ;  the  head  was  most  delicately 
carved.  A  harp  is  also  known  made  by 
him  A  guitar  inscribed  on  the  back 
of  the  peg-box,  "Ants  Stradivarius 
Cremonens  F.  1680,"  was  supposed  to 
be  the  only  one  made  by  him  ;  but  the 
Paris  Conservatoire  claims  to  have 
another  in  the  Collection  there.  In 
the  same  Collection  is  a  beautiful 
fragment  of  the  head  of  a  viola  da 
gamba  and  also  a  kit  of  large  size, 
dated  1717,  signed  by  Stradivari,  which 

has  a  graceful  scroll,  the  sound-holes 
excellently  cut  and  varnish  of  wonder- 
fully delicate  and  brilliant  quality.  A 
viola  da  gamba,  "alia  gobba "  {i.e., 
hunchbacked),  made  in  1684  foi 
Countess  Cristina  Visconti,  had  the 
violoncello  scroll  and  sound-holes ; 
double-bissss  had  long  bssn  made 
with  violoncello  sound-holes,  but 
Stradivari  was  probably  the  first  maker 
to  effect  this  improvement  in  the  viola 
da  gamba.  It  is  interesting  to  notice 
how,  even  in  his  lifetime,  Stradivari's 
instruments  travelled  all  over  the 
w  )rld,  his  reputation  was  so  great. 
0.1  Sept.  8,  1682,  Michele  Monzi,  a 
b  inker  in  Venice,  sent  him  an  order 
for  a  set  of  violins,  tenors,  and 
violoncellos ;  these  instruments  were 
afterwards  sent  as  a  present  to 
James  II.  of  England.  In  1687  he 
made  a  set  of  instruments  for  the 
Spanish  Court,  inlaid  with  ivory 
purfling,  and  with  beautiful  scroll-work 
running  round  the  sides  and  head. 
Some  of  these  fine  instruments,  richly 
ornamented  with  small  figures,  flowers, 
fruit,  arabesques,  inlaid  in  ebony  or 
ivory,  executed  with  the  greatest  skill, 
are  still  in  existence,  as  well  as  the 
tools  which  he  used  and  the  original 
tracings  of  his  designs.  In  1690  he 
finished  making  a  "concerto" — viz., 
two  violins,  one  small  and  one  large 
tenor,  and  one  violoncello,  for  the  Grand 
Duke  of  Tuscany.  One  of  the  tenors 
is  in  Florence  and  is  inscribed  on  the 
interior  of  the  upper  plate,  "Prima 
20  ottobre  1690  per  S.  A.  da  Fiorenza." 
In  1707  he  made  six  violins,  two  tenors, 
and  one  violoncello  for  the  private 
orchestra  of  Archduke  Charles  of 
Austria.  In  1715  he  made  twelve 
violins  for  the  private  orchestra  of  the 
King  of  Poland  (Elector  of  Saxony), 
The  instruments,  relatively  few  in 
number,  made  by  Stradivari  between 
1730-37  vary  a  good  deal  in  character; 
some  are  very  fine  and  of  beautifully 
finished  work,  but  others  do  not  attain 
the  same  perfection ;  they  are  more 
arched,  resulting  in  a  less  brilliant  tone, 
the  delicacy  and  finish  of  the  work  has 
changed,  the  scroll  is  heavier,  the 
varnish  is  sometimes  a  brown  colour, 
like  that  used  by  his  sons  for  their 
instruments  ;  there  is  no  doubt  that, 
after  his  death,  much  of  his  unfinished 
work  was  completed  by  his  sons  or  by 
his  pupil,  Carlo  Bergonzi,  labels  being 
used  with  Stradivari's  name  on  them. 
Instruments  that  were  made  simply 
under  his  direction  are  inscribed   '  sub 



disciplina  Stradiuarii,"  in  very  small 
type.  Many  of  his  pupils  became  cele- 
brated makers,  such  as  Carlo  Bergonzi, 
Alessandro  Gagliano,  Lorenzo  and 
Giambattista  Guadagnini,  &c.  Stradi- 
vari had  married,  July  4,  1667, 
Francesca  Ferraboschi  (b,  1640,  the 
widow  of  Giovanni  Giacomo  Capra)  ; 
she  died  May  20,  1698.  She  had  six 
children,  of  whom  four  were  sons: 
Francesco,  b.  Feb.  6,  1670,  d.  six 
days  later;  Francesco,  b.  Feb.  i,  1671, 
he  worked  with  his  father  and  d. 
May  II,  1743;  Alessandro,  b.  May  25, 
1677,  he  became  a  priest  and  d. 
Jan.  26,  1732  ;  Omobono,  b.  Nov.  14, 
1679,  he  worked  with  his  father  and 
d.  July  8,  1742.  On  June  3,  1680, 
Stradivari  purchased  from  the  Brothers 
Picenardi,  for  about  ;^28o,  the  house 
formerly  known  as  2,  piazza  San 
Domenico,  now  as  i,  piazza  Roma;  it 
was  there  that  all  his  famous  work  was 
done.  He  married  his  second  wife  on 
August  24,  1699,  Antonia  Zambelli  (b. 
June  II,  1664,  d.  March  3,  1737),  she 
had  five  children,  of  whom  four  were 
sons  :  Gio.  Battista  Giuseppe,  b.  Nov, 
6,  1701,  d.  eight  months  later;  Gio. 
Battista  Martino,  b.  Nov.  11,  1703,  d. 
Nov.  1, 1727;  Giuseppe,  b.  Oct.  27, 1704, 
became  a  priest  and  d.  Nov.  29,  1781  ; 
Paolo,  b.  Jan.  26,  1708,  d  Oct.  19, 
1776.  Stradivari  is  described  as  a  tall 
thin  man,  incessantly  working,  in  his 
white  leather  apron  and  his  white  cap  ; 
he  made  a  great  deal  of  money,  for  in 
his  time  "ricco  come  Stradivari"  (rich 
as  Stradivari)  was  quite  a  proverb  in 
Stradivari,  Francesco,  son  of  Antonio 
Stradivari;  b  Feb.  i,  1671,  Cremona; 
d.  May  11,  1743.  Was  a  pupil  of  his 
father  and  worked  in  his  workshop 
until  Antonio's  death ;  he  then  con- 
tinued to  work  with  his  brother 
Omobono.  He  made  several  violins 
and  violas,  in  which  he  placed  his  own 
label,  from  about  1725  to  1740;  his 
work  shows  the  excellent  school  in 
which  he  had  been  trained,  and  has 
genuine  merit,  but  is  much  inferior  to 
that  of  his  father.  The  varnish  is 
very  beautiful,  though  quite  different 
from  that  of  Antonio,  it  is  of  brownish 
hue;  the  scroll  is  heavy,  the  work 
not  very  carefully  finished,  but  the 
tone  rich  and  penetrating.  Label  : 
"  Franciscus  Stradivarius  Cremonensis 
filius  Antonii  faciebat,  anno  1742." 

Stradivari,  Omobono,  son  of  Antonio ; 
b.  Nov.  14,  1679;  d.  July  8,  1742.  He 
worked  with  his  brother  Francesco  in 
his  father's  workshop ;  the  label  they 
used  was  inscribed  "  sotto  la  dis- 
ciplina d'A.  Stradivarius,  Cremona." 
But  he  made  few  new  instruments, 
and  chiefly  occupied  himself  in  re- 
pairing old  ones.  Label :  "  Omobonus 
Stradiuarius  filius  Antonii  Cremonae 
fecit,  anno  1740." 

Straub.  Two  labels  are  known,  the 
one  :  "  Simon  Straub  von  Frieden- 
weiller,  1706,"  in  a  viola  bastarda  of 
light  and  delicate  ^workmanship  ;  the 
other:  "  Mathias  Straub  zu  Friden- 
willer  auf  dem  Schwartzwald,  anno 

Straube  (Staube).  A  maker  in  Berlin, 
about  1770-75.  His  instruments  are 
seldom  seen,  but  they  are  of  good 
workmanship,  made  on  the  Cremona 
pattern,  with  amber-coloured  varnish. 
He  was  an  excellent  repairer  of  old 

Strauss,  Joseph.  A  maker  in  Neustadt 
about  1745-50. 

Strnad,  Caspar,  b.  1752  at  Prague; 
d,  1823.  Was  a  pupil  of  Hulinski, 
a  maker  in  Prague.  His  violins 
and  violoncellos  show  good  work,  the 
sound-holes  are  generally  small  and 
well-cut,  the  varnish  a  yellow-chestnut 
colour ;  his  guitars  also  were  much 
liked.  Label  :  "  Caspar  Strnad  fecit 
Pragae,  anno  1789." 

Strobl,  Johann.  A  maker  in  Hallein  in 
the  i8th  century. 

Strong,  John.  A  viol  of  his,  of  peculiar 
shape,  with  double  purfling,  was  ex- 
hibited in  the  South  Kensington 
Museum  in  1872.  The  old  head  and 
neck  had  been  replaced  by  the  work 
of  one  of  the  Banks,  of  Salisbury. 
Label  :  "  John  Strong,  Sommerset, 

Sturge,  H.  It  is  doubtful  if  he  ever 
made  new  instruments,  but  he  cer- 
tainly repaired  old  ones  ;  in  181 1  he 
was  living  in  Bristol,  but  in  1853  was 
settled  in  Huddersfield. 

Sulot,  Nicolas.  A  maker  in  Dijon, 
1825-40.  In  1839  he  took  out  a  patent 
for  an  "echo"  violin,  made  with  three 
plates  instead  of  two. 

Sursano  (Sorsano),  Spiritus.  A  maker 
in  Cuneo  about  1714-35  ;  the  little  of 
his  work  that  is  known  is  very  inferior. 
Label  :  "  Spiritus  Sorsano  fecit  Cunei, 





A  maker  in  Cremona  in 

in     Modena    in 
See     "  Fiorini 



Tadolini.  A  maker 
the  19th  century. 

Tanegia,  Carlo  Antonio.  Was  working 
in  Milan  about  1725-30.  Label  : 
"  Carolus  Antonius  Tanegia  fecit  in 
Via  Lata,  Mediolani,  anno  1730." 

Tanigardi  (Taningard),  Georgio.  Was 
working  in  Rome  about  1735.  Labels: 
"  Georgius  Tanigardus  fecit  Romae, 
anno  1735,"  and  "Georgio  Tanigardi 
fecit  Romae,  17 — ." 

Targhetta.  A  maker  of  guitars  and 
other  instruments  in  Brescia  towards 
the  close  of  the  i6th  century. 

Tarr,  William.  A  maker  in  Manchester, 
said  to  have  made  very  good  double- 
basses  about  1829-55,  "when  he  gave  up 
violin  making  to  become  a  photo- 

Tassini,  Bartolommeo.  A  maker  in 
Venice  in  1754.  His  instruments, 
similar  to  those  of  Testore,  show  fairly 
good  work .  Label :  ' '  Opus  Bartholomei 
Tassini  Venetia,  1754" 

Taylor,  b.  about  1750.  Worked  in 
London,  in  Princes  Street,  Drury 
Lane  ;  was  said  to  be  a  pupil  of 
Panormo.  He  made  good  instruments, 
principally  double-basses,  and  was 
clever  at  repairing  old  instruments. 

Techier  (Tecchler),  David,  b.  1666. 
Lived  first  at  Salzburg,  then  went  to 
Venice,  but  owing  to  the  ill-treatment 
he  received  from  the  makers  there,  left 
Venice  and  finally  settled  in  Rome 
about  1705;  he  is  said  to  have  stopped 
at  Cremona  on  his  way  there.  Some  of 
his  work  is  very  German  in  character, 
but  instruments  dated  from  Rome  are 
generally  of  fine  workmanship,  and 
follow  the  Italian  pattern  very  closely. 
His  violoncellos  are  especially  good  ; 
made  of  excellent  wood,  on  a  large 
pattern,  much  arched,  but  the  thick- 
nesses are  often  inaccurate  ;  the  sound- 
holes  are  large,  they  vary,  sometimes 
being  widely  opened,  sometimes  not  ; 
the  varnish,  of  good  quality,  is  generally 
reddish -yellow,  sometimes  yellow- 
brown  in  colour  ;  the  tone  is  very 
powerful,  the  work  beautifully  finished  ; 
one  was  sold  at  an  auction  for  ;^5o. 
His  double-basses  also  show  good 
work  and  have  a  sonorous  tone.  A 
violin  of  highly  finished  workmanship 

was  made  of  beautiful  wood  and  had  a 
very  pure  and  sweet  tone.  Labels  : 
"  David  Tecchler  Liutaro  fecit  Romae, 
anno  1703,"  a  similar  one  is  dated 
1706:  "David  Tecchler  fecit  Romae, 
1733."  3-nd  "  David  Techier  fecit,  an. 
Dni.  1743,  ietatis  suae,  77." 

Tedesco  (Todesco),  Leopoldo,  b.  1625. 
Was  a  pupil  of  Nicola  Amati  in 
Cremona,  1653-54.  Afterwards  worked 
in  Rome  ;  a  violin  dated  from  there  in 
1658  is  made  on  the  Amati  pattern, 
and  has  good  varnish,  but  the  work  is 
not  highly  finished. 

Teoditi  (Teoditti),  Giovanni.  A  maker 
in  Rome  in  the  17th  century. 

Ternianini,  Pietro.    Working  in  Modera, 


Testator,  "  II  Vecchio."  Is  said  to  have 
lived  in  Milan  about  1520,  and  to  have 
been  one  of  the  first  to  modify  the 
viol  into  the  violin  shape  ;  but  there  is 
absolutely  no  evidence  of  this. 

Testore,  Carlo  Antonio,  eldest  son  of 
Carlo  Giuseppe  Testore,  from  whom 
he  learnt  his  trade.  Worked  in 
Milan,  in  the  Contrada  Larga,  at  the 
sign  of  the  Eagle  (dell'  aquila',  about 
1735-65  ;  according  to  one  label  was 
associated  with  his  son  Giovanni  in 
1764.  His  violins  are  made  on  the 
Guarneri  pattern,  of  excellent  wood, 
though  not  finely  figured ;  the  varnish 
is  golden-yellow  in  colour,  the  work- 
manship is  good.  His  violoncellos  and 
altos  are  especially  fine  instruments ; 
the  varnish,  rather  thick,  is  generally 
brown  in  colour.  Labels :  "  Carlo 
Antonio  Testore  figlio  maggiore  del  fu 
Carlo  Giuseppe  in  Contrada  larga  al 
segno  deir  aquila,  Milano,  174 1  "  ; 
another  label  is  dated  1736:  "Carlo 
Antonio  e  Giovanni  padre  e  figlio 
Testori,  il  qual  Carlo  e  figlio  maggiore 
del  fu  Carlo  Giuseppe  Testore,  abitanti 
in  Contrada  larga  al  segno  dell'  aquila, 
Milano,  1764. 

Testore,  Carlo  Giuseppe,  b.  at  Novara ; 
settled  at  Milan  about  1687,  and  worked 
there  till  about  1720.  He  was  a  pupil 
of  Giovanni  Grancino,  for  whose  work 
his  instruments  are  often  mistaken. 
He  was  the  best  workman  in  this 
family,  but  did  not  make  many  instru- 
ments. His  violins,  of  excellent  wood, 
show  good  strong  work,  but  not  highly 
finished,  and  are  plain  in  appearance. 
The  pattern  varies;    it  is  moderately 



arched  ,  the  varnish  is  dry  and  of  a 
brownish-yellow  colour ;  the  tone  is 
good,  sometimes  very  powerful  and 
penetrating.  For  his  violoncellos  he 
generally  used  pear-tree  wood  for  the 
backs  and  very  fine  wood  for  the 
bellies  ;  the  tone  was  very  powerful. 
When  the  well-known  Lindley  "  Gran- 
cino  ■'  violoncello  was  repaired  in 
1844,  by  Andreas  Engleder  of 
Munich,  the  original  label,  in  good 
preservation,  read  as  follows  :  "  Carlo 
Giuseppe  Testore  allievo  di  Gio.  Gran- 
cino  in  Contrada  Larga  di  Milano, 
1690."  A  double-bass  of  his  was 
played  on  by  the  celebrated  Bottesini 
at  concerts ;  it  had  a  splendid  tone. 
Label:  "Carlo  Giuseppe  Testore  in 
Contrada  larga  di  Milano  al  segno 
deir  aquila,  1700."  He  had  two  sons, 
Carlo  Antonio  and  Paolo  Antonio, 
both  violin  makers. 

Testore,  Giovanni,  son  of  Carlo  Antonio 
Testore,  (j.v. 

Testore,  Paolo  Antonio,  second  son  of 
Carlo  Giuseppe  Testore  and  the  last 
maker  of  this  name.  First  worked 
with  his  brother.  Carlo  Antonio,  but 
separated  from  him  about  17 10,  and 
continued  working  alone  till  about 
1760.  He  made  a  great  many  instru- 
ments, but  did  not  do  such  good  work 
as  his  father ;  the  varnish  is  lighter, 
a  yellow  colour,  and  of  inferior  quality. 
Few  of  his  violins  are  known,  they  are 
not  much  arched,  without  purfling, 
and  follow  the  Guarneri  pattern.  He 
made  many  good  lutes  and  guitars,  the 
latter,  especially,  being  some  of  the 
most  beautiful  known.  Labels  : 
"  Paolo  Antonio  Testore,  Milan,  17 — ," 
and  "  Paolo  Antonio  Testore  figlio  di 
Carlo  Giuseppe  Testore  in  Contrada 
larga  di  Milano  al  segno  dell    aquila, 


Tetzner.     See  "  Kiihlewein." 

Theress.     See   •  Charles." 

Theriot,  J.  B.    A  maker  in  Paris  in  1783. 

Thibout,  Aime  Justin,  b.  Feb.,  1808. 
He  worked  till  1862  at  Caen. 

Thibout,  Albert,  son  of  Gabriel  Adolphe 
Thibout ;  b.  April  27,  1839 ;  d.  Dec. 
25,  1865.  A  maker  in  Paris,  who 
succeeded  his  uncle,  Gabriel  Eugene, 
as  "  luthier  de  I'Opera,"  and  was 
succeeded  in  his  turn  by  the  Brothers 

Thibout,  Gabriel  Adolphe,  son  of  Jacques 
Pierre  Thibout;  b.  1804,  at  Paris;  d. 
there,  June  14,  1H58.  He  assisted  his 
father  a  long  time  and  finally  took  the 
direction  of  the  business  in  1838.  His 
instruments     are     good,    though     the 

work  is  not  equal  to  his  father  s  ;  the 
backs  are  generally  of  one  piece,  the 
varnish  a  red-brown  colour.  His  son 
Albert  was  also  a  maker. 

Thibout,  Gabriel  Eugene,  son  of 
Jacques  Pierre  Thibout;  b.  June  11, 
1825,  at  Paris.  Succeeded  his  brother, 
Gabriel  Adolphe,  as  "  luthier  de 
rOpera"  in  Paris.  In  October,  1861, 
left  Paris  and  settled  in  Boulogne- 

Thibout,  Jacques  Pierre,  b.  Sept  16, 
1777,  ^t  Caen  ;  d.  Dec.  4,  1856,  at 
Saint-Mande,  near  Paris.  First  worked 
at  Caen,  then,  in  1796,  under  Koliker 
at  Paris ;  was  married  in  1800,  and  in 
1807  established  himself  at  24,  rue 
Montmartre,  after  1810  moving  to 
8,  rue  Rameau.  He  was  a  remarkable 
maker  and  his  instruments  are  much 
liked  ;  his  violins  soon  came  into  notice, 
for  by  a  certain  treatment  of  the  sides 
he  gained  an  improvement  in  the 
pattern  which  produced  an  excellent 
quality  of  tone.  The  price  varied 
from  /lo  to  ;^i4,  relatively  high  for 
that  period,  but  greatly  below  their 
present  value.  The  workmanship  and 
varnish  were  so  beautiful  that  his 
instruments  will  bear  comparison  with 
the  best  Italian  work  ;  two  magnificent 
violins  of  his  show  peculiar  richness  of 
colouring  in  the  varnish — a  red  on  an 
amber  ground.  He  was  awarded  a 
silver  medal,  1827  ;  a  silver  medal,  1844  ; 
and  a  first  class  medal  at  the  Paris 
Exhibition  in  1855  for  an  excellent 
violoncello.  Label;  "  Nouveau  procede 
approuve  par  ITnstitut.  Thibout, 
luthier  du  roi,  rue  Rameau,  no.  8,  a 
Paris,  1825." 

Thibouville-Lamy,  Jerome.  A  little 
before  1867  he  became  sole  proprietor 
of  the  various  factories  at  Mirecourt ; 
he  gradually  substituted  mechanical 
for  manual  labour,  and  while  increasing 
the  number  of  instruments  made,  at 
the  same  time  reduced  their  price,  so 
that  at  last  he  was  able  to  exhibit  at 
Vienna,  in  1873,  his  famous  violins  at 
4s.,  8s.,  and  i6s.  each.  By  1887,  35,000 
instruments  had  been  made  by  *^'i 
firm.  He  was  awarded  a  medal,  Viti-na, 
1873  ;  medal  of  honour,  Santiago,  1875  ; 
prize  medal,  Philadelphia,  1876 ;  and 
gold  medal,  London,  1885.  He  was 
made  Chevalier  of  the  Legion  of 
Honour,  April  10,  1877,  and  Officier, 
Jan,  15,  1892. 

Thiphanon.     See  "  Tiphanon." 

Thir,  Mathias  and  Anton.  Makers  of 
good  instruments  in  \'iennain  the  i8th 



Thir,  Johann  Georg.  Was  working  in 
Vienna  in  1791.  A  violoncello  of  good 
work,  made  on  a  large  pattern,  had 
dark  ellow  brown  varnish.  Label : 
•  Johannes  Georgius  Thir  fecit  Viennae, 
anno  1791" 

Thomassin.  Worked  under  Clement  at 
Paris,  rue  des  Bons-Enfants,  was  a 
clever  workman  and  made  good  violins. 
He  signed  them  with  his  name  about 

Thompson  (Thomson),  Robert.  A 
maker  in  London,  at  the  sign  of  the 
"Bass- Violin,"  in  St.  Paul's  Church- 
yard, about  1749-64.  His  instruments 
were  made  on  the  Stainer  pattern.  He 
was  succeeded  by  his  sons,  Charles  and 
Samuel,  who  worked  about  1775-85 
Labels  •  "  Robert  Thompson  att  the 
Bass-Violin  m  Paul's  ally.  St-  Paul's 
Churchyard,  London,  1749,"  and 
"  Made  by  Thompson  and  Son  at  the 
Bass- Violin,  the  west  end  of  S*-  Paul's 
Churchyard,  London,  1764."  The 
printed  label  (two  were  dated  1775  and 
1785)  IS,  "  Made  and  sold  by  Chas.  and 
Saml.  Thompson  in  St.  Paul's  Church- 
yard "  In  the  musical  directory  of  1794 
were  also  mentioned  Samuel  and  Peter 
Thompson,  instrument  makers  in  St. 
Paul's  Churchyard. 

Thorowgood,  Henry.  A  maker  in 
London  in  the  i8th  century.  Printed 
label-  "Made  and  sold  by  Henry 
Thorowgood  at  the  Violin  and  Guitar 
under  the  North  Piazza  of  the  Royal 
Exchange,  17 — ,  London." 

Thumhardt  is  mentioned  as  working  in 
Munich  and  Straubing  in  the  18th 
century.  His  work  was  similar  to  that 
of  Buchstadter. 

Ticffenbrticker  (Tiefembrucker) ,  Leo- 
nardo. A  maker  of  beautiful  lutes. 
He  was  a  member  of  the  family  better 
known  as  Dieffopruchar  or  Duiffo- 
prugcar,  and  worked  in  the  i6th 
century.  He  may  possibly  have  been 
related  to  Gaspard  Duiffoprugcar. 

Tieffenbriicker,  Magnus.  See  "  Dieffo- 

Tieffenbrticker  (Tiefembrucker),  Ven- 
delino  Venere.  Is  supposed  to  have 
been  a  son  of  Leonardo  Tieffenbriicker, 
according  to  the  inscriptions  found  in 
some  of  his  lutes.  Worked  from  about 
1572  to  161 1 ;  his  lutes  were  celebrated. 
An  ivory  lute  was  inscribed  "  Vendelio 
Venere  Padova,  1572";  a  lute  in  the 
Modena  Museum,  Vienna,  was  labelled 
"In  Padova  Vvendelino  Venere  de 
Leonardo  Tiefembrucker,  1582";  an 
arch-lute  in  the  Collection  of  the 
Gesellschaft  der  Musikfreunde,  Vienna, 

similarly  inscribed,  was  dated  1587  ; 
it  was  repaired  by  Martin  Stoss  in  1832. 
A  lute  in  the  Vienna  Hof-Museum  was 
dated  1595.  One  of  the  finest  lutes 
existing  is  inscribed  "  Vendelio  Venere 
in  Padova,  1600."  Two  instruments  in 
the  Modena  Museum,  Vienna,  are  n- 
scribed,  the  one  "In  Padua  Vendelinus 
Tieffenbriicker,"  the  other  "  In  Padova 
Vvendelio  Venere,  1611."  A  unique 
instrument,  a  "  lyra  da  gamba  " 
mounted  with  si.xteen  strings  and  fifteen 
sympathetic  strings,  is  signed:  "In 
Padua  Vendelinus  Tieffenbriiker,"  and 
has  a  label  probably  written  by  the 
maker  himself:  "Vendelinus  Tieffen 
briiker  f.  in  Padoua." 

Tielke,  Joachim.  One  of  a  family  of 
makers  who  lived  in  Hamburg  from 
about  1539  to  1 70 1.  He  was  celebrated 
for  the  lutes,  theorbos,  guitars,  and 
especially  the  viols  of  all  kinds  which 
he  made,  of  very  fine  tone,  ornamented 
with  the  richest  and  most  varied  inlaid 
work;  one  violin  of  his  is  also  men- 
tioned. The  following  instruments, 
given  in  their  chronological  order,  are 
known  :  a  lute  in  the  Paris  Conserva- 
toire Collection ;  a  lute  known  as  a 
chiterna,  with  the  label:  "Joachim 
Tielke  in  Hamburg,  1539,"  in  the  South 
Kensington  Museum,  London,  which 
is  inlaid  with  designs  in  tortoiseshell, 
encircling  mythological  deities  in  ivory, 
richly  ornamented  with  precious  stones. 
A  guitar  dated  1592,  a  marvel  of  rich- 
ness of  design  and  beautiful  workman- 
ship, is  in  wonderful  preservation  a 
bass-viol,  dated  1669,  was  exhibted  in 
Paris  in  1878 ;  a  violin,  dated  1670.  men- 
tioned by  Fetis  ;  a  guitar  inscribed  on 
the  back  "Joachim  Tielke,  Hamburg, 
1676";  a  very  beautiful  viola  di 
bordone  belonging  to  the  Gesellschaft 
der  Musikfreunde,  Vienna,  was  labelled, 
"Joachim  Tielke  in  Hamburg  fecit, 
anno  1686"  ;  and  a  viola  da  gamba, 
dated  1701,  entirely  inlaid  with  ivory, 
with  the  edges,  head,  and  pegs  all  in 
ivory,  the  tail-piece  also  charmingly 
designed  in  ivory. 

Tilley,  Thomas.  A  maker  in  London 
about  1774. 

Tiphanon  (Thiphanon),  Jean  Fran9ois. 
Worked  in  Paris,  in  rue  St.-Thomas- 
du-Louvre,  from  1775  to  1800. 
Label :  "  Tiphanon,  rue  St.-Thomas- 
du-Louvre,  a  Paris,  1780." 

Tirler,  Carlo.  A  maker  in  Bologna  in 
the  i8th  century. 

Tobin,  Richard.  A  maker  in  London 
from  about  1790  to  1840  Was  a  pupil 
of  Perry  of  Dublin.      He  did  a  good 



deal  of  work  for  John  Belts.  He  was 
an  excellent  workman,  and  cut  most 
beautiful  heads  or  scrolls  to  his  in- 
struments ;  he  usually  followed  the 
Stradivari  or  Guarneri  patterns.  The 
tone  of  his  instruments  is  good,  and 
they  are  much  liked  in  England.  He 
died  in  great  poverty  in  Shoreditch. 
A  son  of  his  was  also  a  maker. 

Todesco.     S<7^  "  Tedesco." 

Todini,  Michele,  b.  in  Saluzzo  about 
1625.  He  lived  in  Rome,  where,  in  1676, 
he  pubhshed  his  "  Dichiarazione  della 
galleria  armonica  eretta  in  Roma." 
He  made  a  few  violins,  but  is  chiefly 
known  as  the  maker  of  very  ingenious 
mechanical  musical  instruments.  He 
has  been  also  called  the  inventor  of 
the  double-bass,  but  there  is  apparently 
nothing  to  support  this  assertion. 

Tolbecque,  Auguste,  son  of  Auguste 
Joseph  Tolbecque ;  was  born  March  30, 
1830,  Paris.  He  was  a  distinguished 
violoncellist,  but  also  worked  at  violin 
making  under  Rambaux,  in  Paris.  He 
made  a  small  number  of  new  instru- 
ments, and  was  extremely  clever  at 
restoring  old  ones ;  he  collected  some 
fine  instruments,  which  he  sold  to  the 
Brussels  Conservatoire  in  1879.  In 
1858  he  settled  in  Niort,  Deux-Sevres. 
Label :  Ate.  Tolbecque  fils  fecit  Parigi, 
anno  185 1." 

Tononi,  Antonio.  A  member  of  the 
family  of  makers  in  Bologna  in  the 
17th  century. 

Tononi,  Carlo,  son  of  Felice.  First 
worked  in  Bologna,  then  settled  in 
Venice.  His  instruments  \  ary  a  good 
deal ;  they  are  generally  of  a  large 
pattern,  not  so  highly  arched  as  those 
of  his  brother  Giovanni,  and  show 
beautiful  workmanship ;  his  varnish, 
somewhat  similar  to  that  of  Santo 
Serafino,  is  a  yellow-brown  colour.  A 
pocket  violin,  with  beautiful  inlaid  work, 
was  exhibited  at  Milan,  1881,  its  label 
was;  "  Carolo  Tononus  fecit  Bononia; 
in  Platea  Casta^tionis,  anno  Domini 
1698."  In  a  violin  in  the  Collection  of 
the  Liceo  filarmonico,  Bologna,  is  the 
label  :  "  Carolus  Tononi  fecit  Bononiae, 
annoi7i7."  Another  label  is:  "Carolus 
Tononi  Bonon.  fecit  Venetiis  sub  titulo 
S.  CecilicC,  anno  1739."  He  often 
branded  his  monogram  near  the  button 
of  the  tailpiece. 

Tononi,  Felice.  A  maker  in  Bologna 
about  1670-90.  He  worked  in  associa- 
tion with  his  son  Giovanni  ;  their 
violoncellos  have  a  great  reputation  in 
lialy,  and  are  beautiful  instruments,  of 
fine  tone  and  carefully  finished  work- 

manship ;  the  varnish  is  a  yellow-brown 
colour.  Labels:  "  Tononi  di  Bologna 
fecit,  anno  1670,"  and  "  Tononi  di 
Bologna  fece,  anno  168 — ." 

Tononi,  Giovanni,  son  of  Felice.  Worked 
in  Bologna  till  about  1705.  Very  few 
instruments  of  his  are  to  be  found ;  he 
followed,  and  at  the  same  time  enlarged 
the  pattern  of  Nicola  Amati ;  his  work 
is  superior  to  that  of  his  father.  His 
violins  are  slightly  arched  and  have 
varnish  of  a  beautiful  yellow  colour ; 
the  tone  is  very  fine.  A  violoncello 
had  the  following  label :  "  Joannes  de 
Tononis  fecit  Bononiae  in  Platea 
Paviglionis,  anno  17 — ."  Other  labels 
are  "Joannes  Tononus  fecit  Bononiae 
in  Platea  Pavaglionis,  anno  Domini, 
1690,"  and  "  Joannes  de  Tononis  fecit 
Bononiae,  anno  17 — ." 

Toppani,  Angelo  de.  A  maker  in  Rome 
about  1720-40.  His  instruments,  which 
are  rarely  seen,  are  similar  to  those  of 
Techier,  but  are  more  arched ;  the 
varnish  is  a  golden-yellow  colour,  and 
the  sound-holes  are  cut  large.  Label : 
"  Angelus  de  Toppanis  fecit  Romae, 
anno  Dni.  1740." 

Torelli.     A  maker  in  Verona  about  1625. 

Toring  (Torring).  Was  a  maker  and 
repairer  of  violins  in  London  about 

Tortobello,  Francesco.  A  maker  in 
Rome  in  1680,  who  followed  the  Mag- 
gini  pattern. 

Touly,  Claude.  In  a  five-stringed  viol, 
with  the  upper  and  lower  plates  both 
arched,  and  with  yellow  varnish,  was 
the  printed  label :  "  Par  Claude  Touly 
a  Luneville   1752." 

Touly,  Jean.  A  maker  in  Nancy  about 
1730-47.  Label  :  "  Fait  par  moy  Jean 
Touly,  a  Nancy,  1747." 

Tourte,  Fran9ois  ("  le  jeune  "),  b.  1747, 
Paris  ;  d.  there,  April,  1835.  Was  a 
younger  brother  of  Xaver  Tourte.  For 
eight  years  worked  as  a  watchmaker, 
and  thus  gained  sureness  and  delicacy 
of  touch  ;  he  was  not  educated,  and 
never  even  learnt  to  read  and  to  write. 
He  settled  at  10,  Quai  de  I'Ecole,  and 
began  to  make  bows ;  for  his  first 
experiments  he  used  the  staves  of  old 
sugar  hogsheads  from  Brazil,  but 
afterwards  always  selected  fine  Per- 
nambuco  wood  of  perfectly  straight 
grain,  strong  and  elastic,  without 
excessive  weight.  By  subjecting  this 
in  a  state  of  flexion  to  a  moderate 
amount  of  heat  for  some  time,  he 
obtained  a  permanent  and  regular 
bend:  to  do  this  without  making  the 
exterior    brittle   is   always    the    great 



difficulty  of  bow  makers.  He  was 
able  to  definitely  settle  the  correct 
length  and  curvature  of  the  stick,  the 
gradual  tapering  towards  the  point, 
and  also  invented  a  method  of  spread- 
ing the  hairs  of  the  bow  and  fixing 
them  on  the  face  of  the  nut  by  means 
of  a  moveable  band  of  metal,  fitting  on 
a  slide  of  mother-o'-pearl.  In  fact,  he 
practically  invented  the  modern  bow. 
and  has  well  been  called  the  "  Strad 
ivari "  of  the  bow,  for  his  skill  has 
never  been  equalled.  Most  of  his  great 
work  was  done  after  1775.  Viotti,  who 
arrived  in  Paris  in  1782,  is  said  to  have 
suggested  many  of  the  improvements 
that  were  required  from  a  violinist's 
point  of  view.  He  worked  until  he  was 
eighty-five,  when  failing  eyesight  neces- 
sitated a  rest.  He  himself  charged 
12  louis  d'or  (about  /lo)  for  the  bows 
mounted  in  gold,  and  3 J  louis  d'or 
(nearly  £'i)  for  those  mounted  in  silver, 
but  they  now  fetch  from  ;^20  each  ; 
for  Tourte's  bows  are  always  preferred 
to  any  others  by  violinists,  and  as  yet 
show  no  signs  of  wear.  Violoncello 
bows  are  rarer;  at  a  sale  in  Paris,  Feb. 
5,  1887,  one  was  sold  to  Messrs.  Hill 
and  Son  for  £^^.  Several  of  his  bows 
are  in  the  Paris  Conservatoire  Collec- 
tion, they  are  never  marked  ;  only  two 
are  known  with  small  engraved  labels  : 
"  Get  archet  a  ete  fait  par  Tourte  en 
1824,  age  de  soixante-dix-sept  ans." 
His  bows  were  so  closely  imitated  by 
other  makers  that  it  is  not  easy  always 
to  distinguish  between  the  original  and 
the  copy. 

Tourte,  le  Pere.  Settled  in  Paris  about 
1740.  Was  a  clever  bow  maker  ;  his 
work  showed  great  improvement  on 
that  of  his  predecessors ;  he  used 
lighter  wood  and  proportioned  his 
bow  more  accurately,  giving  it  the 
backward  bend  indispensable  to  its 
elasticity.  He  invented  the  nut  worked 
by  a  propelling  and  withdrawing  screw, 
the  nut  and  head  of  the  screw  were 
generally  of  ivory.  The  bows  are 
elegantly  fluted  for  half  or  the  whole 
of  the  length,  the  head  is  lighter  and 
more  elegant.  He  had  two  sons,  Xaver 
and  the  celebrated  Francois. 

Tourte,  Xaver  (I'aine),  eldest  son  of 
Tourte   pere.      Worked  with  him  for 

some  time  and  finally  succeeded  to  his 
business.  Although  inferior  to  his 
father  as  a  workman,  he  made  some 
excellent  bows.  It  is  said  that  he  was 
in  partnership  with  Francois,  the  latter 
making  the  sticks  and  Xaver  the  nuts 
and  fittings ;  but  they  quarrelled  and 
separated,  each  one  continuing  to  work 
alone.  Xaver  reproduced  as  much  as 
possible  the  improvements  made  by 
his  brother  in  the  bow. 

Trapani,  Raffaele.  A  maker  in  Naples 
about  18 10.  His  workmanship  is  good 
and  original  in  character ;  his  violins 
are  on  a  large  pattern,  with  prominent 
edges,  and  heavy  purfling  ;  the  scroll  is 
heavy  and  of  the  i5T  escian  type  ;  the 
varnish  is  rather  thick  and  of  a  red- 
brown  colour.  Label  ;  "  Raffaele 
Trapani,  Napoli,  No.  — ." 

Trevillot,  Claude.  A  maker  in  Mire- 
court  about  1698. 

Trinelli,  Giovanni.     An  Italian  maker. 

Trunco.     Worked  in  Cremona  in  i66o. 

Truska,  Simon  Joseph,  b.  April  5,  1734, 
Raudnitz,  Bohemia  ;  d.  Jan.  14,  i8og, 
Strahow  Monastery.  Entered  Strahow 
Monastery,  Dec.  8,  1758,  taking  the 
vows,  Jan.  i,  1761.  Became  proficient 
as  a  musician  and  composer,  and  then 
began  to  construct  instruments,  making 
violins,  altos,  violas  d'amore,  and  bass- 

Tubbs,  James.  A  maker  of  excellent 
bows,  who  lives  in  Wardour  Street, 
London.  His  father  and  grandfather 
were  also  bow  makers,  their  work 
being  very  similar  to  that  of  Dodd. 
James  Tubbs'  bows  are  made  on 
scientific  principles,  and  are  of  elegant 
appearance ;  they  are  much  liked  by 
players  for  their  lightness  and  good 
balance,  and  rank  among  the  best 

Turner,  William.  Was  working  in 
London  in  1650.  In  a  viola  di  bordone, 
or  baryton,  of  beautiful  workmanship, 
and  made  of  splendid  wood,  is  the 
label :  "  William  Turner,  at  ye  hand 
and  crown  in  gravelle  lane  neere 
Aldgate,  London,  1650." 

Tywersus.  Was  maker  to  the  Prince 
of  Lorraine  at  the  beginning  of  the 
i6th  century  ;  his  instruments  are  very 
similar  to  those  of  Andrea  Amati. 
Nicolas  Renault  was  a  pupil  of  his. 




Ugar,  Crescenzio.  A  maker  in  Rome  in 
1790  His  work  is  German  in  character, 
he  used  brown  varnish. 

Ungarini,  Antonio.  Was  working  in 
Fabriano  in  1762. 

Unverdorben,  Marx.  A  lute  maker  in 
Venice,  probably  about  1400-50.  A 
lute  of  highly  finished  workmanship, 
found  in  the  Collection  of  instruments 
at  Castle  Eisenberg,  Bohemia,  was 
inscribed  :  "  Marx  Unverdorben  a 

Urquhart,  Thomas.  A  maker  in  London 
about   1650-80 ;    he   was    probably  a 

Scotchman.  His  work  resembles  that 
of  Jacob  Ray  man,  with  whom  he  may 
have  worked,  and  shows  great  merit 
for  the  period  at  which  he  lived.  His 
violins  are  of  two  sizes,  some  on  a 
small,  others  on  a  large  pattern,  very 
arched,  the  corners  not  very  prominent, 
the  purfling  narrow  and  placed  close  to 
the  edge ;  the  oil  varnish,  of  a  yellowish- 
brown  or  sometimes  red  colour,  is  of  ex- 
cellent quality,  and  is  similar  to  Italian 
varnish ;  the  tone  is  clear  and  silvery. 
His  instruments  are  rare, 


Vaillant  (Vaillot,  or  Vaillaut),  Francois. 
A  maker  in  Paris,  who,  according  to  his 
labels,  was  living  in  the  rue  de  la 
Juiverie,  1736-38,  and  according  to  the 
old  almanacs  in  rue  N.-D.-de-bonne- 
nouvelle,  1775  83.  His  instruments 
show  good  workmanship,  but  the  var- 
nish is  poor.  Label  :  "  Fran9ois 
Vaillant,  rue  de  la  Juiverie  a  Paris, 

Valentine,  William.  A  maker  in 
London,  who  died  about  1877.  He 
made  some  good  double-basses. 

Valler.     A  maker  in  Marseilles  in  1683. 

Vandelli,  Giovanni.  Was  working  in 
Modena,  1796- 1839.  His  violins  are 
fairly  well  made. 

Vanderlist.  A  maker  in  Paris,  living  in 
rue  des  Vieux-Augustins,  1788-89.  Is 
said  to  have  copied  the  work  of  Gua- 
dagnini,  both  in  pattern  and  varnish, 
with  great  skill.  He  branded  his  name 
on  his  instruments.  Label :  "  Luthier, 
rue  des  Vieux-Augustins,  pres  de  I'^gout 
de  la  rue  Montmartre,  Paris." 

Van  der  Slagmeulen.  See  "  Slagh- 

Varotti,  Giovanni.  A  maker  in  Bologna 
in  1813. 

Varquain.  A  mater  in  Paris,  rue  de 
Bussy,  about  1742. 

Vauchel,  Joseph.  A  maker  in  Damm 
about  1840 ;  before  that  date  he  was 
appointed  Court  Maker  to  the  Grand 
Duke  of  Tuscany  He  exhibited  two 
violins  at  Munich  in  1854,  which  had 
a  fine  tone,  and  was  awarded  the  medal 
of  honour.    Horlein  was  a  pupil  of  his. 

Venere,  Vendelino.  See  "  Tieffen- 

Venzi,  Andrea.  A  maker  in  Florence  in 

Vcrbruggcn,  Theodor.  Is  known  as  one 
of  the  makers  in  Antwerp  in  1641,  by  a 
double-bass  which  he  made  for  use  in 
the  Cathedral. 

Verini,  Andrea.  Was  working  in 

Verle,  Francesco.  A  maker  in  Padua 
about  1590.  Label :  "In  Padova 
Francesco  Verle." 

Vermesch,  le  Pere.  Worked  at  Beau- 
mont-sur-Oise  in  178 1.  A  violin,  very 
arched,  badly  proportioned,  with  pale 
yellow  varnish,  had  the  written  label : 
"  Fait  par  le  PSre  Vermesch,  rel. 
minime,  a  Beaumont-sur-Oise,  1781." 

V6ron.  Antoine.  A  maker  in  Paris  in 
1740,  in  the  rue  de  la  Juiverie,  according 
to  the  label  in  a  five-stringed  viol  in  the 
Paris  Conservatoire  Collection. 

Viron,  Pierre  Andr6.  A  maker  in  Paris 
about  1720-50.  His  violins  show  good 
work;  he  followed  the  pattern  of  the 
Italian  makers. 

Vetrini,  Battista.  Worked  in  Brescia 
about  1629.  His  instruments  are  on 
rather  a  small  pattern,  the  wood  is 
excellent,  and  the  yellow  varnish  of 
fine  quality. 

Vettcr,  Jean  Christophe.  Was  working 
in  Strassburg  in  1744,  according  to  the 
following  label,  found  in  a  double-bass 
which  was  repaired  by  M.arc  Snoeck : 
"Jean  Christophe  Vetter,  Strasbourg, 




Viard,  Nicolas.  Was  working  in  Ver- 
sailles about  1790.  Label:  "Fait  par 
Nicolas  Viard  a  Versailles,  1790." 

Vibert,  J.  B.  A  maker  in  Paris,  1775- 
83,  in  rue  de  Seine. 

Vibrecht,  Gysbert.  A  maker  in  Amster- 
dam about  1700-10. 

Villaume  et  Giron.  In  a  violin  of 
fairly  good  workmanship  was  the 
printed  label:  "Villaume  et  Giron, 
Troyes,  170 — ." 

Vimercati,  Gaspare.  A  maker  in  Milan 
in  the  17th  century.  In  a  mandoline 
of  beautiful  workmanship  was  the 
label :  "  Gaspare  Vimercati  nella  con- 
trada  della  Dogana  di  Milano." 

Vimercati,  Pietro.  A  maker  in  Brescia 
in  the  17th  century.  Is  thought  to 
have  been  a  pupil  of  Carlo  Ton  on  i  in 
Venice.  His  instruments  are  much 
arched,  he  followed  the  Maggini  pattern . 

Vinaccia,  Antonio.  The  head  of  a 
family  of  makers.  He  worked  in 
Naples  about  1766-74.  He  made  a  few 
violins,  on  the  pattern  of  Gagliano, 
but  also  made  excellent  mandolines ; 
some  of  these  are  in  the  Museo 
Spagnuolo  (Palazzo  degli  Studi), 
Naples,  and  have  the  backs  beautifully 
inlaid  with  ivory,  mother-o'-pearl,  and 
tortoiseshell.  Label:  "  Antonius  Vin- 
accia, Napoli  in  Via  Constantinii,  a. 
1766."  A  similar  label  is  dated  1774. 
His  two  sons,  Gennaro  and  Gaetano, 
were  also  makers. 

Vinaccia,  Domenico.  A  maker  of  man- 
dolines in  Naples  about  1730-80. 

Vinaccia,  Gaetano  and  Gennaro,  sons  of 
Antonio.  Makers  of  mandolines  and 
guitars  in  Naples  about  1776.  In  a 
mandoline,  beautifully  inlaid  with  tor- 
toiseshell, mother-o'-pearl,  and  ivory, 
was  the  label:  "Januarius  Vinaccio 
fecit  Neapoli  in  rua  Catalana,  a. 
Domini  1776  " 

Vinaccia,  Giovanni  and  Vincenzo,  sons 
of  Gennaro.  Worked  in  Naples  about 
1765-85,  making  excellent  mandolines 
and  guitars  Labels:  "  Joannes  Vin- 
accio filius  Januarii  fecit  Neapoli  alia 
strada  della  rua  Catalana,  a.d.  1770," 
and  "  Vincentius  Vinaccio  filius  Janu- 
arii fecit  Neapoli  alia  rua  Catalana, 
A.I).  1775";  "Vincentius  Vinaccio 
fecit,  Sfeapoli,  Sito  nella  Calata  de 
Spitalletto.  a.d.  17S5." 

Vinaccia,  Pasqiiale,  son  of  Gaetano ; 
b.  July  20,  iSof),  Naples;  d.  1881. 
Was  a  maker  of  c.vccllcnt  mandolines, 
and  was  appointed  maker  to  the 
r)n('cn  of  Italy.  Was  the  inventor  of 
sict'l  wire  strinijs  instead  of  the  gut 
ones   formerly    used       r)clisario,    the 

celebrated  mandoline  player  of  Naples, 
always  used  his  instruments. 

Vinatte,  Andre.  A  maker  of  viols  in 
Lyons  in  1568.  He  was  a  Protestant, 
and  was  murdered  in  the  St.  Bartholo- 
mew Massacre  of  Lyons  in  1572. 

Vincenzi,  Luigi,  b.  1775  A  maker  in 
Carpi,  still  working  in  18 11.  Label: 
"  Aloysnis  Vincenzi  Carpensis,  18 — ." 

Viorillo,  Giovanni.     See  "Fiorillo." 

Vir,  Hieronimo  di.  The  following  label 
is  known  :  '  Hieronirno  di  Vir  in 

Virchi,  Benedetto,  b.  1520.  A  maker  of 
viols  in  Brescia. 

Virchi,  Girolamo,  b.  1523.  A  maker  of 
lutes  and  other  instruments  in  Brescia. 

Vitor,  de.  A  maker  in  Bniscia  in  1740. 
His  instruments  are  similar  in  appear- 
ance to  those  of  Maggini ;  they  are  on 
a  large  pattern  and  of  fine  workman- 

Vitus  de  Angelis.  A  maker  in  Bologna 
in  1609. 

Vivoli,  Giovanni.  Was  working  in 
Florence  in  1642. 

Voboam.  A  family  of  makers  of  guitars 
and  mandolines  in  Paris  about  1673  to 
1730.  In  1770  an  allu:>ion  is  made  to 
an  excellent  guitar  made  in  1675  by 
the  "celebrated"  Voboam.  A  guitar 
dated  "d'Alexandre  le  jeune,  1673," 
was  most  probably  made  by  a  member 
of  the  family.  Another  guitar  is  dated 
1676,  and  two  beautiful  guitars  made 
by  Jean  Voboam,  dated  1676  and  1687, 
belonged,  it  is  said,  to  Mdlle.  de 
Nantes,  daughter  of  Louis  XIV.  A 
mandoline  dated  1682  is  in  the  Musee 
Cluny.  A  guitar  inlaid  with  ivory  is 
dated  1688,  another  is  dated  1699  A 
guitar,  in  the  shape  of  a  tortoise,  with 
the  body  made  of  tortoiseshell  and 
the  head,  feet,  and  tail  of  coloured 
enamel,  is  in  the  Paris  Conservatoire 
Collection  ;  it  is  dated  1693  A  bass- 
viol,  incribed  "Voboam,  1730,"  is  in 
the  Collection  of  the  Conservatoire 
des  Arts  et  Metiers. 

Voel,  E.  A  maker  in  Mayence  about 
1840.  His  instruments  follow  the 
Stradivari  more  than  the  German 
pattern  ;  the  sound-holes  are  large,  the 
varnish  a  red-brown  colour,  the  head 
is  well  cut,  the  general  workmanship 

Vogel,  Wolfgang,  d.  Feb.  17.  1650,  at 
Nuremberg,  where  he  made  instru- 
ments which  were  much  liked. 

Vogler.  johann  Georg.  Was  workmg  in 
\Vur/.bnrj4  in  1749  Label  "  Johann 
(ieorg  Vogler.  Lauten  und  Geigen- 
macher  in  Wiirzburg,  17  His  son 



was  the  celebrated  Abbe  Georg  Joseph 

Voigt,  C.  Hermann,  b.  1850.  Pupil  of 
Lembock.     Works  in  Vienna. 

Voigt,  Martin.  Was  working  in  Ham- 
burg in  1726.  His  work  is  similar  to 
that  of'Tielke.  A  bass-viol,  the  back 
inlaid  in  ivory,  having  Apollo,  Venus, 
Mercury,  and  Diana  represented,  was 
dated  Hamburg,  1726,  and  was  ex- 
hibited at  the  South  Kensington 
Museum,  London,  1872. 

Voirin,  Fran9ois  Nicolas,  b.  Oct.  i, 
1833,  ^^  Mirecourt ;  d.  June  4,  1885,  at 
Paris.  After  working  at  Mirecourt,  he 
went  to  Paris  in  1855,  and  for  fifteen 
years  made  bows  for  J.  B.  Vuillaume ; 
he  obtained  as  "  collaborateur  "  a 
"  Mention  honorable  "  at  the  1867 
Paris  Exhibition.  He  separated  from 
Vuillaume  in  1870  and  established 
himself  at  3,  rue  du  Bouloi,  where  he 
worked  till  his  death.  He  had  great 
ability  as  a  bow  maker ;  he  followed  the 
Tourte  pattern,  but  made  the  head  of 
his  bow  less  square ;  his  workmanship 
shows  wonderful  finish  and  elegance. 
He  was  awarded  a  silver  medal  at  the 
Paris  Exhibition  in  1878,  the  only 
prize  given  to  bow-making  ;  and  some 
of  his  bows  exhibited  after  his  death  at 
the  Antwerp  Exhibition  were  awarded 
a  gold  medal.  He  branded  his  bows 
with  "  F.  N.  Voirin,  a  Paris";  to  this 
was  added,  on  those  bows  exhibited  at 
Paris,  1878,  "Exposition,  1878."  Bows 
sold  by  Madame  Voirin  since  her 
husband's  death  have  also  been 
branded  in  the  same  way. 

Vuillaume,  Claude,  b.  1772,  Mirecourt ; 
d.  1834.  H®  ^s  the  first  member  known 
of  this  family  of  violin  makers,  and 
made  cheap  instruments,  branding 
them  with  his  name  only.  He  married 
Anne  Leclerc  (b.  1767)  and  had  four 
sons,  all  makers :  Jean  Baptiste,  Nicolas, 
Nicolas  Fran9ois,  and  Claude  Francois. 
They  all  learnt  their  trade  under  him, 
and  the  instruments  they  made  at  that 
time  were  branded  "  Au  roi  David, 

Vuillaume,  Claude  Francois,  fourth  son 
of  Claude  Vuillaume;  b.  March,  1807, 
Mirecourt.  First  worked  at  violin 
making  under  his  father,  but  later 
became  an  organ-builder.  His  son, 
Sebastien,  was  also  a  maker. 

Vuillaume,  Jean,  b.  1700  ;  d.  1740.  A 
maker  in  Mirecourt.  Is  said  to  have 
been  a  pupil  of  Stradivari,  but  his 
work  shows  no  sign  of  it.  A  violin 
known  is  of  very  ordinary  workman- 
ship ;  the  way  in  which  it  is  arched  is 

similar  to  Maggini  instruments ;  the 
sound-holes  are  badly  cut,  the  edges 
are  too  thin,  the  pur  fling  painted,  and 
a  little  design  in  black  runs  round  the 
body;  the  scroll  is  carved,  the  varnish 
is  yellow  in  colour ;  inside  is  the  label : 
"  Fait  par  moy,  Jean  Vuillaume  a 
Mirecourt,  1738."  Although  the 
Parisian  family  of  makers  may  have 
descended  from  Jean,  the  connection 
has  not  yet  been  traced. 
Vuillaume,  Jean  Baptiste,  eldest  son  of 
Claude  Vuillaume,  b.  Oct.  7,  1798,  at 
Mirecourt ;  d.  Feb.  19,  1875,  at  Paris. 
In  1817  was  employed  by  Fr.  Chanot 
to  make  violins  on  his  newly-invented 
pattern.  Went  to  Paris,  18 18,  and 
was  a  pupil  of  Georges  Chanot  for  two 
years.  In  1821  he  entered  the  organ 
factory  of  Lete  and  soon  became  a 
partner  ;  "  Lete  et  Vuillaume  "  settled 
in  rue  Croix- des-petit-Champs  in  1825. 
They  separated  in  1828,  and  Vuillaume 
started  his  business  at  No.  46  in  the 
same  street,  where  he  remained  for 
nearly  thirty-five  years,  moving  to  3, 
rue  Demours,  in  i860.  He  tried  at 
first  to  sell  his  own  new  instruments ; 
but  finding  that  the  demand  was  all 
for  Stradivari,  Guarneri,  and  Amati 
instruments,  he  changed  his  methods, 
and  one  day  produced  a  splendid 
Stradivari  violin,  signed  by  the  great 
master  and  having  a  fine  tone,  for  the 
sum  of  /12  !  Orders  at  once  flowed  in 
and  Vuillaume's  fortune  was  made. 
His  clever  copies  of  Stradivari  violon- 
cellos originally  sold  for  ;^2o,  but  all 
his  fine  instruments  have  now  increased 
in  value  four-fold.  In  1828,  having  seen 
and  studied  a  bass-viol  of  Duiffoprugcar, 
he  began  to  make  instruments  in  the 
same  style,  with  beautiful  inlaid  work 
and  heads  quaintly  carved.  The  wood 
used  was  of  the  finest  quality,  obtained 
from  Switzerland  and  the  Tyrol,  and 
the  varnish,  especially  on  the  instru- 
ments made  after  1859,  was  extremely 
beautiful,  no  doubt  a  result  of  the  care 
and  time  he  expended  on  the  study 
of  the  Stradivari  varnish.  He  was 
awarded :  silver  medals  at  Paris 
Exhibitions,  1827  and  1834  ;  gold 
medals  at  Paris  Exhibitions,  1839  and 
1844  ;  the  only  large  "  Council  "  medal 
at  the  London  Exhibition  in  1851 ;  and 
the  only  large  medal  of  honour  at  the 
Paris  Exhibition,  1855.  Vuillaume  was 
also  decorated  with  the  Legion  of 
Honour.  At  the  very  first  exhibition 
of  his  instruments,  in  1834,  the  jury's 
verdict  on  his  copies  of  Stradivari  and 
Amati  was  that  not  only  in  external 



workmanship  were  they  exact  imita- 
tions, but  that  also  the  quality  of  tone 
was  so  perfect,  even  the  most  practised 
ear  might  be  deceived.  Vuillaume  also 
made  very  fine  bows ;  he  had  studied 
and  accurately  determined  the  propor- 
tions of  those  made  by  Tourte.  He 
invented  the  fixed  nut,  which,  firmly 
fixed  to  the  stick,  has  inside  another  of 
brass  to  which  the  hair  of  the  bow  is 
attached,  the  hair,  as  usual,  being 
tightened  or  loosened  by  the  screw  of 
the  button.  In  1834  he  began  to  make 
bows  in  metal,  and  for  ten  years 
turned  out  500  of  them  annually ;  they 
were  originally  sold,  as  were  the  wooden 
ones,  for  £i,  and  were  very  successful. 
He  employed  a  large  number  of  work- 
men, and  at  the  time  of  his  death 
nearly  3,000  instruments  had  been 
made  in  his  workshop.  He  also 
invented,  in  185 1,  \\ve  octo  bass ,  a  three- 
stringed  instrument,  tuned  four  notes 
lower  than  the  double-bass,  to  C,  G,  C; 
the  Contralto,  in  1855  (both  an  octo- 
bass  and  a  contralto  are  to  be  seen  in 
the  Paris  Conservatoire  Collection) ; 
and  the  pedal-sourdine ,  or  chin-mute 
(1867),  a  contrivance  by  which  the 
player  has  only  to  press  his  chin  on 
the  tail-piece,  instead  of  placing  a  mute 
on  the  bridge.  Labels  :  "  Jean  Baptiste 
Vuillaume  a  Paris,  rue  Croix-des-petits- 
Champs";  "J.  B.  Vuillaume,  no.  21, 
rue  Croix-des-petits-Champs.  No.  30, 
Paris,  1829";  and  "Jean  Baptiste 
Vuillaume  a  Paris,  3  rue  Demours- 
Ternes,  1844."  He  married  Mile. 
Adele  Guesnet,  of  Clermont  (Oise). 
Vuillaume  supplied  Fetis  with  all  the 
material  for  his  work  on  Antonio 
Vuillaume,  Nicolas,  second  son  of  Claude 
Vuillaume;  b   1800;  d.  1871.    He  first 

lived  at  Mirecourt,  but  losing  his  wife 
in  1832,  he  left  Mirecourt  and  went  to 
Paris,  where  he  worked  with  Jean 
Baptiste,  his  elder  brother,  for  ten 
years.  He  returned  to  Mirecourt, 
starting  a  business  there  in  1842.  His 
instruments  are  of  ordinary  work- 
manship ;  he  exhibited  in  Paris,  1855, 
violins  at  low  prices,  called  "  violons 
stentor,"  and  was  awarded  a  bronze 
medal.  His  son,  Antoine,  died  at  the 
age  of  21. 

Vuillaume,  Nicolas  Fran9ois,  third  son 
of  Claude  Vuillaume;  b.  May  13, 1802, 
Mirecourt ;  d.  Jan.  16,  1876,  Brabant. 
He  worked  with  his  brother,  Jean 
Baptiste,  in  Paris,  till  1828 ;  and  then 
went  to  Brussels.  He  made  good 
instruments,  of  finished  workmanship, 
with  red  varnish ;  an  exact  copy  he 
made  of  the  Stradivari  violoncello 
belonging  to  Prof.  Servais  was  very 
fine.  Awards  :  silver  medals,  Brussels 
Exhibitions,  1835  and  1841  ;  medals  of 
first  class,  London  Exhibition,  1851  ; 
Paris  Exhibition,  1855 ;  Dublin  Exhibi- 
tion, 1867 ;  and  Vienna  Exhibition, 
1873.  The  Belgian  Government  also 
made  him  a  Chevalier  de  I'Ordre  de 

Vuillaume,  Sebastien,  son  of  Claude 
Fran9ois  Vuillaume  ;  b.  1835  '>  d.  Nov. 
17,  1875,  Paris.  He  founded  a  business 
in  Paris  at  17,  Boulevard  Bonne- 
Nouvelle,  to  which  Audinot  succeeded. 
He  was  the  last  maker  of  this  family, 
and  continued  to  make  bows  on  the 
same  pattern  as  Jean  Baptiste  Vuil- 
laume, having  in  his  possession  the 
machine  for  cutting  bows  which  J.  B. 
V.  had  invented  shortly  before  his 
death.  Awards :  bronze  medal,  Paris 
Exhibition,  1867  ;  silver  medal,  Havre 
Exhibition,  1868. 


Wagner,  Benedict.  A  maker  of  lutes 
and  violins  in  Ellwangen  in  17C9, 
according  to  a  label  found  in  a  violin, 
much  arched,  with  red  varnish,  of 
fair  workmanship.  Label:  "Benedict 
Wagner  hochfiirstlichen  Hof  Lauten 
und  Geigenmacher  in  Ellwangen,  anno 

Wagner,  Joseph.  A  maker  in  Constance 
in  the  i8th  century. 

Waldaner.  Was  working  in  Fiissen  in 

Walmsley.     See  "  Wamsley." 

W^alter,  Jean.  A  maker  in  Paris  about 
1775  to  1800. 

Wamsley,  Peter.  A  maker  in  London 
about  1715-51.  He  had  at  one  time  a 
great  reputation,  especially  for  his 
violoncellos.  He  copied  the  Stainer 
pattern  very  closely,  and  also  made  a  few 
imitations  of  Stradivari  instruments ; 
but  in  his  attempts  to  obtain  an  Italian 
quality  of  tone  he  thinned  the  wood 
too  much,  making  the  tone  sound 
hollow.  His  violoncellos  with  thicker 
wood  have  a  fine  tone ;    so  have  his 



double-basses  ;  the  latter  are  rare  and 
generally  have  red  varnish  His  work 
varies  .  some  instruments  are  badly 
proportioned,  with  ugly  straight  sound- 
holes  and  brownish-yelloW  varnish ; 
others  are  well  made,  with  thick  and 
brilliant  red  varnish ;  but  those  with  dark 
brown  varnish  are  to  be  preferred  ; 
they  generally  have  ink  lines  instead 
of  purfling.  He  also  made  viols.  In 
a  violoncello  was  the  label  •  '  Made 
by  Peter  Wamsley  at  ye  Golden  Harp 
in  Pickadilly  London,  1727  "  ,  a  similar 
label  was  dated  1733  Other  labels 
are :  '  Made  by  Peter  Wamsley  at  the 
Harp  and  Hautboy  in  Pickadilly, 
1735  '  ;  "  Made  by  Peter  Wamsley  at 
the  Harp  and  Hautboy  in  Pickadilly, 
London,  1737*'  '  Peter  Wamsl-  y, 
maker  at  he  Harp  and  Hautboy  in 
Picaddilly,  17  London  51   ' 

Weaver,    Samuel       Lived  in   London 
Known  by  his  printed  label,  "All  sorts 
of  musical  instruments  made  and  sold 
by  Saml  Weaver  on  London  Bridge  " 

Weickert.  A  maker  in  Halle  about 

Weigert,  Johann  Blasius  Was  working 
in  Linz  in  1721.  A  viola  d'amore  in 
the  Collection  of  the  Gesellschaft  der 
Musikfreunde  at  Vienna  is  labelled : 
"  Joann  Blasius  Weigert  Lauten  und 
Geigenmacher  in  Linz,  1721." 

Weisz  (Weiss),  Jacob  A  maker  in 
Augsburg  about  1733-61.  Label  : 
"Jacob  Weisz  Lauten  und  Geigen- 
macher in  Salzburg,  1733." 

Weisz,  Johann  Ambrosius.  A  maker  of 
lutes  in  Basle  in  1621 .  Label :  "Johann 
Ambrosius  Weisz  in  Basel,  1621." 

Wenger,  Gregor  Ferdinand.  A  maker 
in  Augsburg  about  1750-60.  Label : 
"Gregorius  Ferdinand  Wenger  Lauten 
und     Geigenmacher    fecit     Augustae, 

Wenger.     A  maker  in  Padua  in  1622. 

Wettengel,  Gustav  Adolph.  A  maker 
in  Neukirchen,  Saxony,  about  1828. 
He  wrote  an  excellent  practical  treatise 
on  violin  making,  entitled'  "VoU- 
standiges,  theoretisch-practisches  auf 
Grundsatze  der  Akustik,  Tonkunst 
und  Mathematik  und  auf  die  Erfah 
rungen  der  geschicktesten  italienischen 
und  deutschen  Meister  begrundetes 
Lehrbuch  der  Anfertigung  und  Re- 
paratur  aller  noch  jetzt  gebrauchlichen 
Gattungen  von  italienischen  und 
deutschen  Geigen"  (Ilmenau,  1828). 

Weymann,  Cornelius.  Was  working  in 
Amsterdam  in  1682. 

Widhalm  ( Withalm) ,  Leopold .  A  maker 
in    Nuremberg    about     1750-80.      He 

made  very  skilful  imitations  of  the 
Stainer  instruments,  the  wood  was 
carefully  chosen,  though  sometimes 
worked  too  thin  ;  the  varnish,  a  trans- 
parent red  colour,  is  of  good  quality. 
Several  of  his  violins  have  double 
purfling  and  are  branded  with  his 
initials  inside  ;  the  work  was  carefully 
finished  He  also  made  good  harps. 
Label  in  a  large  alto,  beautifully 
made  :  "  Leopold  Widhalm,  Lauten 
und  Geigenmacher  in  Niirnberg,  fecit 

Wightman,  George,  only  known  by  his 
label  "George  Wightman,  Wood 
Street,  London,  1761." 

Wilkinson,  of  Dublin.     Sec  "Perry." 

Willems,  Hendrick.  A  maker  in  Ghent, 
Belgium,  about  1650- 1700.  An  alto  of 
large  pattern  has  remarkably  fine 
wood  used  for  the  belly;  the  corners 
are  prominent  and  squared  at  the  ends ; 
the  sound-holes,  rather  straight  and 
stiff,  are  similar  to  the  Brescian  model, 
or  those  in  a  Stainer  instrument ;  the 
neck  ends  in  a  lion's  head  ;  the  outline 
and  the  beautiful  finish  could  almost 
be  mistaken  for  Italian  work,  but  the 
varnish  is  too  dry.  It  is  labelled : 
"  Hendrick  Willems  tot  Ghendt,  1651." 
For  a  bass-viol  made  for  use  in  Saint 
Bavon's  Cathedral  (Ghent)  he  was 
paid,  on  March  28,  1670,  a  sum  of  £5 
(Flanders).  A  small  pocket  violin, 
with  a  pentagonal  back,  with  the  neck 
ending  in  a  lion's  head,  was  signed : 
"  Hendrick  Willems  tot  Ghendt,  1679  ' 
In  1698  he  is  mentioned  as  the  repairer 
of  the  bass  used  in  the  rood-loft  of 
St.  Bavon.  Nearly  all  his  instruments 
have  beautiful  wood  for  the  belly,  but 
walnut,  lime-tree,  or  plane-tree  wood  is 
frequently  used  for  the  back  and  the 
sides,  especially  in  the  case  of  the 

Willems,  Hendrick.  A  maker  in  Ghent 
some  time  after  the  Hendrick  already 
mentioned.  He  made  a  violoncello  or 
bass  with  five  strings,  labelled .  "  Heyn- 
drick  Willems  tot  Ghendt,  1717.  '  A 
violin,  dated  1743,  had  the  belly  made 
of  carefully  selected  pine,  the  back  of 
walnut,  and  the  sides  (very  exceptional) 
of  maple  Many  instruments  maile  by 
this  family  have  genuine  value  and 
show  work  of  great  ability.  The  Amati 
pattern  (especially  that  of  Antonio  and 
Girolamo)  was  generally  followed,  but 
characteristic  touches  were  given 
which  render  their  work  easily  recog- 
nisable. The  arching  is  always 
correctly  calculated,  and  the  wood 
used  for  the  belly  carefully  selected. 



Willems,  Jooris  A  maker  in  (jhent 
about  1630-65  The  first  mention  of 
him  is  in  August,  1634,  as  player  of  the 
cornet  in  Saint  Bavon's  Cathedral 
(Ghent).  His  instruments  are  generally 
made  of  finely  figured  maple- wood ;  the 
corners  short  and  thin ;  the  sound-holes 
are  graceful  and  more  like  the  Italian 
model.  A  tenor- viol  had  the  back 
made  of  lime-tree  wood  and  was 
labelled :  "Jooris  Willems  tot  Ghendt, 
1642."  In  1658  he  supplied  two  viols 
for  use  in  the  choir  of  Saint  Bavon. 
A  violin  of  small  pattern,  with  yellow 
varnish,  was  labelled :  ' '  Jooris  Willems 
tot  Ghendt,  1659."  The  last  mention 
of  this  maker  in  the  Cathedral  archives 
is  in  1662.  His  son,  Nicolas,  was  ap- 
pomted  viol  player  in  the  Cathedral, 
Aug.  5,  1671. 

Wilier.  A  maker  in  Prague  in  the  i8th 

Wise,  Christopher.  A  maker  of  viols 
and  violins  in  London  about  1650. 
The  few  instruments  known  are  of 
small  pattern,  not  much  arched,  with 
yellow  varnish  of  good  quality,  and 
are  carefully  worked.  Label :  ' '  Christo- 
pher Wise,  in  Half-Moon  Alley,  with- 
out Bishops-Gate,  London,  1656." 

Withers,  Edward.  He  succeeded  to 
William  Davis's  business  at  31, 
Coventry  Street,  London,  in  Dec,  1846. 
Both  Charles  Maucotel  and  Boullangier 
worked  under  him  at  one  time. 

Withers,  Edward,  eldest  son  of  Edward 
Withers,  b.   Oct.  22,   1844.     Pupil  of 

his  father  and  John  Lott  Com- 
menced business  at  31,  Coventry 
Street,  London,  in  1856 ;  moved  later 
to  22,  Wardour  Street.  He  employs  no 
workmen,  and  makes  about  twelve 
instruments  per  year,  on  the  Stradivari 
and  Guarneri  patterns,  using  good  oil 
varnish,  an  amber  colour. 

Witthalm.     S^^r  "  Widhalm." 

Witting,  Johann  Georg.  A  maker  in 
Mittenwald  about  1775.  His  instru- 
ments are  fairly  well  made,  with  a 
dark  yellow-brown  varnish. 

Wolters,  Jean  Mathias.  A  maker  in 
Paris  in  1749.  In  1759  there  was  in 
the  Savoye  Collection  a  small  six- 
stringed  viol,  beautifully  made,  with 
double  purfling  and  yellow-coloured 
varnish,  the  head  ornamented  with 
carving  It  was  labelled:  "J.  M 
Wolters  fecit  Lutetiae  Parisiorum,  au 
faubourg  Saint- Antoine,  Paris,  1749. 

Wornum,  Robert,  b.  1742;  d.  1815. 
Was  first  a  musicseller  in  Glasshouse 
Street,  and  then,  from  1777,  at  42 
Wigmore  Street,  London.  He  is 
mentioned  in  the  "  Musical  Directory  " 
for  1794  as  a  violin  and  violoncello 

Worle,  Mathias.  A  maker  in  Augsburg, 
1639,  according  to  the  label  found  in  a 
small  pocket  violin  :  "  Mathias  Worte, 
Augspurg,  1639." 

Wright,  Daniel.  Lived  in  London  about 
1745 ;  is  only  known  by  his  label : 
"  Made  by  Daniel  Wright  in  Holborn, 


Young,  John.  Said  to  have  been  a 
maker  of  violins  and  other  musical 
instruments.  He  and  his  son,  Talbot, 
lived  in  St.  Paul's  Churchyard,  at  the 
sign  of  the  "Dolphin  and  Crown."  The 
son  was  a  violin  player  and  assisted  in 
founding  the  Castle  Concert  in  Pater- 
noster Row  in  1724.  The  following  were  set  to  music  by  Purcell, 
published  in  the  "  Pleasant  Musical 
Companion,  "  1726: — 

Yoj  scrapers  that  want  a  good  fiddle  well  strung, 
You  must  i^o  to  the  man  that  is  old  while  he  s 

But  if  this  same  fiddle  you  fain  would  play  bold, 
You  must  go  to  his  son,  who'll  be  Young  when 

he  's  old. 
There's  old  Young  and  young  Young,  both  men 

of  renown. 
Old  sells  and  youn»  plays  the  best  fiddle  in  town, 
Young  and  old  live  together,  and  may  they  live 

Young  to  play  an  old  fiddle,  old  to  sell  a  new  song 


Zach.       A     maker  in     Vienna    at     i, 

Karnthnerstrasse,  who  makes  good 

Zanetto,  Pelegnno  See  "  Michelis." 

Zanfi,  Giacomo.     A  maker  in   Modena 

about  1756-1822. 
Zanoli,  Giacomo.      Worked  in  Padua, 




Zanoli,  Giambattista.  A  maker  in 
Verona  about  1730 ;  his  instruments 
are  roughly  finished,  they  are  not 
arched,  and  suggest  German  work. 
Label :  *'  Joannes  Baptista  Zanoli, 
Verona,  17 — ." 

Zanotti,  Antonio.  Worked  both  at 
Lodi  and  Mantua.  Was  in  the  latter 
town  in  1734  according  to  a  label  : 
"Antonius  Zanotus  fecit  Mantuae, 
anno  1734." 

Zanotti,  Giuseppe.  A  maker  in  Piacenza 
in  the  i8th  century. 

Zanti,  Alessandro.  A  maker  in  Mantua 
about  1770.  He  followed  the  Stradi- 
vari pattern,  but  his  varnish  was  of 
poor  quality. 

Zanure,  Pietro.  A  maker  of  viols  in 
Brescia  about  1 509.     One  of  his  instru- 

ments was  exhibited  at  the  Soutl 
Kensington  Museum,  1872  ;  it  had  om 
round  sound-hole,  placed  in  the  centre 
with  four  strings,  and  was  labelled 
"  Pietro  Zanure,  Brescia,  1509."  Fev 
of  his  instruments  are  known  ;  label 
are  generally  :  "  Petrus  Zanure 
Zenatto,  Pietro.  A  maker  in  Trevis( 
about  1634,  according  to  the  label 
'•  Pietro  Zenatto  fece  in  Treviso,  ann« 

Zimbelmann,      Filippo.     A    maker    i: 

Florence  in  1661. 

Ziverger  (Zwerger),  Anton.  A  make 
at  Mittenwald,  1750.  He  chose  goo 
wood,  used  dark  yellow-brown  varnisl: 
and  finished  his  work  carefully. 

Zwerger.     See  "  Ziverger." 

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